Fragile X Syndrome
Genetic syndrome disorders are quite sporadic and the Fragile X syndrome [FXS] is one of the disorders affecting 1 in 4000 males and 1 in 4000 females. FXS also referred to as Martin-Bell syndrome or Escalante’s syndrome is a common single-gene cause of autism, an inherited cause of Intellectual disability and behavioral or learning challenges. It normally affects more males than females. There are numerous causes of FXS and a number of characteristics to look at and find the best diagnosis or treatment of fragile X syndrome.
Fragile X syndrome [FXS] is associated with the growth of the CGG trinucleotide repeat that affects the fragile X mental retardation 1 [FMR1] on the X chromosome and results in a failure to easily express the fragile retardation X mental retardation protein [FMRP] essential for normal neural development. Mutations in the FMR1 cause fragile X syndrome. The FMR1gene is responsible for instructions for making protein FMRP which help in regulating the production of other proteins and in the development of synapses, specialized links between nerve cells.
Approximately all cases of fragile X syndrome are caused by mutation whereby a DNA segment CGG triplet is repeated 5 to 40 times and expanding inside the FMR1. In cases where an individual has been diagnosed with FXS, the CGG segment is repeated more than 200 times. Whenever the FMRP protein is lost, the nervous system is disturbed and fails to function normally leading to a number of FXS symptoms. In case of men or female with 55 to 200 repeats of the CGG segment FMR1 gene permutation is likely to occur. Such individuals are typically intellectually normal. Individuals with a permutation that is lower than normal amounts of the FMRP protein have mild versions of physical traits common in FXS and may experience anxiety and depression among other problems.
Intellectual disability is the most conspicuous trait of FXS. Nevertheless, there are a number of symptoms associated with fragile x syndrome. These features occur in both genders but they vary in one way or another, but they are more severe in males. The core features of fragile X syndrome in men include;
- Intellectual disability
- Large ears and long face
- Large testicles [Macroorchidism] in post-pubertal men
- Ear infections
- High arched palate
- Double jointed fingers
- Hyper-flexible joints
- Autism and autistic behaviors
- Social anxiety
- Poor eye contact and Sensory disorders
Normally, no one individual will have all the symptoms of fragile X syndrome. Some of the features only occur in puberty. When it comes to women, here are a few features of FXS to contemplate although they may have similar traits as those seen in men and they include;
- Milder intellectual disabilities
- General anxiety
- Emotional issues
- Hyper-extensible finger joints and thumps
- Large and protruding ears
- Soft skin
- Vertical maxillary excess [long face]
- Hyptonia among others.
Individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome may face different challenges in their lives. But they can be quite productive and attractive if presented with the best support and interventions. There are no current treatments of FXS defects, but patients can always seek medications for symptoms based treatments. This helps reduce the secondary features of FXS. Genetic counselling to determine full mutation or permutation is essential. Stimulants that target attentional problems or hyperactivity can aid. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and behavioral therapy or educational plans can aid help treat physical abnormalities.
It is commonly the presence of abnormal and uncoordinated muscle movement. It is a neurological sign that infers dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that aid in coordinating movement. It is a condition that affects the movement of the eye, speech, writing and swallowing and many other activities that depend on motor control.It is a term used broadly to indicate lack of coordination in the core physiological process. There are several types of ataxias that expound more on the disorder and they are;
This is type of ataxia caused by dysfunction of the cerebellum, a region in the brain which aids in the assimilation of sensory coordination, motor control and perception. Cerebellum is responsible for the integrating a substantial amount of neural information that is helpful in coordinating smooth movements and motor control planning. Cerebellar ataxias causes basic neurological problems such as hypotonia, lack of coordination between limbs, joints, organs and muscles, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetria and dyschronometria.
This is a type of ataxia that is as a result of loss of proprioception, the sense of relative position of nearby parts of the body. It is a kind of sense that points out whether the body is moving as required and where the body parts are located in relation to each other. Dysfunction of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord cause sensory ataxia as they carry proprioceptive messages up to the brain. Sensory ataxia is characterized by postural instability, unsteady stomping gait accompanied by heavy heel strikes.
It occurs due to the dysfunction of the vestibular system. it is a condition associated with nausea, vomiting and vertigo. Patients are known to experience unsteadiness and giddiness.
Its Symptoms and signs vary depending on the severity and the type of ataxia one may be suffering from and they are many. For instance, if ataxia is caused by an injury or health complications symptoms may occur at any age, improve and eventual disappear undyingly. The initial symptoms of ataxia include;
- Poor limb and joint coordination
- Slurred and slow speech accompanied by difficulty in controlling volume, pitch and rhythm
- Swallowing problems
- Less apparent facial expressions
- Cold feet
- Walking complications
- Hearing problem and
Deficiency of Vitamin B12 and neurological abnormalities can cause sensory ataxia and overlapping cerebellar. Genetic flaws easily inherited from mother or father or both can cause inherited ataxia. This gene can be passed from one generation to the next. Procedures such as brain surgery, alcohol abuse, head injury, drug abuse, brain tumor, chicken pox and multiple sclerosis can all cause different types of ataxia.
A neurologist can easily diagnose and offer the best treatment and prevent measures. While diagnosing ataxia, the specialist will check patient’s medical history and either conduct tests such as Magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computerized tomography [CT] scan. Blood, urine and genetic tests are essential in determining whether the patient as any signs of ataxia.
Is not treatable, but a great deal can be undertaken to ease the its symptoms and improve life of the patient. There are several adaptive devices that patients can use and treat coordination and balance difficulties. This includes use of wheelchair, walking sticks and crutches. Other symptoms can be treated through physical therapy, speech and occupational therapy, orthopedic care and extensive counselling. Medications such as gamma-globulin injection can aid patients with ataxia telangiectasia.
Consumer movement refers to the effort of consumer protection promotion through a social movement that is organized and which exists in several places. Usually, consumer organizations are at the front position of such a movement. It also advocates consumer rights especially those that are infringed through actions taken by governments, organizations or other firms that provide services and goods to consumers.
Where it started
The first conference on an international scale was held in 1960 March in The Hague. Several consumer organizations participated in the conference and five of these signed papers creating the International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU). Consequently, as a result of that conference, the global movement was formed.
The term “consumer movement” is used in writing and is comparable to “consumerism”. Consumerism is a traditional term and one that is practiced by modern day age consumer organizations. It refers to progression of consumer protection which includes passing of customer protection laws by legislators.
Additionally, it includes educators teaching consumer policy, product testers who ensure products are within the desired quality standards and regulators who policy consumer laws. Note that consumer movement is non-profit group and it promotes the interests of consumers through reformation of practices upheld by corporations or government policies. Therefore, consumer movement is described as a subset of “consumerism” discipline.
The United States
During the 1960’s, US lobbyists of the Chamber of Commerce and the National Retail Federation begun using “consumerism” referring to the movement in a hostile and depreciatory manner. This was with the aim of denigrating the movement and Esther Peterson’s work in her position as the Special Assistant to the materialism and commercialism President. The term has an ideological foundation and some of the people who were behind the idea of the movement include:
- Ellen Swallow Richards who pioneered home economics
- Upton Sinclair who raised public interest in the protection of consumers
- Herbert Hoover who demanded that products should be tested and insisted on the need for application of technical standards in product manufacture
- Thorstein Veblen who introduced advertising theory and conspicuous consumption concept
Historians recognize the publication “Your Money’s Worth by Stuart Chase and Fredrick J. Schlink as the event that led to establishment of consumer movement. The publication of the book, according to historians was innovative leading to introduction of product testing concept which forms the basis of modern day age consumer movement.
Consumer movement is believed to have its origins in the US. From the 1960’s through to the 70’s scholars started recognizing consumer activism “waves” setting the stage for a whole movement to be born with the purpose of protecting consumer interests.
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Pros and Cons of Peer to Peer File Sharing
There many pros and cons of peer to peer file sharing. Peer to peer file sharing refers to sharing of files in a network of connected personal computers. The connected computers share resources in a network that does not involve a separate computer acting as a server.
Peer to peer file sharing is a strategy that is gaining popularity among software corporations. Although this strategy has proved to be beneficial to companies, it has some faults or disadvantages as well. Among the pros of peer to peer file sharing include its easy installation.
Installing peer to peer file sharing network is easy. Computers that are involved in this network are also easy to configure. Thus, it is suitable for companies that do not have a lot of time to spend in installing a file sharing network. If a company does not have an in-house IT department it can also use this network.
In this network, all contents and resources are shared by all peers. This is not the case with server-client network where the server shares the content and resources. This implies that as long as a computer is in the network it can access all files, contents or resources of the architecture.
Peer to peer file sharing network eliminates central dependency. This makes it more reliable because if one peer fails the entire system is not affected. Other peers continue functioning properly when one peer fails. This is not the case with a client-server architecture where the entire system goes down when the server fails.
In addition, peer to peer network does not require a system administrator all the time. The system makes every peer an administrator of their computer. Users are able to control their resources or the shared files. Establishing and maintaining a peer to peer file sharing network is also relatively cheaper.
Among the cons of peer to peer file sharing network include the decentralization of the entire system. This makes administering the system difficult because a single administrator cannot determine the entire accessibility of the settings of the whole network.
The entire network is also not secure. This is because peers can transmit spywares, viruses, malwares and Trojans. These threats can spread from one peer to the other very easily since in most cases nobody monitors the system.
Backup or data recovery is also difficult in a peer to peer file sharing network. Each computer in the network should have a backup system of its own. Peer to peer file sharing network is also not necessarily legal. For this reason, copyrighted files such as music and movies are easily transferred via this network. A good example of this is torrents that use peer to peer file sharing technology.
Generally, peer to peer file sharing network is good when used in connecting a small number of computers and where high security level is not necessary. However, in business networks where there is availability of sensitive data, peer to peer file sharing network is not suitable.
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Merger Pros and Cons
Considering the merger pros and cons can enable you to determine whether this business move is beneficial to shareholders and top executives of the involved firms or it is done in the interest of the public. Just like most business moves, a merger has its pros and cons.
One of the pros of a merger is the establishment of network economies. In some business sectors, it is important to offer a national or regional network. This implies that economies of scale are very significant because a regional or national network can mean that firms pull resources to offer more efficient services.
A merger can also boost research that is needed to develop a business or an industrial sector. For companies to create new products or invent new technologies, they need to spend money in research, analysis and development. A merger makes companies more profitable because it brings the funds required for research from the two or more companies together. This is vital for industries like those involved in drug research.
Monopoly regulation is another pro of a merger. A company can gain monopoly in a sector that it specializes in through a merger. This is because the companies that come together use their resources in developing products for the same niche of consumers. By benefiting from the economies of scale that comes with a merger, consumers are saved from possible monopoly prices.
A merger enables a company to avoid duplication. Mergers are sensible in certain industries. For instance, if businesses are competing for passengers on the same road, consumers can benefit from having a single firm with low charges in the region. Apart from this, a merger can also reduce congestion and benefit the environment.
Nevertheless, a merger has its cons as well. These include higher prices that come from reduced competition. A newly established firm has monopoly power due to the reduced competition which gives it a larger market share. Thus, the company can increase prices and consumers will pay if there are no competitors in a region.
A merger can leave consumers with fewer choices. This implies that they will buy the products or hire services of a newly formed company even if they are not pleased by them.
In some cases, a merger can cause job losses. This is usually a concern for most parties especially if the takeover is hostile or caused by the need for an asset stripping. A company that wants to merge might do so because it wants to eliminate some of the under-performing sectors.
A merger can also lead to diseconomies of scale. The newly established company can experience diseconomies of scale due to its increased size. Once a merger has taken place, the new firm that is larger than the initial ones may not have the capacity to ensure effective control and it might have difficulties in motivating workers. Workers who feel like they are a mere part of a large multinational can also be less motivated to perform.
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Armada is a popular Spanish word for a fleet. In 1588, the most fortunate fleet in Spain, the la felicissima armada, made up of 150 Spanish, Portuguese and Naples ships was made. This was the largest fleet of the time across Europe and it was considered invincible by Phillip II of Spain. A description of the fleet was later published in Europe with a main goal of spreading fear amongst the enemies of Spain.
Planning of the Armada Campaign
Planning of the Armada campaign was done by King Phillip II of Spain. He came up with the plan as he intended to sail with his army and navy up the English Channel. The group of about 30,000 men wanted to link up with forces in the Spanish Netherlands led up by the Duke of Parma. They also planned to invade England and spread Catholicism across the region.
Why invade England
King Phillip II had different reasons for invading England. He wanted to put an end to religious differences between the two countries, expansion in the new world of Americans and competition for trade in the region. These were his major reasons among others.
Mary queen of Scots and claim over the rule of England
As a child, Mary had been brought up in a catholic background in France but returned to Scotland to rule. Her grandmother was the sister of Henry VIII and after she suspected that there was a plot to kill her husband Lord Darnley, she fled to England and was imprisoned for 18yrs. This is because Queen Elizabeth feared any plots against her throne.
In 1586, Mary Queen of Scots was executed sending shivers across Catholic Europe. This is an event that also added up to the reasons as to why King Phillip II wanted to invade England in a bid to avenge the killing of the queen.
King Phillip also wanted to help sea beggars and by invading England, he would easily achieve his goals. The Sea Beggars was a small group of noblemen Protestants determined to drive Spanish out of Netherlands. They led a revolt against Spanish occupation under the leadership of William and later on his son Justin of Nassau after his father died.
During the resign of Mary I of England, Sailor Sir Francis Drake enraged King Phillip. It is during the same period that England expanded its trade activities in 1560s and 1570s while building a strong navy. Francis Drake therefore joined the navy as a very young boy and made his name by attacking different treasure ships sailing from America to Spain.
However, his daring act was in 1586 when he set alight Spanish ships in Cadiz harbor with an aim to singe the King of Spain’s beard. This angered King Phillip and added up to his reasons to invade England. He then established a strong superiority navy under the Spanish Armada to spread Catholicism in England.
The Duke of Medina Sidonia was elected the commander of the great Armada and on board, was army soldiers ready to invade England. They fought a fierce battle before and during a stormy weather that destroyed many ships. 65 out of 150 ships in the Armada returned to Lisbon.
Where to Find Good Examples of Research Papers
When you know where to find good examples of research papers, you can easily master the art of writing great research papers. Many lecturers require students to write research papers before they graduate from colleges and universities. Unfortunately, most students are not familiar with research papers. Even most of those who know how to write research papers are not conversant with the styles and formats that are associated with research papers. As such, it is important to have research paper samples to help you determine the best way of writing your research papers. Good examples of research papers are papers or articles that report comprehensive findings with complete citation of the included information to make it easier for readers to track down its source from the referenced sources as discussed here.
Know where to find good examples of research papers to craft good papers
Sometimes, even formatting a research paper can be difficult especially when working with the specified format for the first time. This is because some research paper writing formats such as MLA and APA are usually very strict. When writing a research paper in such formats, you must adhere to certain guidelines which include how you present information on the title page of the paper, how you place the title, include in-text citations, reference the cited works, number pages, and other aspects of writing the paper.
Adhering to all these guidelines when formatting your research papers can be overwhelming especially if you have never written a research paper in that particular style or format before. However, when you have research paper samples, you can easily determine how you should format your paper. You also save the time that you would spend trying to format the paper without being sure of what you are doing. Additionally, some examples of research papers have information that you may need to write your papers. Thus, they act as sources for your research papers.
Places where you can find excellent examples of research papers
Open access journal
There are several open access journals that allow internet users to download sample papers free of charge. You can find such journals from the open access journals’ directory which lists these journals. It is important to note that some of the journals listed in this directory have low impact rating than others. However, these journals can be a good point to start your search for good examples of research papers to guide you in writing your own papers. Th directory for such journals that can help you find a journal with the sample papers that you want is found at doaj.org.
Journals that other blogs and websites reference in their articles
Most reputable blogs and websites refer readers to reputable journals in their articles. These are journals that are dedicated to publishing research findings in their niches or areas of specialty.
NHS website provides scientific health research analysis that was featured by the media.Click here to see more. Click here to see more.
British Psychological Society Research Digest
This is a site that covers psychological nature research. However, there are times when it can cover biological and sociological research- found at bps research digest.
Not rocket science
This is a blog that specializes in different science topics on the basis of the published research found here.
This collects different blogs whose blog posts are based on researchClick here to see more here to see more.
Such blogs are ideal places to start the search for good examples of research papers on different subjects or topics. In most cases, you will find a link to various research papers at the end of their blog posts on which the posts or articles are based. You can use the link to get the sample research paper.
Magazines like the New Scientist that report different research findings will enable you to identify where to find good examples of research papers. The online versions of such magazines provide a link to their sources or research. Some newspapers which publish scientific stories online also provide links to research papers on which their stories are based.
Websites of different universities
Most universities and colleges share samples of research papers while providing manuals and guidelines for writing different assignments. If you visit the website of your university, you are likely to find such samples. However, you may have to search through various departments of your university. If you cannot find the research paper sample that you want, visit the websites of other universities. Here is such a sample research paper, gallaudet education.
This is a tool by Google that you can find by clicking the ‘more’ link on the homepage of Google search engine. This tool enables you to conduct a quick search for research papers, patents and books. Although it might seem like a miss and hit way of looking for research paper samples, it can help you especially if you need a general topic paper or article. However, you can use the tool to find the research paper that you want by being more specific in your query. You can also use ‘advanced search.’
Academic writing centers
There are academic writing centers that have excellent research paper samples that the former students wrote. If your university or college has an academic writing center, visit it or consult its staffs because these might know where to find good examples of research papers and direct you. If you are not sure whether your college or university has one, consult with the university or college staff. Once you find the center, consult the staffs in charge of it. These will help you in finding the best samples depending on what you want.
Your professor or supervisor
Some professors or supervisors have a collection of research papers that they use in teaching their students how to write research papers. Therefore, talk to your professor if you are stuck and looking for sample research papers to guide you. If you approach the professor well, he might even explain to you how you can come up with a good research paper using the example that he will give you.
Reputable academic writing agencies
There are several agencies that offer academic writing services. These have good examples of research papers on their websites or blogs. While some charge fees for research paper samples, others offer them free of charge. You can also buy research paper samples from these agencies.
Among the agencies that offer free, quality research paper samples include:
Do not be surprised to find a colleague with excellent examples of research papers. Most students who score better grades in research papers use sample papers as their writing guides. Such students know where to find good examples of research papers. Once they direct you to a resource where they get good sample papers, ask them about authors or organizations that publish the best papers. Some of your colleagues who score better grades in research papers can also share their papers with you and these can act like your writing samples.
University or college library
Academic institutions led by universities and colleges have subscriptions to several scientific journals. This implies that they receive publications from such journals on regular basis. Fortunately, these publications, which include research papers, are accessible to students and the public. Therefore, you can contact the staff in your university or college library to find out if they have good examples of research papers that you can use as your writing guide. Some universities have libraries that allow students to even photocopy sample research papers and use their copies as references in the future.
Choose where to find good examples of research papers wisely
Knowing where you can find research paper samples alone is not enough. You should evaluate the samples offered by the resource before you use them as your writing guide. It is important to evaluate the sources that the authors of the papers use because some sources offer more reliable information than others.These can be validates at here. Therefore, if you are writing an academic research paper, use academic or scholarly papers or articles as your writing samples.
Do not use examples of research papers with:
- Badly written title page
- Missing or badly written abstract
- Poor language
- Badly written reference page
- Poor in-text citations
These aspects should serve as a red flag for you when trying to identify the best places to get your sample papers from. Note that you should use excellent samples of research papers as your guide if you want to write great research papers. This is why you need to use superior quality research paper samples from reliable sources only. Nevertheless, you can find good examples of research online from different sources that have been listed in this section.
Get help to find good examples of research papers
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Sea Level and the Location of a Coast
Sea level is the average level of the earth’s oceans and it is used to measure heights in the same manner elevations are measured. The mean sea level is a geodetic point of reference which is where the sea rests when there are no tides, currents, atmospheric effects and variations of water density. If there was no movement of the oceans, there would be no wind or tides. Consequently, there would be no changes in the sea surface.
Due to wind driven and tide changes, sea levels are always constantly fluctuating. It is therefore essential for the mean sea level to be calculated at given locations over a couple of years. There are several factors that affect sea levels and they can have varied geographical time scales. Careful measurements in the variations of mean sea levels offers information regarding climate change and is interpreted as evidence to support the view that current sea level rise is an indication of global warming. Sea level changes that are as a result of wind driven and tidal changes are referred to as eustatic changes. Since the start of the 20th century, there has been sea level changes noted globally which average 2.0 millimetres per year. The Environmental Protection Agency carried out a study which indicates the sea level rise is still expected to rise another twenty centimeters by the year 2100.
Some of the known factors that affect rise of sea level include carbon levels, thermal expansion, melting ice sheets and earth tilt. In cases of earth tilt, large tilts result to more sun at poles. Rise in sea level affects low lying areas that are along coasts. This will include barrier islands as well as river deltas.
Eustatic variation causes
Such sea level rises are the result of external forces. A large majority of experts are in agreement the current sea level rise noted globally is as a result of global warming induced by humans. There are three major factors that cause sea level and coast location changes and they include:
- Nonpolar melting of glaciers
- Thermal ocean expansion
- Change in ice caps volume of Greenland and Antarctica
As the climate gets warmer globally, the ocean sea level is also gradually increasing since warm water occupies a large volume. Also, due to the warm climate, nonglaciers and mountains are also melting further adding to the oceans volume. Rise in sea levels has great impacts on coastal regions. While it might not necessarily affect storm intensity, the coastal regions become vulnerable to storms.
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Advantages of Employee Empowerment
What is employee empowerment?
Employee empowerment is a strategy and philosophy that enables employees to make decisions about their jobs. It helps employees own their work and take responsibility for their results. Employee empowerment helps employees serve customers at the level of the organization where customer interface exists.
It is the process of enabling an individual to think, behave, take action and control decisions in autonomous ways. It is the state of feeling self empowered to take control of one’s own destiny. Empowerment rules as a development strategy.
What are the advantages of employee empowerment?
Many companies implement the employee empowerment strategy with an aim to motivate their employees and increase productivity. Some of the advantages of empowering employees include:
- The employees become more involved in their work and hence more satisfied with what they are doing. This transforms into customer satisfaction as well because employees do their best using their own ideas to please customers.
- It relieves stress for the management as they do not have to be involved in all the operations of the organization. This is possible through the power transition from the management to the subordinates.
- Employee empowerment lessens the chance of unionization. There would be no need for employees to look to labor unions to fight for their rights in the workplace since their rights are recognized.
- Increased power reduces absenteeism leading to better productivity since employees are motivated to attain better results.
- Employees are more likely to agree with changes if they are involved in the decision making processes at the workplace.
- It also increases respect among employees hence creating teamwork which results in efficiency and satisfaction at the workplace.
- Employee empowerment reduces conflict with administration and managers hence creating high work levels and efficiency.
Disadvantages of employee empowerment
Despite the many advantages of employee empowerment, it has a number of disadvantages and has to be implemented with the right precautionary measures. Organizations should beware of the following disadvantages of employee empowerment:
- Employees can take advantage of their empowerment and abuse the power given to them. This is especially so when the management empowers them when they are not ready.
- Managers may constantly worry that employee empowerment may result in them losing their jobs. This is especially possible when an employee gets better at work.
- Some employees may focus on their own success rather than the growth of the organization or group and this may cause them to leave the organization.
- There may be increased conflict and power struggle between employees due to group tasks and this may hamper the production process,
- Employee empowerment may prove to be too much responsibility for some employees and they can easily get overwhelmed hence making them underperform.
- Some employees may not be knowledgeable enough to make business decisions.
Managers must therefore be well trained to facilitate the whole process through sharing information, cooperation and referrals to appropriate resources.
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Apple Company External and Internal Environments
Apple Computer Company started operations in the personal computing field in 1978, but because of administration alterations, lost chances and variation of views, the company lost its competitive edge to corporations like Dell and Microsoft. Apple, however attempted to make a differentiation of its brands to restrict customers from switching to rival brands. Presently, the company is faced with the challenge to sustaining its central marketing competencies, originality, brand administration and affiliation building as it operates a wider brand variety and expounds to more markets (Naraine, 2004). This paper is an analysis of the factors that influence the internal and external environments of Apple.
General Environment Analysis
Ever since 2000 there was subversion of the financial system, the electronic computer business has been scrambling. The legal and economic segments are the major environmental sectors influencing the company.
The 2003 U.S population census statistics were concluded at 281, 421, 05 citizens and in 2007 estimated at 294,444,407 people. This was an increment of 13 million citizens in a span of less than 4 years. Increment in residents compounded with technological improvements will continue to drive improved transactions in the arising technology markets. Americans begin using computer in early years. Figures analysis easily remonstrates a great number of American residents are of age to use computers in various styles or ways. Still, some of these aged generations are using computer applications for research. Local population is comprised of 85% of people who are aged over 24 years with minimal senior high school qualifications and 28% who have had first degree or masters (Hitt, Ireland, &Hoskisson, 2013). It was conceived that 12% of the population was living in poverty. The assessment of world population for 2005 was 6,450,000,000 inhabitants and for 2010 it was 6,810,000,000 (Rezvani, Gilaninia & Mousavian, 2011). Statistics indicate that in future, there will be a further increase. This population increase forces Apple Incorporation and the entire computer world to ensure they boost production in order to meet expanding demand. The industry of computers is rising swiftly in the Asian continent and according to statistics, a great section of the population increase will be within that region.
Legal and Political Segment
Apple is faced with legal segment challenges at a national and overseas level. Nationally, the State and Federal administration continues to stiffen on matters of environment which hamper the manufacture and dumping of units. Environmental matters are issues that affect all computer companies straightforward. The Environmental Protection Agency, in 1995, October modified the Report of the Computer Industry Policy. The report provides declarations that must be followed by companies that deal with the manufacture of computer parts. Apple, intentionally encourages the buyback as well as appropriate dumping of computer components in the attempt to support stewardship production from the viewpoint of the environment. Different countries also enforce restrictions on computer parts and their applications once set. China is a good example that provides clarification of some of these matters. China, begun allowing computers into the country during the mid-90s but it has restrictions on applications (Rezvani et al., 2011). Apple also faces the struggle of overpowering market domination of personal computers though it does have a great chance in the world of music. Apple and other corporations dealing with computers in the US have come to the realization that doubling and pirating are quite prevalent in the United States as well as other states. This action which is unlawful directly affects successful operation of corporations in electronic industry.
All markets, and the business world, are assessed through use of Porter’s five force hypothesis. Porter’s applies 5 forces; obstacles to entry, provider power, extent of competition, purchaser power and risk of substitutes as elements that help in examining the status of a company alongside contenders. The risk of substitutes as well as extent of competition are some of the most significant factors that affect the operations of Apple currently.
Threats of Substitute Components
Apple Corporation faces the high risk of substitute components that are obtainable promptly. Rivals like Dell and IBM persuade buyers that they have brands that are of quality that is better compared to those of Apple. Apple, has however made the attempt to differentiate its brands in order to restrict customers from making a switch to rival brands. Apple’s brands, additionally command a market price that is high when compared to other competing brands. Even though the prices of Apple are higher, the company provides justification for the prices. Apple’s operating system specialization command, however skyrockets costs when delivered to inventive population designer when compared to purchasers of individual computer except where they seek graphic capacities that are superior (Boutellier, Gassmann, & Von Zedtwitz, 2008).
Competition with other Companies
Apple is in competition with companies that enjoy the benefit of a bigger market portion. The company therefore is forced to compete with companies like IBM, Hewlett-Packard and Dell. Still, minor firms such as Gateway also present a huge risk. In the manufacturing industry of computers, rivalry is vicious and expenditures switching is low. Apple as well is dependent on advancement of its individual operating system. The possibility of success is minimal as contestants chase niche markets rather than make attempts to contend with larger firms. Apple placed itself years’ before the competition as such, it has made room in the industry of computers like Dell, Gateway and IBM (Naraine, 2004).
Strategies to Address Future Competition Forces
Apple is supposed to persist with the promotion of inventive expert and educational markets. Apple is a firm with the best systems in position for such markets as such, it should concentrate on unrelenting funding for every regulatory approach. The backing outlay in the perspective of a market niche is supposed to get reexamined economically so that Research and Development expenditures do not drag into a situation that is unfeasible in making a return (Boutellier et al., 2008). Apple also has the option of incorporating its operating systems so it can work within Wintel operating program but this is not supposed to be limited to Wintel setbacks. Apple has also proved to be a controlling system that is superior and less susceptible to hitches that Microsoft faced and its operating system software (Naraine, 2004).
Key External Threats
The technological revolution speed and competition are threats that are most serious that Apple Computer Company faces. Its strategy shifts into communication gadgets and mobile entertainment that is portable placing the firm in situations that are competitive from varying sides. New contestants, prospective brands as well as opponents that are lowly prices threaten to lower the worth of Apple brands and its policy success.
Apple’s Diverse Operating System
Apple can use its operating system variations by spinning it into a chance formulating perfections to Macintosh program in order to achieve greater design and optional benefits over its rival software. Different computer viruses as well as cyberpunk irregularities present quite impressive prospect for the company to embellish and benefit some small sections of such an upset market.
Apple’s Engagement into the Music Business
The investment of the company in the world of music with its iTunes is a presentation of good prospect to enhance the knowledge of the brand. Introduction of iPods Music Shop also fronts fetches in excess of 2 million downloads in 15 days. All downloads were run on Macintosh mainframes. The establishment of the company of its international music shop would be an ideal prospect.
Microsoft Upgrade Expenditures against Advantage
Microsoft customers find it is less practicable to upgrade software programs except in instances when they can actually perceive a gain for the spent. The latest improvements by Microsoft are beleaguered with bugs which present a major magnificent prospect that Apple can use its benefit only if it avoids making the same mistake with its upgrades.
Apple’s Greatest Strengths and Significant Weaknesses
In the mid-1980s when the company was new in the market, its brand distinguished it from other company brands and up to date, it has capitalized on this fact for its products. The system is still a strong point for Apple since its operating system is not in any way susceptible to computer bugs and espionage invading other systems. The limited portion market that is held by Apple is enlarged whenever Microsoft is faced with setbacks.
Brand Identity and Reputation
Product brands aids in keeping the customers updated of company merchandise. Whenever a firm institutes fashionable brand name or reputation, it obtains several advantages. There are a number of advantages related with brand reputation and these include, capacity to trim down on production from acknowledgment viewpoint. Apple computers have obtained business identity from Steve Job’s and this has borne fruits.
Dealing with Software and Hardware
The top management of Apple is acting on blend of software and hardware development and it does not make any proposals to dismiss its workers since employees contribute to the company’s success. Apple will continue to operate in an excellent manner while management practices of the business of manufacturing software and computers that even some of the tough opponents deem finest. The company does not make software and computer components for its machines as such it has capability of regulating its design with the purpose of conforming it to operational applications as well as artistic wanted by the customers.
Financial and Political Ambiguity
The functional operations of the company are influenced by political and fiscal ambiguity that glooms the US. Educational institutions at times defer procurement due to budget deficits and restraints. Business enterprises also are not expanding and employment cutbacks experienced render less disposable income therefore reducing sales. Failure in recovery might persist thus impacting the firm as well as providers unconstructively. The entire market has been greatly undermined by the political and fiscal vagueness as well as other restrictions.
Research and Development Expenditures higher than of Business Rivals
Apple has operated exceptionally hard in order to attain this and as such, incurred more costs for development and research than contestants. The heightened expenditure unconstructively impacts income margin and with contestants reduction to product prices, it becomes complex to contend on the same playing field.
General and Administrative Expenses are more than their Rivals’
Growth into international outlets has led to an increase in the company’s expenditures. Marketing expenses for promotion of its exceptional operating system and its innovative equipment also impacts the bottom line, though the costs are essential. Contestants also have the capability of benefiting from comfort of application of operating systems that manage substantial quantity of market share therefore, they fail to use as such for purposes of advertising operating system.
Apple has the ability to enhance diversification by introduction of new products into the market. By ushering new products, it will be able to edge its market share since majority of people have the desire for attractive and the latest products in the market. Apple is also renowned as a trendsetter in fields of personal computers, operating systems, individual music machines, software applications, cell phones as well as advertising and retail. Apple is committed to concentrate its central strengths with senior leaders in management of iPods, Macs, software applications, international marketing and computer engineering. In the approach of differentiation, Apple attempts to be exceptional in the industry about aspects that the purchasers esteem (Moriane, 2004). It picks on one or more features that majority of purchasers in the industry consider significant and positions itself exclusively to fulfill such wants. Apple has also formulated its core strength of understanding purchasers and formulating products in order to improve digital ways of life. Through persisting to devote in raising customer insights, the company transforms the lessons into products presenting exclusive attributes and requiring a high price.
Company’s Resources, Capabilities and Competencies
The competencies of the company are focused in markets of learning and innovative expert fields. Apple has already established supremacy in both fields and continues to concentrate on them. It has already started enlarging its retail channels in order to get its products to the people and is achieving great steps in the world of music. These improvement also keep the clients focused and deliver sizeable revenue. Apple’s engineering, innovative capacities as well as scientific Advancement abilities are highly significant aspects that are competitive assets of the company. The outstanding creativity is the most noteworthy source of the company’s competitiveness in the long term. The most significant abilities and resources of the corporation are the top leaders in the company, Steve Jobs and the incorporated software and hardware system the company has efficiently promoted and established to acquire value. Whilst the designers of the company, engineers and IT experts comprise the major resources, the capacity of the company in exploiting their talents to build products is its main capability (Zhouying & Ying, 2011).
Assessment of Apple’s Value Chain
The main actions of Apple in its value chain differ slightly from the conventional model where materials get worked into finished products for retail to a buyer, earning value in every step of the process. The major activities of the company in its value chain are reliant greatly on reinforcement activities of human resources and management. Apple also constantly attempts to employ the most experienced and capable individuals to guarantee it shines at development and research of its programs and technology (Naraine, 2004). As a matter of fact, Apple repeatedly offers examinations and skill challenges to help recruiters sort through enormous curricula vitae they receive. Next to employees, a large section of expenditure structure goes to systems and infrastructure. Apple’s in-house software and computers make it possible for it to carry out service, operations, sales and supply. Every action adds to the value chain by increasing the company’s income.
Through transferring activities geographically, Apple is able to take advantage of diversity from the viewpoint of human resources, lowering wages in other countries apart from the US. Application of the competencies of Apple in different product markets lowers the reliance of Apple on profits from one market. Related diversification makes it possible for the company to share its activities, technologies and resources across different product lines and transfer of skills and intangible core competencies also offers successful avenue for acquisition of significant market share. On top of this, affiliations with other powerful brand names helps boost the promotion experience of Apple and it boosts customer confidence (Zhouying & Ying, 2011).
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Boutellier, R., Gassmann, O., & Von Zedtwitz, M. (2008). Managing global innovation: uncovering the secrets of future competitiveness. California: Springer.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., &Hoskisson, R. E. (2013). Strategic management: Concepts and cases: Competiveness and globalization (10th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Naraine, R. (2004). Apple: Real Networks hacked iPod. Retrieved from http://www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/3387871
Rezvani, M., Gilaninia, S., &Mousavian, S. J. (2011). Strategic planning: a tool for managing organizations in competitive environments. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 5(9) 1537-1546.
Zhouying, J., & Ying, B. (2011). Sustainable development and long-term strategic management. World Future Review, 3(2) 49-69.
Integrating Culture and Diversity in Decision Making
Google is a multinational company that is based in America and it spends a lot of time on Internet-related items and administrations. Some of these integrate cloud computing software, internet and search publicizing innovations. The large percentage of its benefits are determined from Adwords (Vise, 2005).
Google was established by Sergey Brin and Larry Page while they were undertaking their Doctorate degree at the University of Stanford. These two joined Google as an organization that was secretly held on 4th September 1998. The first stock sale was accompanies on August 19, 2004. Its explanation mission from the beginning was “to arrange the planet’s data and make it all around approachable and advantageous” while the informal trademark was “Don’t be abhorrent” (Lenssen, 2007). The company, in 2007 moved to central station in Mountain View, California which is referred to as Googleplex.
The workers gained extensive profits bundle incorporating educational cost repayment, help benefits reception, on-location specialist, kid consideration focus, monetary arrangement classes, heaps of opportunities to accumulate with its collaborators at corporate exceptional occasions. The theory Google put forward placed great significance on not-for-profit work, as such Google matches up to $ 3,000 of its representative commitments to charity associations.
Google Inc. has also gained great consideration and approval because of its organizational culture which is unique and intended to support both imagination and devotion. Google as well has made a lot of critical items through accentuation on improvement, incorporation of Google web crawler, Google Maps and Google Chrome Web Program. Currently, the organization is bigger than it was the point where the society initially improved, compelled a few progressions to its first ever show.
Google has also stated itself as a standout amongst predominant constrains on the Internet. Still, it says its mission is “to sort out the planet’s data and make it generally open and helpful”. With such a grand objective, it is an exceptional wager that individuals who are behind the company feel that their work is just starting.
There are concerns that Google’s IPO might speed up changes in the organization society. Explanation shifted from shareholder weight for representation of profit diminishment to the manner different organization executives might acquire moment paper tycoons. As the answer to the concerns, benefactors Larry and Sergey guaranteed in a report to some potential gurus that IPO would not change the culture of the organization. The New York Times, as well as other different sources begun inferring the company lost its hostile corporate, abhorrent logic in 2005, articles (Rivlin, 2005).
In the effort to administer the interesting society that is part of the organization, Google nominated a Chief Culture Officer who served as the director of Human Resources. The motive of the officer is to make improvements and support culture as well as deal with approaches in order to maintain accurate center values that the organization was already established upon: a level association with nature’s turf. Additionally, Google has confronted ageism and sexism charges from previous workers. The corporate reasoning of the company incorporates standards, for instance “you can profit without doing insidiousness”, “you might not be kidding devoid of a suit” and “work ought to be testing and the test ought to be fun”.
The corporate structure of Google, is especially not unordinary other than presence of a couple of positions of authority, for instance, Chief Culture Officer and Chief Internet Evangelist. Management of the organization is done by the top managerial staff that passes directions down through official administration bunch. The gathering also manages some sections, for instance, Products, Finance, Engineering, Legal and Sales. Each of these offices is separated into more diminutive units.
The organization of Google needs an administration that is more innovative. Innovative leadership includes the combination of distinctive styles of administration in associations in order to impact the representatives’ inventive thoughts, results, items and administrations. The key part in advancement initiative act is enhancement guide (Gliddon, 2006). Dr. David Gliddon (2006) advanced the model of competency of enhancement pioneers and made improvement thought of Penn State University.
As a methodology to advancement, development initiative can be used to back the accomplishment of the vision or mission of the organization. On a planet that always shows signs of change with techniques and innovations, it is vital for associations to think in an imaginative manner in order to guarantee they proceed with triumph and remain intense (Mcentire & Greene-Shortridge, 2011). So as to adjust to the new changes, it is necessary for improvements to be made in associations in order to concentrate on a section of the pioneers forming the achievement and nature of deliberations (Mumford & Lucuanan, 2004).
Without the advancement of authority, associations are likely to battle (Mcentire & Greene-Shortridge, 2011). The new enhancement call speaks to the 20th century movement, customary organizational perspective practices, which dishearten imaginative practices of representatives to the 21st century perspective of esteeming inventive thinking as “conceivably effective impact on organizational execution”.
All Google workers follow the principle known as the tenet 70/20/10, under which they are expected to commit 70% of each work day to whatever task they are given by the administration, 20% of everyday to new thoughts or ventures identified with their center activities and 10% to new plans they need in order to seek after paying little to attention to what they might be. The organization also acknowledges the guideline for being the major impetus behind a large section of Google’s new administrations and items, because transaction specialists, programmers and executives are given enough space for inventiveness. The point when an organization becomes that expansive, it is not possible to effortlessly deal with stream of new ventures and thoughts, it established a timetable for meeting representatives of the organization with the CEOs and organizers.
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Lenssen, P. (July 16, 2007). “Paul Buchheit on Gmail, AdSense and More”. Google Blogoscoped.
McEntire, L. E., & Greene-Shortridge, T. M. (2011). Recruiting and selecting leaders for innovation: How to find the right leader. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13, 266- 278
Mumford, M., & Licuanan, B. (2004). Leading for innovation: Conclusions, issues, and directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 163-171
Rivlin, G. (August 24, 2005). Relax, Bill Gates; It’s Google’s Turn as the Villain. The New York Times.
Vise, A. (October 21, 2005). Online Ads Give Google Huge Gain in Profit. The Washington Post.
The Monetary Policy in the United States
Congress made Federal Reserve responsible for the adoption of the State’s monetary policy. Nevertheless, it remains responsible for ensuring that the Federal Reserve follows the authority which requires it to maximize employment, maintain stable interest rates without short time fluctuation and maintain stable prices. Fed refers to the U.S.A’s central bank whose aim is to serve the four main roles in the country (Timberlake, 2003). These include the supervision of other banks and financial institutions, implementation of monetary policy, provision of payment to financial institutions and provision of emergency funds which is the last option.
Under monetary policy implementation, the concentration of Fed is on aggregate demand’s management from the public and private economic sectors. In monetary policy, the definition of the implementation that Fed gives is actions that it takes in order to influence money costs and credit availability in order to enhance price stabilization as well as employment maximization. The private sector’s demands and preferences that include small businesses and households influence public sector’s consumption in U.S.A (Timberlake, 2003).
As such, there is a broader monetary policy definition that is maintained by Fed in order to enhance the maintenance of a stable growth of the economy in the country. This definition comprises of the forecasts of the economy and the directives that relate to or made in relation to the nation’s central banker. The aim of the monetary policy is to include the rate of funds that Fed has via Open Market Operations that are commonly called the OMOs. These attract government securities’ buyers to do transaction with the national government using securities that are availed for sale. Fed in 2008 lowered rates to as low as between 0 percent and 0.25 percent while trying to exercise a conventional policy. However this was not successful. Since that time, other attempts have always been made to keep these rates low in order to keep inflation rates low and minimize unemployment rate. Economists have shown with theoretical approaches that unemployment and inflation can never have 0% rates at a particular time. People have advocated for monetary policy in order to attain this phenomenon (Timberlake, 2003).
Harold Lass well Definition of Politics
This was among the political scientists recognized the most and American communications theorists. During the 20th century, he was among those ranked in the first half made of creative social sciences inventors. His actions showed that he was leading. These actions were followed by several methodologies that later became part of intellectual traditions such as statistics measurement, interviewing methods and performing experiments. Politically, he is remembered for his legacy because he made vital contributions. The definition of politics that he gave was adopted as being the best among those of the other scientists in this field.
According to Harold, politics is who gets, what, how and when (Lasswell, 1976). This can better be called the political formula published whose basis is psychological attributes applicable to the leaders in politics and business. In 1948, the formula was published (Lasswell, 1972). Harold also included propaganda in psychological attributes in order to make a conclusion; the simple politics definition. It is possible to argue that the aspects of how, when and what are the major segments in the implementation of a policy. Nevertheless, the reforms being adopted currently do not mention the process realism in formulating and implementing policies.
Relevance of Harold’s Definition to the Implication and Impact of the Monetary Policy in the United States of America
In this definition, what aspect can be used to bridge the existing gap between the economics theory and policy practice. This can assist in determining the appropriate procedures that would lead to appropriate measures in addressing the inflation and unemployment issues. The measures give attributes that involve economic status’ reality as revealed by the central bank. This aspect would assist in avoiding a situation where people would not go to the measures that involve Fed directly while acting on both public and private sector consumption and this would enhance prices’ stabilization (Lasswell, 1972).
The how aspect of this definition would assist the Fed and the government in establishing different ways of handling economic situations that would come up at varying periods of depression and boom. Their focus will be on what can be done regardless of the faced challenges. When as an aspect of the definition will assist in deciding on different ways of handling economic situations promptly. This is due to the truth that regardless of the way stability is maintained by the central bank, the economy behaves differently at various economic times. As such, several ways have been devised to handle economic situation at certain times (Lasswell, 1976).
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Lasswell, H. D. (1972). Politics: who gets what, when, how. New York: Meridian Books.
Lasswell, H. D. (1976). Psychopathology and politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Timberlake, R. H. (2003). Monetary policy in the United States: An intellectual and institutional history. Chicago Univ. of Chicago Press.
Assessing the State of America’s Mental Health System
Mental disorders cases are reported frequently in America. The disorders affect about 44 million adults and 13.7 million children every year. Deaths that result from suicide are the 8th largest death causes in the United States. Between 80 percent and 90 percent of all individuals who succumb to suicide suffer from mental illnesses (Russell, 2010). However, regardless of the existing evidence that shows that the danger of mental disorders is similar to that of heart disease or cancer in relation to the premature deaths that they cause and that most mental disorders are treatable using therapies and medication, only below 50 percent of the adults and 1/3 of children who suffer from mental illnesses that can be diagnosed can access treatment. For a long time, people have made mental health a hidden issue. In America, mental health hardly captures the attention of the public and it does not get sufficient funding from both the public and private sectors (Russell, 2010). The focus of this paper is on evaluating the current system for mental health in the U.S.
The Challenges to Mental Health Service Delivery Today
Reimbursement Policies have made it impossible to convert research into practice
The limits and difficulties in paying different entrenched and evidence-based practices or EBP for children and adults are the causes of differences in mental health quality. Reimbursing for specific EBPs is hard for the private insurance such as Medicaid or Medicare within the current system. The rules of the current insurance coverage make its implementation difficult. Private players such as Medicaid and Medicare have systems for fee-for-service reimbursement which do not allow charging for vital elements of different EBP programs such as flexible management of cases, home visits and non-face-to-face services. Most private insurers lack cover for useful treatments, services, practices or supports. Although covering most practices is possible under Medicaid, providers can only get reimbursement if providers get the approval to provide these services within an option or a waiver (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2014).
Severe labor force problems
The current system for mental health faces a crisis of the workforce. Apart from experiencing providers’ shortage, the system also has providers who do not have training that is necessary for the provision of evidence-based and innovative practices. This has led to a work force that is not equipped properly to use modern medicine advances in helping patients who suffer from mental disorders. Rural areas are the worst affected by the inadequate professionals’ supply in the system. Additionally, specific shortages can clearly be seen in America for professionals who handle the elderly, children and adolescents (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2014).
Failure to incorporate cultural competence in training curriculum
Without considering the importance of services that are culturally relevant, the curricula for training professionals in the mental health field in America generally is lacking in regards to the development of cultural competence. Consequently, racial, ethnic and linguistic minorities are less represented within the current labor force. As such, Pacific Islanders, African Americans, American Indians, Hispanic and Alaskan Natives are affected the most by the disabilities that relate to mental disorders. This is not due to the high rates of prevalence among these populations but due to the poor care quality and less care that they get (National Alliance on Mental Illness, 2014).
Most facilities that offer mental health services are underfunded. This challenge is worse in the rural areas where specialty care for people with mental health problem can only be accessed in the Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs). There are serious financial challenges that CMHCs face and this limits their capacity to offer health services to the rural areas’ Americans. These include the long-term care recipients (Talbot & Coburn, 2013). In general, Medicaid funds CMHCs in the rural and urban areas. They get income from sources that include the state revenues and block grants from the federal government which the state agencies for mental health allocate to these centers. Considering that the reimbursement rates for Medicaid are low, CMHCs in the rural areas on average get less funding for every patients that they care for in comparison to the urban service providers (Talbot & Coburn, 2013).
The funds that were allocated to the state agencies that provide mental health were reduced by most American states between 2009 and 2011. This reduction amounted to $2.1 billion in the entire U.S. This pushed the state agencies that offer mental health services and their CMHCs further into the financial crisis. Consequently, the services that CMHCs offered were terminated and the workforces reduced. Some closed while others merged operations. Mental disorders patients have been extremely affected by this trend especially those in the rural areas because they depended on CMHCs. Additionally, their over dependence on the block grant from the federal government whose main targets were adults suffering from severe mental disorders and children with emotional disturbance means that the services that the facilities provide to people with mental health problems are narrow (Talbot & Coburn, 2013).
Entities that Provide Funding and Expenditures for Behavior Health
The state and local governments used to finance the behavioral health help. Nevertheless, there have been changes
with time as a more complex network has been established. Today, there are several sources of funding with more agencies funding behavioral health (Goldman, Buck & Thompson, 2009). An example of this is the housing programs that the housing departments fund. The Social Security Agency funds income support and the labor and education departments finance job training. Private insurance has also been expanded further to cover behavioral health. Nevertheless, it has smaller roles as compared to medical care in general. Consequently, public funding currently takes the largest share in funding behavioral health. Successful implementation of Affordable Healthcare Act can lead to an important change in funding sources distribution for the behavioral healthcare since private and Medicaid insurance coverage expansion will make the sources accountable for a large proportion of the expenditure in behavioral healthcare. There is a broad categorization of entities that fund behavioral health which includes the private and public sector financing (Garfield, 2011).
Public Sector Financing
Public financing includes entities like the Medicaid program which operates at the federal and state levels. Other programs that are funded by the public sector include the programs that the states fund through State Mental Health Agencies as well as the block grants from the federal governments that the states receive (Garfield, 2011).
This source provides more funding for the behavioral health in the U.S. This was not originally intended for funding behavioral health. However, it now acts as a foundation that is used to expand behavioral health financing in the United States. Medicaid under the Obamacare includes all Americans living up to 133 percent of poverty. Most individuals who are eligible suffer from mental problems (Garfield, 2011).
Block Grants for Community Mental Health Services
Block grants provide financial assistance to states and territories that allow them to provide comprehensive mental healthcare to the adults in the community who suffer from serious mental illnesses as well as children with emotional disturbances. Progress in the implementation of complete community-based systems for mental health is monitored by this fund and this also includes technical assistance to Mental Health Planning Council and to the States (CFDA, 2014).
Private Sector Financing
Finances for behavioral health in the private sector comes from private insurance and pocket expenditures. Other sources of funding include charity care although this plays a minor role in financing behavioral healthcare (Garfield, 2011).
Review of my Health Insurance Plan
Coventry Healthcare policy covers me and it provides the benefits of mental health. Coventry provides mental benefits that compares to those of medical services in relation to financial limitations and treatment (deductibles and co-pays) in regards to the 2008’s Mental Health Parity Act. My opinion is that medical benefits should not be different from mental healthcare benefits. This is important to me since if parity is not present, most Americans with mental disorders would experience cost-sharing arrangements, financial limits and reduced coverage that would exclude some conditions as well as limitations in treatment type and duration. All these can cause poor and insufficient care and health outcomes.
Health Services in Las Vegas
In Las Vegas, mental healthcare and treatment services that are available include:
- Psychiatric confidential assessment
- Treatment program for the assertive community
- Mobile Crisis Team (MCT)
- Coordination for intensive service
Drugs and alcohol addiction services that are available include the outpatient services, inpatient treatment for abuse victims, centers that offer long-term care, rehab centers, recovery centers, group and private counseling services (Grant, 2014).
In a nutshell, the system for mental health in the U.S is still facing serious challenges in relation to personnel, evidence-based practices application and funding. Similarly, mental healthcare services are largely offered by the primary healthcare services, especially in the rural areas. Something positive and worth noting is that several insurance firms that provide mental health policies provide parity services due to the 2008’s Mental Health Parity Act.
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CFDA. (2014). Block grants for community mental health services. Retrieved on 2 February 2014 from: <https://www.cfda.gov/index?s=program&mode=form&tab=core&id=6dfed5efc06aa5ac7a5b11b889abd057>
Garfield, R. L. (2011). Mental health financing in the United States: a primer. Retrieved on 2 February 2014 from: <http://kff.org/medicaid/report/mental-health-financing-in-the-united-states/>
Goldman, H. H., Buck, J. A. & Thompson, K. (2009). Transforming mental health services. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Grant, N. (2014). About mental illness. Retrieved on 2 February 2014 from: <http://mhds.nv.gov/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=53>
National Alliance on Mental Illness (2014). Achieving the Promise: Transforming Mental Health Care in America. Retrieved on 2 February 2014 from: <http://www.nami.org/PrinterTemplate.cfm?Section=New_Freedom_Commission&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=28322>
Russell, L. (2010). Mental health care services in primary care. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved on 2 February 2014 from: <http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/healthcare/report/2010/10/04/8466/mental-health-care-services-in-primary-care/>
Talbot, J. A. & Coburn, A. F. (2013). Challenges and opportunities for improving mental health services in rural long-term care.
Effects of Income Inequality in South Africa
Apartheid in South Africa came to an end in 1994 and despite this fact the country still records the highest income inequality globally as measured by Gini Index. As a matter of fact, income inequality is the biggest and major challenge facing the nation and it is detrimental not only to economic development but the business environment as well.
- Real gross domestic product in SA between 200 and 2001 averaged 3.6% which was on par with average global growth. Despite the fact that the country has recorded high economic gains, it still has the highest level of unequal income distribution with a 63.6% Gini Index in 2011 relatively unchanged from the 2000 Gini index of 63.5%.
- Between 2000 and 2011, there has been a widening of the gap between the richest 10 percent households and the poorest 10 percent households. During this time, the average disposable household income was an increase of 14.4 percent and 26.8 percent.
Income inequality in South Africa has lowered the people’s standard of life and it has also proved to be economically inefficient. According to the president of the Center for Global Development Nancy Birdsall (2007) income inequality makes it impossible for the markets to function their best because of resources that remain unused as well as diminished demand.
In addition to this, it also creates a society that does not support rational thinking thus limiting regulatory effects of government and creating unstable markets. Because of this, there is a decrease in consumption, the GDP is driven down and so is the economic progress within a country. Income inequality also hinders growth and as a result, the country ceases to develop as a result of capital influx.
- Income inequality which is on a rise in South Africa is a major challenge for the country and it adversely affects social political stability, impedes progress of education and health, while at the same time impacting economic development.
- Because of huge income variations, there is increased poverty incidence in South Africa and this has contributed to high crime rates. In 2011, reports indicate that the country had the 8th largest homicide rate.
- While the United Nations Development Programme’s (UNDP) classifies South Africa as middle income country, it also reports that it has the highest levels of poverty with a large portion of the population living below the poverty line. What is more, a large percentage of the population in the country is classified as low income earners.
- Income disparities also limit growth of middle income earners though the size of this class can also provide ideal opportunities for non essential consumer goods industry.
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Sample Essay on Gender Wage Gap
Gender gap is an issue that has generated fierce debate in the US and many other countries across the globe. It is the difference between the wages earned by women and wages earned by men. It can be measured in different ways but the commonly used strategy has been evaluation of full time and full year wages.
Gender wage gap can also be measured based on hourly wages. Recent research carried out in Canada and parts of the US reveals that gender gap is estimated at 26 percent for women that work on full time basis. This is an equivalent of $1.00 earned by a male worker and only 74 cents earned by a female employee.
Because of gender wage gap, a Pay Equity Act was passed in 1987. The gender gap was then estimated at 36 percent. The research also shows that the gap has been narrowing slowly over the past few years.
Common causes of gender wage gap
Gender wage gap is caused by a number of factors including the need to leave, choose or re-enter a work place because of family responsibilities. Many women are care givers at home and such responsibilities prevent them from earning a good amount. Such responsibilities also result in loss of seniority at place of work, in wages and advancement in technology or opportunity.
Low paying jobs including clerical work and childcare also cause gender wage gap. There has been historical segregation and women are undervalued because they are seen as the only ones who can take up such jobs.
Lower education levels also contribute to gender wage gap. Today, this is becoming less of a gender wage gap factor because many women have advanced in education. There are many graduate women across different parts of the globe.
Less unionization especially amongst the women also contributes to gender wage gap.
There is also discrimination in the workplace especially when it comes to hiring, promotion and compensation practices in different companies.
Closing the gender wage gap
The United States has been employing different strategies to help fight gender wage gap because of the alarming statistics on women who are affected by wage gap. It is estimated that 10 to 15 percent of gender wage gap is caused by discrimination.
Therefore, there are different policy options that the government has been pursuing to address the issue. Pay Equity Act is one of the policies put in place to address gender wage gap. This is because of systematic discrimination of women in the workplace especially in terms of compensation practices.
The act works by putting on onus on all employers to establish compensation practices that favor men and women. It also expects employers to maintain the same practices over a long period of time.
The policy also states that employers should adjust job rates and compare job classes of men and women. This is to ensure that job classes allow women to earn the same amount as men depending on their efforts, skills, working conditions and responsibilities in the work place.
Compensation practices help to address gender wage gap. By adopting pay equity initiatives in the states, the wage gap can also be addressed effectively.
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