Medical Ultrasound History and Echocardiography Application
There are many names that are used to describe an ultrasound including sonogram, diagnostic sonography or an ultrasonography (Leonard 89). Medical sonography (ultrasonography) is an ultrasound-based imaging technique used in diagnostic medicals that are utilized in visualizing small and delicate body organs such as muscles, tendons and many internal organs to capture their size, structure and any pathological lesions using the real time tomographic images (Chaudhuri 317). A sonogram utilizes high frequency sound waves to form the image of certain parts of the inside of a human body including the stomach, liver, heart, tendons, muscles among other things (Vaezy 379). This technique uses sound waves as opposed to radiation, hence is considered safer because it does not harm the body (Hoskins 8). Ultrasounds can be used to detect any problems within the parts of the body that are examined. The technology in this case is usually less expensive and mobile, particularly when compared with other modalities such as the MRI and the CT (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography) (Alter 56). Hence it is the most popular diagnostic tool currently in the world of modern medicine.
History of Ultrasound
The history of ultrasound dates back to the 19th and 20th century, especially in Europe. Specifically, the during the First World War, the French government had assigned a physician, Paul Langevin, the duty of inventing a device that was capable of detecting the underwater submarines belonging to its enemy using the high frequency sonar.
Over the decades that followed, many experiments were carried out within the military to assess the potential of scientific and industrial ultrasound technology. Despite all these developments being put forward, it was not until the 1940s that the use of an ultrasound as a diagnostic medical tool emerged. This happened when the neurologist and psychiatrist Karl Dussik from the University of Vienna developed the concept of the ultrasound. During this period, while working with his brother, the scientist used an ultrasound beam to look for brain tumors and also locate cerebral ventricles as well as cavities in the brain that contained cerebro-spinal fluid.
Other pioneers from America and Europe also emerged with time and broadened the scope of the diagnostic medical ultrasound during the following five decades (Mamou 19-24). Besides using it to detect a wide array of medical conditions, they also made great advances in hardware and imaging quality. In the 1950s, Ian Donald, while working in Glasgow, became the first person to use the ultrasound to monitor fetal development (Rantanen 1) During the same period, he also published a seminal diagnostic study in 1958 having worked with a group of researchers to invent a prototype ultrasound machine which was specifically designed and dedicated to the task of medical diagnosis. With time, manufacturers were able to use technology advancement to design smaller and portable ultrasound machines.
A development that resulted in future machines taking sharper, clearer and high quality pictures. Further developments and innovation eventually resulted in the invention of the two, three and four dimensional ultrasounds, in addition to the dropper imaging. This latter invention assisted medical professionals and even patients to better fathom the indications and revelations of ultrasound tests. By the 1970s, medical profession had already embraced sonography as a special and distinct occupation and in 1973, the United States department of education even recognized the field as a profession with its own rights. Since this period, sonography as a field and profession has grown immensely and attained its present status in the medical field.
Uses and Applications of a Medical Sonogram
Medical sonography is utilized in various medical studies which include anesthesiology whereby the ultrasound technology guides anesthetists when injecting needles to administer local anesthetic solutions near the nerve of patients. At the same time, this technology is utilized in echocardiography to detect any dilations on the paths of the heart and also check whether the heart and the valves are functioning properly. It is further used in the emergency medicine and emergency departments to expedite the care of the patients who might be experiencing gallstones or feeling intense pain in the upper abdomen. The ultrasound technology is also commonly used in managing pregnancy by determining important things such as the fetal heart of a baby, expected delivery time and the location of the fetus. In fact, this technology can be used to indicate the sex of a baby during pregnancy (Bruno 325). The sonogram has been used and applied in many medical care areas including Neonatology, Neurology, Otolaryngology and gastroenterology fields.
Working Principle of an Ultrasound
An ultrasound works by transmitting high frequency sound pulses (echoes) into a patient’s body and the sound waves in turn travel through the body into different tissues at an average speed of 1540 m / s, even though this speed is different depending on the type of the tissue. Science shows that the speed of the ultrasounds through fat is 1459m/s while through the bones it is approximated at 4080m/s. As sound passes through the tissues with different acoustic properties, there is a reflection of the proportionate of the sound (Hoskins 8). The boundaries between two different tissues are known as acoustic interfaces and the amount of sound reflected through the acoustic interface is determined by the type or properties of materials on the sides of the interface.
Echocardiogram commonly abbreviated (ECG) is an ultrasound that is carried out at the heart that utilizes the process of echocardiography. In today’s society, it has been used in many instances in diagnosing, managing and also following up of patients who may be experiencing heart problems. In cardiology, echocardiography is one of the most common diagnostic tests because it can yield a lot of vital information which may include the size and the shape of the heart, pumping capacity of the heart, location and the extent to which a heart tissue may be damaged. In addition this test can also reveal other features such as the estimates of heart functions which may encompass the calculation of the cardiac output as well as the ejection fraction. Echocardiography can help to detect cardiomyopathies such as the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy among other problems. The echocardiography is also an important diagnostic tool that can be used to test chest pains and other symptoms that are connected to heart ailments. One of the most essential merits of the echocardiography is the fact that it is noninvasive hence it does not involve the breaking of the skin and, as such carries neither risks nor side effects.
Applications of Echocardiography
As explained, the echocardiogram is a noninvasive sonograph analysis of the heart and big vessels which mostly differs from the ordinary ultrasound because of its capacity to provide pertinent information on the human anatomy, haemodynamics, functions, both dynamic systolic and diastolic of the heart as well as regarding the big vessels. It is of high importance to note that echocardiogram can either be performed under a resting condition as a baseline comprehensive assessment or even under controlled stress conditions with the aim of carrying out functional assessment of the significance of the vascular lesion. There are different kinds of echocardiograms that can be utilized in the creation of pictures of the heart and these include the transthoracic echocardiography, which is said to be the most common type of echocardiogram test (St 203).
It entails the sinologist placing a special device on the chest, which then transmits special sound waves through the wall of the chest to the heart whereby the waves are resounded back to a computer and automatically converted into pictures. Stress echocardiography is usually carried out as the part of the stress test where one is instructed to run or take some medicine to make the heart beat faster, after which the technician takes the echo from the heart just before the exercise or taking the medicine and immediately after the exercise of medicine has been taken. This type of echocardiography can be helpful in diagnosing some problems such as the coronary heart disease.
Transesophageal echocardiography is the technique where a transducer attached to the end of a flexible tube is guided down the throat into the esophagus allowing a sonologist to obtain a better detailed picture of the heart. Fetal echocardiography on the other hand is used to test the movement of the heart of an unborn baby and is recommended on 18th to 22nd weeks of pregnancy. Finally, a three dimension echocardiography assists in the creation of 3D images of the heart as it takes the echo and is popularly used to diagnose various heart problems in children as well as in planning and monitoring the heart valve surgery.
Chest pains can result from various issues which may vary from coronary artery disease, aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism and peptic ulcer disease, reflux esophagus among other factors that involve muskeletal pain, neuritis, pleurities, gallstones, psychosomatic and pericarditis. In such cases, many of the clinicians need to rule out the coronary heart disease and the aortic dissections because they are treatable and exhibit most of the presenting symptoms. A thorough echocardiogram is usually carried out to give clues and diagnosis of acute syndrome or any other possible infection that may be found in the patient. If the ECG reveals that there is any abnormality and thinning around the regional wall motions, then it is assumed that the old myocardial infarction is at rest.
Recently, numerous manufacturers have began the production of the harmonic imaging within echocardiography machines. The reason for introduction of such imaging is the fact that reflected sound waves may contain second degree harmonics which are in the form of wavelengths but have a half life or half of the wavelength magnitude, hence the harmonic imaging aids the system by emitting sonography energy at a frequency that is generally of a lower rate. Harmonic imaging also helps to retain the normal frequencies and this does not affect the quality of the image. Nevertheless, care must be taken during its application as continuous usage can cause unusual textures on the image.
Contrast echocardiography is yet another emerging application that is utilized in the demonstration of shunts through the intravenous injection of agitated saline (Walsh 198). The contrast agents are produced commercially and are made up of free and encapsulated gases bubbles. The tiny air bubble enhance the backscatter thus assisting in highlighting the tissue that has the contrast agent. This technique is used in diverse applications including filling of cavity in case blood is visualized in the left ventricle because the borders between the blood and the myocardium are visibly highlighted. Contrast is also used in myocardial perfusion where it is introduced through the intracoronary injection and helps to regulate the changes that are linked with the increased workloads as well as delineating the myocardium that is supplied by each coronary artery.
Contrast is further used in enhancing the flow in the heart whereby it is injected to enhance the number of reflectors and thereby increases the intensity of the resultant spectral trace. It is also essential in the studies regarding the dropper. The three dimensional echocardiography is mostly used together with both the transoephagueal and intravascular ultrasounds and it assists in providing real time imaging of the cardiac structure as well as its functioning. Since it is noninvasive, it is more effective in describing and communicating the abnormalities to specialists and can also help to better identify the location of the structural defects of the heart in connection to each other and other heart structures. Therefore, this technique gives accurate descriptions that can even be utilized when undertaking surgical repair.
Echocardiography is recommended for purposes of initial diagnosis where there is a noticeable change in the clinical status of the patient and as such it is not wise to overuse this test, unless there is a noticeable deteriorating change in the condition of the patient based on the results of the testing. Echocardiogram is essential because it helps the doctor to easily conduct diagnosis, monitoring and analysis of the heart conditions for any abnormal heart rates, heart murmurs, infection in the heart, sources of blood clots and pulmonary hypertension among other problems.
Alter, Katharine E. Ultrasound-guided Chemodenervation Procedures: Text and Atlas. Demos Medical Publishing, 2013.
Bruno, Michael A, and Hani H. Abujudeh. Quality and Safety in Radiology. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Chaudhuri, Zia, and Murugesan Vanathi. Postgraduate Ophthalmology. New Delhi, India: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, 2012. Print.
Hoskins, P R, Kevin Martin, and Abigail Thrush. Diagnostic Ultrasound: Physics and Equipment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Leonard, Peggy C. Quick & Easy Medical Terminology. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier, 2014. Print.
Mamou, Jonathan, and Michael L. Oelze. Quantitative Ultrasound in Soft Tissues. , 2013. Print.
St, John S. M, and Susan E. Wiegers. Echocardiography in Heart Failure. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders, 2012. Internet resource.
Vaezy, Shahram, and Vesna Zderic. Image-guided Therapy Systems. Boston, MA: Artech House, 2009. Internet resource.
Walsh, Catherine A, and Peter Wilde. Practical Echocardiography. London: Greenwich Medical Media, 1999. Print. 198.
Darien Scheme was an unfortunate ambition of a few people to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Darien in the year 1698. Following the ill-faced scheme, Scotland lost its economic stability and became bankrupt. According to history, Darien Scheme was a creation of William Peterson, the founder of the Bank of England. Having travelled extensively through America and West Indies, Peterson, a Scot, drew most of his fortunes from international trade. His main intention was to find a colony for his motherland and encourage trade with the rest of the world thus creating wealth and economic development for his nation. The question that historians still grapple with is why Peterson chose Darien, which is the modern Panama. He had never been to Darien, but chose to believe the testimonies of sailors, leading to a tragedy.
To understand this scheme better, we look at the Company of Scotland, whose stakeholders were mainly Scottish and English. It is important to note that English and Dutch shared capital investment risk, during the reign of William Orange from Holland. Nevertheless, the English Parliament annulled their involvement in the scheme, after East India Company threatened to pull out its trading rights. English withdrawal almost killed the scheme idea, save for William Peterson, who convinced Scottish Parliament that the investment would richly benefit Scotland in future.
Because of the persuasion from Peterson, almost all Scots invested in the scheme, with the wealthy in the society taking the lion share of the investment shares. The scheme was to see them prosper financially. This meant the Company of Scotland had a surplus of £400,000, which was almost equivalent to the wealth of the nation. Peterson built five fine ships using the money and used them to ferry colonists to their new land. They also carried various supplies to keep them before they could establish in the new colony. There were more than enough volunteers for the expedition as most Scots lived in abject poverty.
William Peterson named the new colony Caledonia and gave orders to make the upland area the capital, which would later become News Edinburg. There was jubilation as people hoped for better lives. This was short-lived since Peterson had never seen Darien, a mosquito-infested swamp, which could not support farming and habitation. Many died during the voyage because of unfavorable conditions, reducing the workforce. The state of events was dire that even Peterson lost his wife. Due to lack of contact at home, it was believed that those in Caledonia were prospering. More ships were sent out to the new colony with more Scots. Unfortunately, they encountered the same challenges as their compatriots; many died on the way while others landed dying because of primitive conditions, diseases and starvation. The new settlers at Caledonia faced numerous challenges including battles with the Spanish and starvation. Following a series of calamities, Peterson’s idealistic schemed was dropped. This led to the dissolution of the Company of Scotland by the English Parliament, following an order by William Orange. Because of Scotland’s bankruptcy, the King of England allowed their compensation but it could provide for herself. As a result, the Act of Union was inevitable.
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One of the questions asked by students and other people in need of online essay writing services is whether there is a company or writer willing to provide research papers free of charge. With the high competition experienced amongst research and essay writing services, the question is to the positive. Many companies such as EssaysExperts.net think it necessary to apply all techniques possible, to attract clients. In deed, one could request a research paper free of charge from a number of companies that want to prove their prowess in writing. In other words, these companies seek to prove they can write high quality papers for you on ordering.
It is crucial to note that, not all companies are not willing to provide free essay writing services or research papers free of charge unless it is accompanies with other benefits like attracting you as the client to buy custom papers. Many offer essay writing services and charge for every page written.
There are two types of companies, from who you might get free essay writing services or research papers free of charge. The first category of companies provides free essay writing services or research papers free of charge by means of a sample. A sample research paper is uploaded on a site like EssaysExperts.net. For instance, not only does the company provide sample research papers free of charge, but also provides grant proposals for free, essays for free, and dissertation samples. Those interested in a sample should understand the category of the work they need: whether it is an essay or research-based paper.
Some companies, though do not provide sample research papers free on their websites, can supply the client with it. A client simply needs to request for one. A customer who needs research papers free of charge is expected download this sample, to assess its quality and get more convinced that he/she will get professional writing services from the company in question.
This sample has been written on a topic that might be different from the one you need. However, it is possible to get custom samples discussing topics related to topics of your choice. Usually, companies such as EssaysExperts.net will allow you to order a paper customized to particular needs in case no sample is available as would be needed. The company advises the client to use this sample to confirm that they can write high quality papers, and then place an order for the topic desired.
Check if Samples have errors
We emphasize that the sample can help you select a good company from where to order papers. For instance, if their sample is well-written and has minimal errors, it might be an indicator that the company could write a good paper once you order. The contrary is true for those whose samples have many errors. In relation to errors, you should check errors in formatting, errors in grammar, and errors in sentence structures, among others.
Investigate whether the research paper is formatted properly in view of the standard styles of writing such as the MLA, Harvard, and Turabian, among others. Writers hired at essay writing services such as EssaysExperts.net, have guidelines to standard formatting, at their fingertips. In fact, some use guidelines directly and are able to perfect on these papers.
A research proposal guides research paper writing in order to satisfactorily explore matters in question. Not only does a research proposal guide writing of the final research paper, but also guides the actual research exercise. For instance, it guides and advises on the selection of research methods and techniques. A research proposal might, for instance, suggest use of primary data collection methods, secondary ones, or a combination of them. A specialist writer from such custom writing paper company as EssaysExperts.net must understand what a research proposal entails.
A research proposal also plays an important role in guiding on the topic to explore. The research proposal dictates the extent to which the research is done on the said topic, for instance, by stating the limit of the study. A research proposal could highlight a number of subtopics too and sections for the paper.
A writer of a research proposal could state the literature needed for analysis. It might state the actual books, journal articles, research papers and internet materials to capitalize on when doing the research investigation. A research proposal also states the theories desired to aid the discussion or topic exposition. With the coming of the internet and existing high competition among custom writing paper companies, it is possible to get a specialist writer for your work. Custom writing paper companies such as EssaysExperts.net invest in hiring procedures that enable them to get top grade writers.
When a research proposal is poorly written, it is highly likely that a student will miss the point in doing the actual research. It is understandable if you need a custom writing paper company to write the final research paper after writing the research proposal.
This is because it is the duty of the writers to give you a good research proposal and a good research paper too. However, if the custom writing paper company only writes a research proposal and leaves you to write the research paper, it is crucial to emphasize that the proposal must be clearly and perfectly written as happens with specialist writers from EssaysExperts.net. Even when the research paper will be written by the custom writing paper company, it is imperative to engage specialist writers for the two.
Look for graduate writers
It might be necessary to check if the custom writing paper company has specialist research proposal writers to do the job satisfactorily. They must be trained in custom writing. Advisably, the writers should be graduates in the specific courses of study, since these are able to easily articulate the issues in question and discuss theories related. No doubt that a research proposal is based on diverse opinions from different authors in the subject matter. Thus, a specialist writer should be versed on the diverse opinions from major authors in the topic or field in question, or at list they will look out for these diverse opinions in literature.
So many people are turning to writing services such as research paper writing services because of different reasons. Some order custom papers from writing services because of the novelty of the task at hand. Others feel necessary to consult a paper writing services due to lack of adequate time. Whether you are sick and hence lack time to do the assignment or are so occupied with other activities, it is necessary to consult a high quality paper writing services such as EssaysExperts.net.
A high quality writing service should be able to give you a high quality paper, beginning with good research paper topics. The role of research paper topics in research paper writing can not be over emphasized. Research paper topics guide the whole research writing process by defining the issues to discuss. Without research paper topics, it would even be difficult to start writing. But what should good research paper topics promise in this respect?
Good research paper topics define the specific issues for discussion. They might raise one issue or two for discussion in the paper and this marks the limitation of study. Not a single research paper can be exhaustive enough in discussion as would be necessary to completely explore the issues in question. This is because, even some issues transcend academic course boundaries, meaning you might need to discuss theories studied in some other courses if you were to exhaust on the topic. But that is undesirable in most research paper writing.
Therefore, research paper topics could determine the theories to discuss by mentioning them, or might only limit the study to a particular course or field. If a topic does not specify the theories for discussion, it is the writer to understand those theories he/she should cover depending on the course of study.
A topic that does not capture issues desired is dangerous because it makes the writer fall short of requirements. These papers are described as discussing issues out of coverage area. A topic can either be too broad, such that it includes all issues desired for discussion and some other issues not desired for discussion.
Such topics lead to a lot of time wastage. It can be narrower than desired, such that it does not cover all issues desired. Usually, it is the role of the writer to read descriptions from lecturers and write a topic that reflects the desired issues. This is the case where the lecturer does not issue a ready topic.
Clarity of Topics
Another quality of research paper topics is being clear. Clarity is the ability of the topics to be understood in terms of the issues being discussed. For instance, a topic should be clear in terms of the ideas raised, in that it should not bring in any confusion. It must not raise contradicting statements in understanding, but that does not mean it can not bring opposing ideas at the same time. EssaysExperts.net writes research – based research paper topics in that they must show the need to carry out some investigations in the subject matter.
Write My Term Paper
Learning from the best is the way to go in academic writing. Someone who has a lot more expertise will teach you a few things you did not know. Professional academic writers have a lot of experience and skill. This is why scholars trust them with their academic writing needs. Different people normally face different academic writing challenges.
There are so many textbooks that have been written about academic writing. Sometimes you may read chapters and even volumes of books on academic writing and still not have the requirements at your fingertips. This is why it is important to approach academic writing practically; you want to learn how to write an excellent academic paper? Well, the answer is to start writing and looking at what others are doing.
However, while I am still perfecting my academic writing skills, I still need to submit top quality papers. This is why I
get someone to help me write my term paper. I will look for someone who can write my term paper better than me. I have to get someone who will take a less time to write my term paper. I can trust a professional academic writer to write my term paper. I will not trust just any professional academic writer to write my term paper. I will purposely get someone to write my term paper from EssaysExperts.net.
At EssaysExperts.net you will get very good academic writing services. Here the scholar will be able to get all the services they need without having to strain financially. We have placed very affordable rates on our services. Every single one of the students who access our academic writing services normally leave very satisfied. If the number of students who come a second, third or more times for our service is anything to go by, then we are doing a great job for students all over the world.
Many students come to EssaysExperts.net to seek for a research paper example. A research paper example is a very efficient tool in teaching students different aspects about academic writing.
Scholars can get a research paper example from the website at absolutely no cost. However, students are warned not to present a research paper example as their personal work.
Here are some of the things that one can learn from a research paper example:
- The final presentation of your work is very important. The size of font you use, the size of the line spacing, the paragraphing style etc. All these things are important to keep in mind. A research paper example will give you a practical or real look of how a good paper should look like.
- Incase you are facing a challenge in deciding the appropriate topic for your academic paper, the sample paper can help. You can borrow ideas from several sample papers and use them to come up with one of your own.
- A sample paper will show you the kind of language to use when writing an academic paper. Be it an argumentative, descriptive or any other kind of paper, the sample will give you an idea of what is expected of you.