How Backpropagation Works with Artificial Neural Networks
What is backpropagation?
Backpropagation is an abbreviation which originally stands for “backward propagation of errors”. It is a technological method used in training artificial neural networks. Artificial neural networks are ideally used to solve problems that cannot be solved using the traditional computational methods. The artificial neural networks learn from different inputs how to carry out desired tasks and generate varied outputs. Backpropagation is generally used in situations where there are huge sets of input or output data yet it is difficult to relate this to the output.
In general, backpropagation is a supervised learning method that generalizes the delta rule and works with a particular dataset of outputs. These desired outputs for the different inputs form the training set for the artificial neural networks. Backpropagation is very useful in training of feed forward networks and it requires for activation functions used in the artificial neurons to be easily differentiated. Most networks that use backpropagation therefore do not have feedback.
Phases of backpropagation
The backpropagation learning is carried out using specific algorithm. This algorithm is divided into two major phases. During training, each of these phases is repeated until the performance of the artificial neural network is satisfactory.
- This is also divided into two steps. The forward propagation is the first step and it is where the training pattern’s input is fed through the neural network so that the propagation’s desired output activations can be generated. The backward output is the second step and this involves generating the deltas of every output and hidden neuron by propagating output activations using training pattern targets.
- Weight update. There are two steps involved here. First, the output delta is multiplied with the input activation to get the gradient of the weight. Then the ration or percentage of the gradient is subtracted from the weight. In this case, the ratio is important because it determines the learning rate as it influences the quality and speed of learning. A greater ratio therefore indicates faster training for the neutrons. A lower ratio on the other hand indicates high accuracy of the training. The gradient sign of the weight can be positive or negative and it will indicate areas where the errors are on an increase. The weight must therefore be updated in opposite direction.
Modes of learning in backpropagation
In backpropagation, there are three modes of learning that can be used with the neural networks.
- The online mode of learning. This mode of learning is preferred with dynamic environments especially those that provide continuous streams of new patterns during training. Here the propagation is immediately followed by a weight update.
- Stochastic mode of learning. This is used with more static patterns. This method goes through the data sets in a random order. It is also fast because like the online mode of learning, the weights are updated immediately after the propagation.
- Batch mode. It is more or less similar to the stochastic mode of learning in that it also makes use of static patterns. However in this mode of learning, several propagations must occur before the weights are updated.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing for Consumers
Cloud computing is one of the technological advancements that are quickly transforming the way in which people conduct business today. In the past, businesses used to store their digital information with large server firms that in most cases were physically present in the offices. Cloud computing offers users the opportunity to store their digital files and other kinds of information on remote servers in a centralized location for security and easy access. Those who use cloud computing can access their files easily from wherever they are and also at any time that they wish through internet connection.
There are several benefits that consumers of cloud computing can achieve by using the technology. One of the reasons why most businesses are today choosing cloud computing is because of the high level of security that it offers to the users. In the past where people shared servers, there was the fear of hackers breaking into online services and obtaining other people’s data without their authority. However, this has been cut short through the introduction of cloud computing since it gives only the owner of the stored information, authority to access their data.
Another benefit of cloud computing to consumers is that it is very reliable. Whenever you switch your data to the ‘cloud,’ there is no fear of losing information whenever your computer crashes, hardware fails, gets damaged or even stolen. With cloud computing services, your data is never lost. In fact, you can just log in with another machine and find all the information intact. Cloud computing can enable you to have manual backups on your external hard drives so that in case of anything, your data is not lost or even shared with another user. The reason for this is because, cloud computing service providers can always backup your data across several servers in multiple locations so that it is always safe and can be accessed by only you, at your own convenience.
Cloud computing is speed-conscious, meaning that it offers an increased speed whenever you want to download data or even access information. The services that are offered in cloud computing are delivered via the internet and the servers of the service provider. As a result of this, you will no longer be inconvenienced by slow connections and speeds whenever you want to access your data. Besides, updates on cloud computing are done automatically so that you will not be bothered after now again to update features. This avoids the problem of slow connections each time that you want to access information from the cloud.
Cloud computing is also beneficial in that it allows for cost savings. This is an advantage to businesses since it helps in cutting down on the cost of operations. With cloud computing, you only pay for the services that you utilize for a given period of time. Besides, the fast speeds also enable you to save up on costs even much cheaper.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Education
Cloud computing is a flexible internet application facility that enhances ICT services. It employs powerful networks and systems to allow for easy sharing of data and collaboration. In education sector, the benefits of cloud computing cannot be overlooked.
It is very clear that cloud offers flexibility and enhanced mobility in the education sector. Tablets and laptops allow for learning whenever and wherever. These gadgets increase engagement and allows for greater collaboration. Teachers can create and share programs with students efficiently.
Tablets and laptops also eliminate barriers to learning. They are easy to use and they transmit information much faster. Students are therefore able to continue with their school work on the go or at home. Cloud bridges the gap between home and school. It has also made learning more interesting because students are more interested in doing their assignments from different devices. Cloud therefore increases these benefits among others.
Cloud computing enables schools, colleges and higher institutions of higher learning to cut down on their expenses. Learning expenses especially with the need for 24hr internet connection can be huge if not managed. Cloud allows for a low cost computing system. Therefore, once a school has internet connection, it cuts down on its operational costs.
With cloud concept, teachers and schools can comfortably share work and assignments. It eliminates paper work by a great deal. Paperwork can be quite costly. However, with cloud, information can be sent via mail. In the long run, it cuts down on learning and environmental costs. With cloud, learning is viable.
With cloud computing, IT administration in different institutions has been made easier. Hardware and software updates are fully taken care of by cloud service provider. This also extends to security management. Consequently, it helps to eliminate administration burden and allows all educational facilities to concentrate more core issues. By doing so, the facilities also become more productive.
With cloud computing in the education sector, critical and confidential data can be stored in the central processing system safely. There is less exposure of important information and it helps to prevent threats including loss of laptops, tablets and other electronic systems. Content can also be stored safely in USB flash drives and in the event of a disaster, the data can be retrieved without any problem.
Schools can also monitor student data more efficiently with cloud. They do not have to worry about data mining. What’s more, teachers no longer have to worry about security threats or breaches because cloud computing is highly encrypted.
Cloud is highly beneficial to developing countries. It helps teachers to teach children who under normal circumstances would not have accessed quality education. There are laptops specially designed for use in remote areas. They do not require a lot of maintenance and teachers can comfortably impart knowledge to children in underdeveloped countries.
With cloud computing, schools have also been able to improve educational standards. This is based on the fact e-learning comes with a wide range of interactive features. Teachers can demonstrate what they are teaching using graphics and other related features instantly. In the long run, students understand better what is being taught.
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Political Factors Affecting Tesco
Tesco is arguably one of the largest supermarket chains in the United Kingdom. Thus, it is in the spotlight at almost all the times that decisions need to be made with regards to business activities and other players in the industry. Thus, it is expected that there are quite a number of factors, some political that can impact its operations or the way that it does business. Read through to find out about some of the political factors that impact Tesco.
It should be noted that politics play a great role when it comes to the regulation of business activities. This occurs through laws and legislations that are sanctioned by bodies like the European Union, the UK government and the World Trade Organization. There are several elements that politics can impact like fiscal policy, import and excise duty. Besides, it should be noted that through politics, it can also be easier to acquire infrastructure. For instance, the UK government has been very instrumental in the expansion of Tesco through the provision of good quality communications infrastructure. The UK government has provided broadband and landline phones. Besides, it has also made sure that waste and sewerage is removed from the streets. In this way, Tesco has been able to reduce the costs of its operations and enabled it to open up branches in various localities.
In the UK where Tesco does business, there are quite a number of trade unions that in one way or another can affect the way in which Tesco does business. Employees who are registered with trade unions usually have certain rights that may not be in line with the policies of Tesco. In most occasions, Tesco has not approved hiring employees who are affiliated to certain trade unions on grounds that they impose certain laws that are against the way in which their operations are scheduled to run. For instance, employees who are affiliated to trade unions often demand pay hikes, a move that has not gone down so well with Tesco considering that they are being pushed by trade unions to increase salaries for their employees even when they do not have such plans. In the event that the company fails to deliver the request, trade unions result to industrial action that ends up paralyzing the operations of Tesco.
Through policies formulated by the European Union, Tesco can now enjoy a viable trading platform and even expend its operations to an international scale. This is because the European Union allows the free movement of goods, services, people and capital across all its 27 member states.
When looking at the political factors affecting Tesco, it is also important to look into the aspect of import duty. This type of duty is levied on goods that are imported into a country and affects Tesco considering the fact that it imports some of its products from China and some East Asian nations.
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The Most Endangered Species of the Amazon Rainforest
The Amazon Rainforest is home to many unique animals and plants. Even though this biome has a rich biodiversity, many of its species are considered endangered. This is because of the ongoing developmental activities that have significantly reduced the number of animals and plants in this habitat. The following are some of the endangered species of the Amazon rainforest:
- Golden Faced Lion Tamarin Monkeys. The Golden faced lion tamarin monkey is the tiniest monkey in the world. It is the size of a squirrel and is covered in long, reddish brown silky fur. They feed on flowers, fruit and insects. They also sap gum and nectar from flowers, plants and trees. These monkeys are carnivorous and sometimes eat frogs, lizards and snails. They are hunted down for their silky fur hence considered an endangered species. Scientists and researchers speculate that there are only 800 golden faced lion monkeys in the world.
- Poison Dart Frog. The poison dart frog is one of the rarest amphibians on earth that is found in the Amazon rainforest. Though colorful, these frogs are highly poisonous and produce toxic substances from their flesh. They feed on ants, termites, crickets and fruit flies. They can be found near the Amazon River and are considered endangered species because their natural habitat is at risk of massive destruction.
- The Harpy Eagle. The Harpy Eagle is considered one of the most powerful and largest species of eagles in the planet. These animals feed on animals such as monkeys and sloths. They also feed on different birds and reptiles. It lives in nests made up of twigs and is considered endangered because most of its habitat is being destroyed. It is also hunted down.
- The Jaguar. The jaguar is the biggest cat in the world. It is also the only animal in the panther family that lives in South America. This jungle cat looks very similar to the leopard. However, the jaguar is more stout and shorter in length as compared to the leopard. It cannot run as fast as the leopard and as such sneaks upon its prey before pouncing on it. Jaguars are mostly hunted down for their beautiful fur and experts estimate that only 150,000 of these animals are remaining.
- Hyacinth Macaws. These birds are a species of parrots. They thrive in the Amazon Rainforest because of their feeding habits. Their tough beaks can easily break the hard nuts found on trees growing in the forest. They also have strong feet that hold on to different branches of the trees. Hyacinth macaws are very social animals that live in large groups of 10-30 birds. They are endangered because the nut trees which they depend on for food are being cut down. Additionally, many of these birds are being captured by hunters and sold as domesticated pets.
- Three-Toed Sloth. The three-toed sloth is one of the few animals that rarely move. These animals spend most of their time hanging upside down like bats and can sleep for up to 20 hours. Experts state that the male sloth may live in one particular tree for their entire life. These animals have a hard time controlling their body temperatures and hence thrive in the tropical rainforest of the Amazon. They are endangered because their habitat is being destroyed through deforestation.
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The Main Importance of Tigris River
A brief background about the Tigris River
The Tigris River is one of two rivers that flow in Mesopotamia which is modern day Iraq. Even though it starts on the eastern part, it joins River Euphrates and flows from Turkey into Iraq. The river is 1,900 km long and is one of the more important sources of water in the Middle East.
The major benefits of the Tigris River
There are several key roles that Tigris River plays. These include:
- Source of water. The Tigris River has always been regarded as an important source of water for the arid and semi arid lands in both Turkey and Iraq. Both Iraq and Turkey have diverted some of the water from this river to create irrigation channels for their lands. Dams and water reservoirs have been constructed to harvest some of the water from the river for human activities. It is possible to farm using this water despite the arid conditions of the land along which it flows. This river has indeed sustained crops and human being in the dry areas.
- Source of food. Tigris River is a major source of fish of different species. Many of the inhabitants who live along the river have relied on this river for food for many years. It is not just human beings that rely on the river for food, animals and birds as well get food from it.
- Transport mode. From time immemorial, Tigris River has been considered a major mode of transport. During the civilization era, most goods and people were transported through this river. This has not changed and today water channels such as canals have been constructed to accommodate different vessels that pass through the Tigris River.
- Source of livelihood. Many people who live along the Tigris River consider it a source of revenue. There are fishermen who obtain fish from the river and sell it to consumers. There are also those who operate different vessels across the river and help to ferry both people and goods. During constructions of dams and waterways, many people get employment from activities related to the river.
- Source of energy. Hydro power from the Tigris River has helped to save energy while providing electricity to different parts of the region surrounding the river. Many people who live near the river can get cheap hydroelectric power because of its role as a source of energy.
- Means of recreation. There are also many people who use the Tigris River as a means of recreation. These include both inhabitants of the regions around the river and tourists who visit the region. These people engage in a range of water activities that include swimming, sailing, kayaking and fishing amongst other things.
In the recent past, many controversies have arisen concerning the Tigris River. This is because there are environmental concerns surrounding it. With Turkey constructing major dams at the mouth of the river, Iraq is worried about interference with the normal flow of the river. The government has also relaxed its laws and the river has become a dumping site for both dirt and sometimes dead bodies.
Problems Associated With the Nile River
Most of Egypt is made up of sandy terrain sand, but it remains to be the third-most populated country in Africa. Egypt has stood above other nations in Africa economic wise thank to the longest river in the world; Nile River. Water is essential for human survival. There are many countries that are facing water shortages on early basis. However, for Egypt and surrounding nations, this has been a gift that has been harnessed aptly. Unfortunately, there are a few problems that are associated with Nile River.
Along with direct human impacts, there exist some natural impacts that have altered the Nile River in some way. Scientists have suggested that rising sea levels coupled with more extreme weather events as a result of global warming have the potential to negatively affect the Nile River Delta. From the United Nations Environmental Program shows the impact of both a 0.5 m water rise and a 1.0 m water rise on the Delta. In the future, with the best case scenario, large areas from this area could be underwater. Since the Nile River Delta is one of the most fertile regions in northern Africa, the loss of cropland will be devastating for farmers.
Runoff from the agricultural sector frequently contains pollutants that may have an adverse effect on the river. Pollutants such as salts, nutrients like phosphorus and nitrogen, and pesticide residue can be found in this runoff. Agricultural runoff often is a “non-point” pollutant, in that it can come from anywhere in a region, and not from a specific drain. This can make it difficult to There are also problems associated with agricultural runoff seeping into the groundwater as well.
There has been some success in mitigating the effects of agricultural runoff as a pollutant. This is a result of increased regulation concerning the use of agrochemicals. A decrease in the use of these chemicals has tended to make the wastewater from this sector considerably healthier.
Being a highly urbanized region, the Nile River has its share of industry, and with that industrial pollution. There are about 700 industrial facilities along the river Industrial waste water is often highly toxic, containing heavy metals that can combine with the suspended solids in domestic waste water to form hard to manage sludge. Besides water pollution, industry has been linked to air pollution, and is responsible for much of the smog cloaking major cities such as Cairo and Alexandria.
Though pollution in the Nile River is certainly a large concern, it should be noted that much of the river water is acceptably healthy and free of toxins. It is only in “black zones” near major drains that the water becomes unhealthy. Still, future measures should certainly be sought out to solve this problem before it does develop into a crisis.
The Nile, of course, has long been a source of sustenance, all the way back to ancient Egyptian civilization. Just look again at where Egypt is situated amid lots and lots of sand. Usually, such a location is hardly conducive to a thriving ancient civilization. How could a people, no matter how advanced, grow crops and raise livestock among sand dunes? Nevertheless, ancient Egyptian civilization was able to thrive due to the Nile River. Every year, the water in the Nile rose and filled carefully engineered canal.
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In 2009, Blackberry, then known as Research in Motion was a leading player in the Smartphone industry (Palenchar, 2013). The company had a 20% stake of the Smartphone market and had a near monopoly in the business service sector with its business solutions. At that time, the company was valued at over US$ 83 billion (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). However, three years later in 2012, the stake of the company in the Smartphone market had reduced to only 5%. Besides, it was experiencing financial turmoil. This was a great decline for a company that had displayed dominant performance a few years ago.
This report will analyze the reasons behind the poor performance of Blackberry and the subsequent financial problems that the company faced.
According to Downes and Nunes (2014), the big bang disruption which refers to a new kind of innovation, can significantly interfere with stable business within a short span of time. Big bang disruption has a dramatic effect on technology companies because it is the result of better and cheaper disruptive technologies being introduced into the market (Downes and Nunes 2014). Owing to the availability of cheap internet, consumers are able to know about the big bang disruptors. If the disruptors prove popular, they can impact the growth of new organization at the expense of the operating technologies.
The touch screen phones were introduced in the market by the unveiling of Apple’s iPhone in 2007. However, the Blackberry executives still maintained that ‘they had such a dominant market position that was so profitable.’’ They did not want to be seen as undermining their monopolistic position by unveiling products that are radically different (Hessman, 2013). The touch screen had become a big bang disruptor. Blackberry did not release any innovative products or solutions, but stuck to doing what they considered to be working at that time, thereby losing a significant share of the market.
Poor sales of products have led to the financial problems faced by Blackberry. The company released the Playbook tablet computer to rival the iPad introduced by Apple (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). However, the sale of Blackberry’s Playbook was quite disappointing since it was unable to deliver good sales. The latest Smartphone product of the company is Z10 which has also faced low sales that were even much less than what was expected by the company (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013).
The enterprise market is among the main revenue drivers of Blackberry. However, it has been under serious pressure from competing companies. Many have chosen Blackberry for enterprise business solutions because of the security features that it is enhanced with. Companies that use the enterprise business solution had to acquire Blackberry phones for their employees, thereby enabling the company to command a larger market share in this area. However, a new movement has surfaced, the Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (Company Profile, 2013). The trend of organizations using Blackberry phones is swiftly coming to an end. Employees can now use the same Smartphone for work and also personal needs. This is an indication that Blackberry is losing its position as the business phone of choice in addition to also losing its consumer base. These loses have negatively impacted the revenues of Blackberry.
Blackberry is faced with serious cash flow problems. The company reported $965 million quarterly loss. The company’s revenue reduced by 45% in 2013, while its cash position at the end of the third quarter went down from $3.2 billion to $2.6 billion in 2013 (Connors, 2013). Besides, Blackberry also had to write down its inventory valued at $960 million (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). This was influenced by poor sales of the Z10. Blackberry’s cash is therefore tied up in stock that it is unable to sell. As a result of the poor cash flow, the company introduced a rationalization program that saw the cutting of about 4,500 jobs that represented 40% of the workforce. The cash flow hitches came up as a result of the failure of the company to switch its stock of Z10 Smartphones.
The profits forecasts of the company were negatively impacted by flight delays in the launch of its flagship product. The launching of the Z10 smartphones came up after several delays (Hessman, 2013). The technology market is quite dynamic and under constant flux. The delay in the launch of the product significantly reduced the profitability of Blackberry (Blackberry Still in a Jam, 2013). The operating system for Blackberry also appears to be out of date compared to Apple’s iOS and Google’s Android. This has placed Blackberry at a very disadvantaged position in the market.
Blackberry lost track of the shifting user preferences in smartphones. It pioneered the use of keyboards on phones. People who wanted to type from their phones preferred using the phone because it made typing to be much easier. However, ‘’many Smartphone users have moved to touch screen models’’ in the recent past (Austen, 2013) Even though touch screen phones have their demerits when it comes to typing due to many typing mistakes, the enhanced screen size and better user experience account for this. The Smartphones manufactured by Blackberry, which maintained the physical keyboard were no longer attractive to customers. This resulted into the substantial loss of Blackberry’s market share to the touch screen smartphones.
The poor performance demonstrated by Blackberry was as a result of many reasons. The company had poor innovative skills and failed to deliver desirable solutions. Besides, it also had poor revenue streams owing to the competition in the enterprise market. Poor sales of the flagship product Z10 Smartphone had a multiplier impact of reducing the profitability of the company, thereby hampering cash flow. The connections between all these factors contributed to the poor performance of Blackberry.
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Austen, I. (27 September 2013). Blackberry’s future in doubt, keyboard lovers bemoans their own. NYT
Connors, W. (27 September 2013). Blackberry posts loss as phones go unsold. Inventory buildup prompts charge of about $1 billion. The Wall Street Journal
Downes, L & Nunes P. (2014). Big bang disruption: strategy in the age of devastating innovations. New York: Penguin
Hessman, T. (2013). A Long Fail from the Top. Retrieved from www.industryweek.com
Blackberry still in a jam. Going private will not solve the company’s problems. (28 September 2013). The Economist.
Company profile: Research In Motion Limited. (2013). MarketLine.
Palenchar, J. (11 February 2013). Analysts: BlackBerry Facing Tough Battle. Retrieved from www.twice.com
Universal credit is a welfare benefit program started in the UK in 2013 to replace the 6 means tested benefits and credit cards. The national launch was set for October 2013 for new claimants (excluding those with complex cases like families with children) though a pilot in 4 local authorities preceded this.
The transition was set to be gradual and to be completed by 2017. While this was the case, only one of the original pilots went ahead as scheduled due to persistent delays in implementation and IT failures. The other three pilots took off later that summer and were met by numerous criticisms.
Ian Duncan Smith, the secretary of Work and Pensions is the one that proposed the Universal Credit in 2010 at the Conservative Party annual conference. The aim was to ensure that it is implemented in the span of 4 years and two parliaments with the intention of merging the already existing 6 means tested tax credits and benefits into one monthly payment and to reduce costs as well. The six benefits include the following:
- Income based Jobseekers Allowance
- Income related Support
- Employment Allowance
- Income support
- Working Tax Credit
- Child Tax Credit and Housing Benefit.
Unlike existing benefits like Income Support that have a 100 percent withdrawal rate, the Universal Credit will be tapered away gradually as is the case with existing Housing Benefit and tax credits so that in theory, people are able to still take part time jobs and at the same time, be allowed to retain some of the money they receive.
Universal credit payment would also be paid in a different manner from the current benefits. Some of these include the following:
- The money will be paid directly into the account you choose
- If one gets assistance with rent, the same will be included in their monthly payment so they can pay the landlord
- In cases where both partners are eligible for Universal Credit, they will get one payment set for the household.
There are 4 conditionality’s for claimants depending on circumstances ranging from whether they are required to search for full time employment to their inability to find work at all (this includes people in the unconditional group such as carers and the severely disabled)
Universal Credit payment will be done once every month directly into a building society’s or bank account. Any assistance with rent will also be included in the payment so that claimants can pay their landlords directly.
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The Principal-agent problem is a specific game-theoretic description of a situation whereby there is a player called the principal and, one or more other players known as agents. The two parties in this situation have utility functions that are in a way different from one another. Principal-agent problem can be said to arise when one party (agent) agrees to work in the favor of another party (principal) in return for some incentives. Such an agreement may be very costly for the agent, thus, leading to the problems of conflicts of interest and moral hazards. Based on the costs incurred, the agent might start to pursue his own agenda, ignoring the best interest of the principal, hence causing the principal-agent problem.
The costs incurred by the agent and the subsequent conflict of interest come about due to the skewed information symmetry and the risk of failure faced by the principal. For instance, shareholders of a company conduct the appointment of managers to look after the proceedings of the company and earn profits on their behalf. The shareholders expect the managers to undertake the distribution of profit to shareholders. However, the managers realizing their own growth and salary expectation try to retain the profits for the future in order to be on the safe side. Such a practice can lead to principal-agent problem.
Today, the principal-agent problem is s common occurrence in most large corporations. The main area where the problem originates is that, the incentives to the agent are not necessarily going to lead to the behavior which best interests the principal. What is in the best interests of the management is not necessarily similar to what is in the best interests of the shareholders. In the case of large corporations, the shareholders are the principals while the management is the agents.
The problem comes up where the two parties (principal and agent) have different interests and asymmetric information (the agent is highly informed than the principal), such that the principal is not able to directly ensure that the agent is always acting in its (principal’s) best interest. Especially when activities that are of value to the principal are costly to the agent, and where elements of what the agent does are expensive to the principal. Concerns of the principal in such a case are based on the possibility of being exploited by the agent that he chooses not to get into any transaction at all, when the deal would have actually been in the interest of both parties.
There are various avenues that can be pursued in aligning the interests of the agent with those of the principal. In an employment scenario, employers (principal) may use mechanisms like profit sharing, piece rates/ commissions, efficiency wages, the threat of terminating the employment of affected employees, performance measurement among others. Cash bonuses for meeting certain targets are yet other avenues that can be pursued towards combating the principal-agent problem.
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Ethical, moral and legal codes refer to guidelines directing external human contact. Legality, morality and ethics are intertwined closely and they have the tendency of working together towards the achievement of a common goal which is promotion of good behavior in society. However, slight differences exist between these three terms that this paper attempts to expose.
Contrary to morality and ethics, laws of a state or institution often dictate behavior that is either illegal or legal. Thus, the legal expectations from an individual tend to be straightforward and often put down in writing in the form of a constitution. However, ethical and legal expectations are not defined clearly and generally depend on the perception of the society or individual on what is right and wrong. According to Wilkins and Williams (2008), there is another distinction between law on the one hand and ethics and morality on the other which is that the laws are often limited compared to the other two. This is attributed to the fact most legal standards tend to be prohibitive which means behaving within legal limits often involves failing to do something.
For instance, robbery is illegal; however, the law does not demand that an individual should call the police whenever they see someone being robbed. Moral and ethical standards however are more positive and they often require an individual to do something. For instance, in the case of robbery, a person will be ethically and morally compelled into calling the police though it is not their legal obligation. The law attains its intentions through disallowing behavior that is potentially harmful and encourages proper behavior in society through promising punishment to individuals who participate in behavior that is unacceptable. In most cases, lack of compliance with ethical and moral rules does not attract any form of punishment but breaking of laws attracts a penalty.
Ethics and morality are closely related. They involve societal larger behavior expectations apart from legal institutions. Religious institutions for instance, churches, play a crucial role in shaping the moral and ethical perceptions of an individual. Amstutz (2005) defines morality as derivative of the term Latin “mores” which means habit, way of life or custom. Morality describes what is universally right and as such, it demand universal allegiance. It defines righteousness, integrity values and virtues that are acceptable universally. Therefore morality is concerned with acceptable individual behavior accepted universally.
However, ethics is social perception of what is right and wrong which is nott necessarily universal. Poking and Stroll (1993) defined ethics as the acceptable principles code by which people live. Such set of principles differ among societies and professions. For instance, the medical professional has its set of medical ethics that differ from those of accounting. Christian ethics as they are outlined in 10 commandments differ from Islam ethics. American social ethics are also different from African social ethics. In America for instance, being gay is socially acceptable but in Africa, it is condemened. Despite these variations of ethics from one religion, profession or place to another, moral values like love, honesty and kindness are acceptable throughout. For instance, practicing honesty is expected in America, Africa and Islam as well as in American and Africa and in the accounting and medical professions.
Legality can be defined as what the law expects of a person, morality is the internal values of an individual and applicable everywhere while ethics is code of conduct by which an institution, profession or society chooses to live by. Morality and ethics however, must be applied with legal requirements.
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Amstutz, M. R. (2005). International Ethics: Concepts, Theories, and Cases in Global Politics (2nd Ed.) United States of America USA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. Retrieved on October 21 2013 from;
Popkin, H. R., & Stroll, A. (1993). Philosophy. Burlington MA: Elsevier Ltd. Retrieved on October 21, 2013 from;
Williams, L., W. (2008). Law and Ethics R. Goshman (Ed.) Wolters Kluwer Health.
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Public Policy in the Field of Public Administration
Public policy refers to the act by government to address certain problems affecting members of the public. Various governmental organizations formulate and implement public policy so as to address issues affecting the public. Besides, public administration defines the process of implementing public policy. Therefore, public policy fits quite well in the field of public administration; the study of public administration enables one to acquire knowledge on how to manage organizations, public policy analysis and solving public problems. Public administration involves professional experts for the development of sound public policies that can help in solving, easing or preventing the problems.
Public administration requires skills like budgeting, research and management, which are important in the implementation of government policy. A public administrator oversees the design and execution of government policies. Public policy is just one among the various pillars of public administration. Other pillars include human resource, statistics and ethics. The public administrators are legislators, mayors, public servants among others. This fits well in the agenda of public policy. For instance, a mayor seeks legislation on public policy and undertakes its implementation for the benefit of the general public.
Co-Relation between a Public Policy and a Public Problem
A public problem can be defined as any crisis that affects the public including scarce resources, natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, and famines), poor physical condition (health), social problems, economic crisis, and poverty among several others. Over the years, it has been the responsibility of the public administrators to integrate efforts and approaches to solving problems. As a result of this, the public administration uses experts to create sound public policies aimed at solving, easing or preventing the mentioned problems. Professionals with experience help the administrators to build and establish the necessary infrastructure so as to curb the issues (Dunn, 2012).
The first step towards the mitigation of public problem is realizing that the situation can be altered. Even though public management is different from public analysis, certain public policy programs borrow skills and practices from both systems in order to enhance decision-making and leadership. A good analysis is required before the application of professional skills in the formulation and implementation of public policy. This will make sure that the policy is effective when applied (Egonmwan, 1991). For example, poverty is a renowned public problem that is complex and has a lot of controversies with regards to its causes, methods of eradication and measures. Thus, public policy that ensures public economic growth would be an ideal way of fighting poverty.
The benchmark of public policy in handling public problems is comprehensive analysis by the practitioners that supports effective collection of data, evaluation of reports and solution of complex issues. Public policy planners must have skills like critical thinking, problem solving and analysis (Dunn, 2012).
Concepts of Political Socializing and Political Culture
Political culture is defined as the attitudes, ideas, feelings and values that the people for the government, politics and their role in the political arena. It can also refer to the beliefs, behaviors, customs and distinguishing features of a political system. Political culture explains the way in which people view the political systems around them. It goes beyond just opinions and involves the ways of living based on political beliefs, and also gives a reflection on the things that the people are willing and capable of integrating. It directs the general political viewpoint of the people and is usually constant in nature. Political culture gives the implication that people know their rights, duties and responsibilities as well as expectations (Ethridge & Handleman, 2012). It should also be noted that political systems vary from one country to another, and does not necessarily suggest that people from the same community have similar opinions. Nevertheless, the approaches of these people to political issues are in a way, similar.
Political socializing on the other hand refers to the process of the development of political values, ideas, beliefs and opinions in every member of a given society. On other terms, it can be defined as the process of developing a political culture. It refers to what people learn through social media and interactions with one another. Compared to political culture that is generally applied, political socializing focuses on individuals. It implies upbringing and interactions. It uses agents of socializing to influence the people’s political culture. The primary and secondary agents of this concept include family and the media respectively (Ethridge & Handelman, 2012).
Difference between institutional and Racial Politics
Racial politics is defined as the exploitation of the issues of race in advancing political agenda. A nation that exercises racial politics has a political party that is representative of racial groups. In a system like this, not all the races are included in one party. For instance, Malaysia practiced racial politics for 51 years. Therefore, it is not easy to find a hero from Malaysia since heroism is linked to a particular race like the Malaysian Indian or Malaysian Chinese. In the United States, a social rift existed along racial lines. The second-class citizenship and racial divide that governed the African Americans during the regime of the former federal governments have resulted into racial systems across the states (Kinder & Sanders, 1996).
On the contrary, institutional politics is a system of governorship that is balanced and does not restrict the freedom of individual citizens and is based on the consent of the people who participated in its formulation. It is focused on reducing the level of oppression of governments on the minor members of a society (Amenta, 2000). For example, institutional politics in the United States ensures that power is shared between the national government and the states. Institutional politics is mainly governed by the constitution that outlines the rules and defines the way in which power should be shared among political institutions.
Relevance of Grassroots Mobilization in Public Policy
Grassroots mobilization defines the process of encouraging political belief, ideas and values of a community (Hochstetler, 1993). The act is still relevant in influencing political party because it enhances the development of s stronger base for making their issues to be heard by the legislators. Today, organizations, associations and politicians are using grassroots mobilization for influencing public policies, and various groups to influence the opinions of the masses concerning issues. Several tactical strategies are commonly used in the mobilization, like holding press conferences or issuance of press releases. Besides, the increase in the use of social media like Facebook and Twitter makes it cheaper, easier and fast to initiate grassroots mobilization.
It usually occurs that the concerns of those seeking legislation vary from those of the public. This makes grassroots mobilization critical in changing the community’s opinion towards a particular avenue (Schafft, 1999). For example, the public holds the perception that crime is the first problem followed by economic growth and then international affairs. On the other hand, mobilizes listed health as the first issue followed by environmental conservation. Even though grassroots mobilization has greatly altered the manner of communication, it remains focused on addressing the same issues as it was many years ago.
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Science Research Writing
Science research writing implies doing a systematic intensive investigative study of a given topic in an effort to compile that information into comprehensive research paper that reflects your own understanding of the topic at hand. Science research writing is one task that many students do not really appreciate especially when it has to do with science research writing because it is not only time consuming, but can also drive you up the wall, especially when your supervisor keeps sending you back to revise parts of the research paper. To survive these times, it is always a great idea to seek for help from someone who has expertise in science research writing. When you get professional help, you will be guided n exactly what to do to do your research on writing the science research paper exactly as you should.
Science research writing
Science research writing is an assignment that requires scientific back up information. It comes in many names like biology research paper, chemistry research paper, physics homework among others. Many students usually dread this kind of research on writing an assignment paper because there are specific rules and guidelines that need to be followed when writing science research paper. This kind of assignment is also sometimes a bit limiting because there are strict rules and observations that you must bear in mind, unlike other assignment papers where the rules are not as strict and can be bended a bit to accommodate a few factors when conducting research on writing.
Who can help me with my science research writing?
Since it is now obvious that science research writing assignment is not a walk in the park, we must admit that we all need some help when we have such an assignment. How do things become different when you seek research writing help from professionals? To begin with, when you know that there is someone to walk with you through a tough journey, you are less likely to get stressed or be fearful about going in the wrong direction in the course of pursuing your academic goals.
What are some of the advantages of seeking research writing help with your science research writing assignment?
- . Thinks about the amount of time you end up saving when you seek help. How is this? When you have someone you can consult with you assignment, you spend less time doing your research as you can get a lot of useful information within a very short time.
- You end up with a science research paper that is full of wisdom from a professional perspective. Remember that when you seek research help, you do so from professionals and not from your college mates who also need help like you do.
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Research proposal writing
Research proposal writing is an assignment that a student writes in an effort to see funds to enable them to carry on with their research project. Also know as a grant proposal, it requires that you write a convincing paper clearly elaborating the purpose of your project and how you hope that it will contribute significantly to the already existing issues revolving around the topic. When writing a research proposal a few factors need to be given special attention if you desire to meet the goals of the research proposal writing paper:
- Carefully consider if the research topic is worth the research time input and resources required.
- If writing the research proposal is worth the time, can it be realistically investigated in an exhaustive manner?
- Is the research topic challenging enough for the level of academic learning for which you are doing the research?
- Will it be possible to finish writing the research proposal within stipulated time frame?
- What are the likely challenges or obstacles that you are going to face in the course of doing the research?
- How suitable is the research proposal writing suitable for you as an individual student?
Tips to writing a research proposal
Once all the above factors have carefully been considered and you are confident that you want to go ahead with writing the research proposal, you need to know what to do to make the writing process easier and more manageable. At www.essaysexperts.net, we offer you tips on how to proceed with research proposal writing:
- Remember that a research proposal document is a bit different from a research paper and hence comes in a slightly different document.
- Begin by formulating the project title. Remember to keep it as short as possible and it should be specific. Ambiguous titles will give you a hard time in your research.
- The research question should be clearly defined, relevant to the topic and applicable to the methodology proposed.
- Conduct some background check of the research question to find out how much research has been done in its regards, the missing gap and the possible relationship to a universal emergency problem.
Help with research proposal writing
Writing the research proposal is not always an easy task as many students will attest, and this is the reason why at essaysexperts.net, we strive to assist you to write the research proposal right from scratch if you allow us. At our site, we understand that writing the research proposal means the difference between getting funds for your project and having to come up with a different project altogether. We will help you write the paper from the minds of your fund grantors, hence we will capture the important aspects that should be captured in a research proposal paper. All this we do for you at very affordable rates and within the shortest time possible.
Research Paper Writing Tips
Writing the research paper is for many students the most daunting assignment they will ever have to do in the course of pursuing their studies. This is because the assignment requires that you engage in searching for materials that are relevant to your assignment, keeping them as up to date as possible, and in addition, giving your own analysis of the information in relation to the topic. Research paper writing also takes up a lot of time because of the many sections involved. The methodology section, the literature review, the abstract, the results and discussion, the conclusion and recommendation sections all require a lot of input. This is the reason why many people find themselves stuck when writing the research paper, but this should not be the case. What then can you do to make the research paper writing task easier and smoother for yourself? Read along for some research paper writing tips.
Research paper writing tips
When writing the research paper, always begin with the first most important thing, which is to find a good topic for your research paper. A good topic for research paper is one that:
- Holds your interest and keeps you motivated to complete the research paper right from scratch up to the very end.
- Has a wide scope, such that you can comfortably research on it and find as much information as possible to compile the research paper to the very end.
- The topic should not be too wide or too narrow. For example, a topic like ‘politics’ is too wide and may even beat the purpose of the research paper, but a topic like politics at the work place is just sizable enough.
When writing the research paper, it is also a wide idea to remember that the earlier you begin working on your research paper, the better placed you are to end up with good quality content. Rushing at the last minute leads you to present some shoddy work to your supervisor.Use the research paper writing tips to come up with quality work.
Where to get additional help
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