How to Achieve Food Security
Food security is a responsibility of every country in the world. It is exists when every person in a nation at all times is physically or economically able to access sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet food preferences and needs. Unfortunately, hunger remains a great calamity in the world with one person out of eight dying on daily basis from hunger related complications. Food insecurity has been a challenge for many countries and achieving food availability, adequacy and free use is the agenda of every developing or developed country.
Food security for developing nations calls for a lot of governmental, intergovernmental and inter-agency cooperation. Good governance, leadership coordination mechanisms are necessary to aid poor countries overcome the consequences of food insecurity and the wrath that comes with fewer actions on eradicating this calamity. It is easy to achieve food security if countries affected corporate and seek regional or international aid if stuck. There are many ways on how to achieve food security; however, most of the strategies to go for are interwoven across wide range of complex issues.
Understanding the key causes of food insecurity is the very first step to put into consideration. These causes include war, migration, poor government policies on food production, water stress and food wastage to name but a few. There are four core pillars of food security monitoring systems that aid determining how to achieve food security, this includes agriculture production monitoring, the market information system, social monitoring and food and nutritional surveillance systems. To learn how to achieve food security, here are a few things to look at;
- Nutrition intermediations- Starvation as damaging effects on any population, as it increases mortality, reduces cognitive abilities of children, reduces labor output, morbidity rates are reduced and affects the quality of victims of hunger. To achieve food stability, each nation should invest on or increase investments on long-term interventions like dietary diversification, bio-fortification and food sufficiency.
- Facilitating easy market access- Countries need to get rid of any barriers on global trade. Increased trading in developing countries can easily consolidate their efforts in taking advantage of the market in future and acquire the necessary income and revenue.
- Capacity building – Countries that are ready to achieve food security should also focus on education, research, development of infrastructure and better access to capital. Benefits that come from any of the mention ways of building capacity must be of the highest priority.
- Gender sensitive development- gender is a common thing affecting many nations in many ways. Every individual should have the chance to lead, work and to enjoy life regardless of whether a male or a female. Every person in the society has a role to play in economy development.
- Maintain good governance- Through a corruption free or peaceful environment any strategy can help achieve food stability. When all political interests of nations or organizations are delinked everything can be possible.
Future food security will require utilization of advanced strategies and a new crop of farmers who have a diversity of approaches to aid in food production. Governments and independent organizations should also provide economic, humanitarian and development aid to meet the Millennium Development Goals in every nation. Explicit goals for agriculture sector that include marketing policies and agricultural pricing should be put into consideration worldwide.
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Mobile Technology and Its Impact on e‐Commerce
E-commerce plays a major role in the world. However, applications and technologies are shifting towards mobile computing and the wireless web. While this is the case, the advancements have also brought into play a host of challenges, especially concerning wireless electronic commerce. Because of varying preferences of customers, development of these applications is a continuous process to satisfy the market. Mobile electronic-commerce, which uses portable devices to transact business, has become a major part of people’s lives. Common portable devices include laptops, mobile telephones, and vehicle-mounted interfaces among others (Lamersdorf 243).
The only requirement for mobile electronic commerce is to have access to mobile wireless, which is Web or WAP enabled (Lamersdorf 255). It is worth noting that phones and other hand-held gadgets have limitations, including low memory, small screens and few input devices. They do not have traditional computer keyboards and have limited text lines and character entries. To the contrary, laptops support many devices, have huge data storage capacity, have traditional keyboards and have large screens.
The main concern for manufacturers is deciding the most effective way individuals to use apps to access information through the gadgets. For this reason, there is need for manufacturers to go back to application software and operating systems for a range of platforms. Portable devices can support apps including Palm’s PalmOS, Microsoft’s Pocket PC OS, WAP, SMS, Web and I-node (Nickerson & Warkentin 446). While some of these apps meet the needs of most users, they have limited functionality. Thus, manufacturers and app developers have the task of improving functionality of these devices to enhance their capabilities (McConnell, Merz, and Maesano 370).
Mobile e-commerce therefore denotes business to consumer moneymaking activities, conducted sing mobile devices. With wireless technology, there is hope for mobile sub-net in the e-commerce world. Today, most people in the world own mobile phones, which largely rely on wireless technology. Other devices allow voice communication while others concentrate on non-voice functionalities like watching videos, Geo-location data, reading emails and accessing internet (McConnell, Merz & Maesano 378). This has led to change in purchaser payment market. With these devices, e-commerce is simpler and convenient around the globe. Because of developments in mobile e-commerce, there is massive manufacture of handsets, improved technology and affordable data prices. These have encouraged more usage of mobile data than in previous years.
Mobile e-commerce has also led to the rise of consumer benefits and protection to consumer issues. They include mobile payment and banking, premium services, mobile shopping and mobile marketing, just but a few. With premium services, users buy digital content and electronic information via text messages, where the costs add up to the mobile phone expenditure (Tsalgatidou 252). Examples of SMS free-based services are horoscopes, SMS voting system, flight status alerts and dating chat sites among others. Because of development of wireless networks, there is enhanced data transfer and better display capabilities by portable devices. They also have good processing power, which promote internet-enabled services (Tsalgatidou 276). Today, there are content portals, which offer a range of free services like downloading games, videos and ringtones. It is therefore clear that mobile content has massively evolved to meet the changing needs of the market. With mobile payment and banking, financial institutions offer text banking to online clients. Through this platform, a customer can view account balance and recent transactions on phone. On the other hand, mobile payment software allow customers to text their payments, where companies offer traditional trust services via the internet by expanding the functionality of the device. Oftentimes, they improve privacy through encryption and public key management (Nickerson and Warkentin 440).
Besides the advantages above, wireless apps and technologies have a range of demerits in mobile e-commerce worldwide. The absence of mobile device standardization all over the world is a major concern. Mobile devices differ from country to country and even within a particular country. The inequality in acquiring and access wireless web technology also affects mobile e-commerce in the world. It is clear that some countries have low demand for mobile device capacity. For example, Japan and Europe have higher demand for mobile devices than the U.S (Tsalgatidou 268). Very few Americans use wireless devices compared to people living in Europe and Asia. Americans also have lesser usage rates than Asians and Europeans. Experts observe that there will be lower demand for 3G internet to hit critical levels, hindering development of e-commerce within affected countries.
In conclusion, technology development has played a major role in mobile e-commerce development. Today, millions of people all over the world depend on this technology to transact businesses. With rapid advancement in wireless devices, there is need to ensure that the devices function properly. There is also need for development of wireless communication with high bandwidth to meet the demands of mobile e-commerce and wireless apps.
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Lamersdorf, M. Trends in Distributed Systems for Electronic Commerce. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, NewYork, 1998: 220-298. Print.
McConnell, M. Merz, L. & Maesano, M. An Open Architecture for Electronic Commerce. OMG/ECDTF/OSM Response, 1997: 315-387 Print.
Nickerson, R. and Warkentin, M. Wireless/Mobile E-commerce: Technologies, Applications and Issues. Seventh Americans Conference on Information Systems, 2001: 420-477 Print.
Tsalgatidou, A. Business models and transactions in mobile electronic commerce: requirements and properties. Computer Networks, 2001: 221-289. Print.
Drug Testing at Work Place
Testing drugs at the place of work is always controversial. According to the human rights activists, the move violates civil liberties. However, drug testing is necessary for most employers who see it as a means that control drug abuse at work places. The position of this paper is that testing drugs at the place of work violates privacy. The paper also supports this position with two reasons.
Normally, drug testing entails taking samples of the blood and urine as well as other excretions of the employees. In itself, the practice invades the body of a person even when actual testing is not done. The body of an individual is a private possession. Urine collection is particularly highly intrusive. According to Nash (2010), the ruling of the Supreme Court stated that some activities in the society are private such as passing urine.
This is why people do it privately and when done in public, social norms and the law often prohibits it. Generally, passing urine is a topic that embarrasses people. This is why euphemisms are mostly used in reference to this act. In that kind of a setup, asking people for urine for observation purposes as well as other excrements for purposes of chemical analysis violates not only their privacy, but it also humiliate them.
Once collected, the samples are then submitted for the purpose of testing. The entire idea is about testing people for drug and to determine if they are using prohibited drugs. Nevertheless, Eisaguire (2008) notes that, samples’ analysis provides more than evidence of drug abuse. For instance, the chemist can trace the HIV, reproductive illnesses, depression and other medications that are taken for various conditions using urine samples. Such information should be kept private for most average employees. Thus, accessing such information about the health conditions of the employees implies a violation of their most private lives.
According to the above stated reasons, workplace drug testing can be considered a violation of the employees’ privacy in two stages. These are the sample collection stage and the sample analysis stage.
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Eisaguirre L. (2008) “We Need To Talk” – Tough Conversations With Your Employee: From
Performance, Massachusetts MA: Adams Media. Retrieved on February 8, 2014 from; http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=ItHHluLyutAC&pg=PT113&dq=DRUG+testing+invades+employees+private+life&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J0f2UqyQLY3Q7Aal2ID4Cg&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=DRUG%20testing%20invades%20employees%20private%20life&f=true
Nash J.R. (2010) Workplace Privacy: Proceedings of the New York University 58th Annual
Conference on Labor, The Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. Retrieved on February 8, 2014 from;
The markets for secondary tickets have become popular in the contemporary ticketing industry. These markets involve the resale of the tickets acquired formally. However, the vendor has no official association with the league, the event or the team. The market for derivative tickets has now grown to become a 10 to 15 billion dollar market. This market offers great opportunities and challenges to the modern ticketing industry. The league, the team as well as the event managements can access more people who buy tickets in the markets of the secondary tickets.
Nevertheless, the main problems that are faced by these markets impact on the entire ticketing industry. An example of the problems of these markets is counterfeit vouchers sale. Business levels as well as the operations of events, teams and leagues are affected by these vouchers. Although the markets for secondary tickets bring opportunities, they also face challenges that requite urgent attention from different stakeholders.
The fraud tickets’ problem impacts on the credibility of the markets of the secondary tickets directly. The league management, event organizers and the teams are also affected indirectly since they are required to handle complaints that people who purchase fraudulent tickets raise. As such, the causes of this problem should be addressed by secondary markets in order to gain credibility and trust from the customers. Nevertheless, the markets for secondary tickets ought not to be removed from this business since their activities support the primary markets by enhancing their reach for more people. These markets also offer feedback in terms of performance and value of the primary markets. The markets for secondary tickets also assist event organizers and teams in determining the prices of the tickets by providing market information.
According to this study, the major problem is conflicting interests between the main stakeholders. The markets for secondary tickets offer great opportunities in the modern ticketing industry. Nevertheless, there are flaws in the market that impact on the industry performance and other major stakeholders including the league, event organizers and the teams.
The fans and the teams are the major stakeholders who are the beneficiaries of the services of the secondary markets. However, they also suffer more when there are malpractices in the secondary markets for the tickets. Fans lose money through fraudulent activities while the teams are blamed by the customers. Some fans may think that the team management was responsible for the fraud. This implies that the image of these teams will be affected negatively.
There are different techniques that can be used by the stakeholders in solving this problem. For instance, the distributors of the primary tickets can come up with non-transferable tickets. This way, it will be hard for people to transfer their tickets without appropriate confirmation and authorization. Tickets should include the identification number of the persons who buy them as well as their full names. In addition, unique computer chips will be included that will link the tickets to original buyers. In the event that there is a need to resell the tickets, then there will be reduced chances of reselling fraudulent tickets.
Another technique that the teams can use to solve this problem is developing and maintaining partnership relations
with distributors of secondary tickets. Teams are blamed the most by their fans when there are fraudulent tickets in the market. As such, they should implement such strategies to safeguard their image from the blame by the public. Additionally, such an arrangement will be beneficial to the markets for the secondary tickets as well since their personal relations with the buyers as well as with the teams will be on long term basis.
The final technique that can be used to solve this problem is implementing restrictions on the distributors of secondary tickets. Even league and event organizers have considered such a move. The move entails promoting tickets’ sale via the internet by the markets for primary tickets.
The markets for secondary tickets are important in this industry. Their operations entail handling luxury suits, season tickets and premium seating. These markets promote the teams’ interests by selling more tickets. As such, the markets for secondary tickets should not be eliminated. Partnership relationships between ticket distributors and the teams are the best solutions to this problem. Research indicates that the markets for secondary tickets allow for changing of tickets. This implies that many tickets would be wasted if these markets did not exist. Therefore, the team management ought to come up with policies for detecting and eliminating the distributors of fake tickets. This way, satisfaction will be ensured for all stakeholders and the entire industry will be streamlined.
My recommendation is that the event organizers, the league and the team appreciate the role of the secondary markets. They are prevalent and restricting them is not necessary because they bring more opportunities in the modern industry. As such, their operations should be coordinated and controlled in order to reduce fraud cases. Licensing all distributors of secondary tickets is one way of doing this by ensuring that all purchased tickets can only be resold by authorized distributors.
I would also recommend that the management create avenues via which buyers can resell tickets online. This way, sellers and buyers will have better opportunities since they will be able to choose whether to resell tickets or to engage services of the secondary markets.
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The holocaust was the state sponsored bureaucratic, systematic persecution and murder of 6 million Jews including 1.5 million Jewish children by the Nazi regime and its collaborators in Europe. It occurred in 1933 to 1945. There are millions other people who were also caught up in the web of destruction woven by the Nazi’s.
In 1933, when Hitler became chancellor, the German government started passing laws that eliminated the rights of Jews as citizens. Eventually, in the German occupied Europe, the Jews were forced through laws to live in certain regions of the city known as ghettos. From there, many Jews were deported by the Nazis to death and labor camps.
Apart from the Jews the Nazis also targeted other minority groups such as political dissidents, those with genetic diseases, the Poles, male homosexuals, the disabled, Jehovah’s Witness and the gypsies or Roma. The anti-Semitic Nazi leader, Adolf Hitler believed the Jews were an inferior race and an alien threat to the racial purity of the Germans and the community.
After years of the Nazis ruling during which Jews were persecuted persistently, Hitler made ‘final solution’ which came to be known as the Holocaust. This was carried out under the disguise of World War 1 with mass killing centers constructed in concentration camps of occupied Poland.
Hitler’s worldview had two twin goals which included spatial expansion and racial purity. From 1933 onward, these goals would combine to form the driving force behind his domestic and foreign policy. The Nazis at first preserved their harshest persecution for political opponents like the social democrats and the communists.
They opened the first official concentration camp in 1933 March at Dachau (near Munich). Majority of the prisoners who were sent to the camp first were communists. Like other concentration camps that followed shortly afterwards and which served as the killing grounds, Dachau was under the command of Heinrich Himmler who was the head of the elite Nazi guard, the SS (Schutzstaffel) then later it was under the German police.
By 1933 July, the concentration camps held more than 27,000 people in protective custody. Huge symbolic acts and Nazi rallies like the public burning of Communists, books by Jews, foreigners and liberals aided in driving the desired message of the Nazis.
Because of Jews persecution, they numbered roughly 525,000 or 1% of the overall German population in 1933. In the next 6 years that followed, the Nazis undertook what was known as ‘Aryanization’ of Germany, liquidating businesses that were owned by the Jews, dismissing non-Aryans from the civil service and stripping Jewish doctors and lawyers of their clients. Under Nuremberg laws, anyone who had 3 or 4 Jewish grandparents was considered a Jew while those with 2 were considered Mischlinge (half-breeds).
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Safavid Empire was the most significant ruling dynasties of Persia-modern Iran- and is considered the start of modern Persian history. They ruled the greatest Persian empires after Muslim conquest of Persia. The Islamic Empire had the strength and ability to challenge Ottomans in the West and Mughals in the East.
- The empire lasted from 1501 through to 1722
- It covered Iran, parts of Georgia and Turkey
- The Empire was a theocracy
- State of religion in the Safavid Empire was Shi’a Islam
- Other forms of Islam and religions were suppressed
- The economic strength of the Empire came from its strategic location which was on trade routes
- Iran was made the center of architecture, philosophy, poetry and art as a result of the Empire
- Isfahan, the capital is the most beautiful city in the world
- The key figures in the empire were Isma’il I and Abbas I
- The decline of the empire was as a result of corruption and complacency.
Origin of the Empire
The founders of the empire were the Safavids, a Sufi order that dates back to Safi al Din (1252-1334. Safi al-Din converted to Shi’ism and became a Persian nationalist. Safavid brotherhood was initially a religious group and over the centuries that followed, it became stronger attracting political marriages and local warlords. In the 15th century, it became a military group as well as a religious one.
Many people were attracted by the allegiance the brotherhood had to Ali and the ‘Hidden Imam’. Also, during the 15th century, the brotherhood became military aggressive thus waging a Jihad (Islamic holy war) against parts of what is currently known as Georgia and Turkey. The Empire dates back to the rule of Shah Islmail (who ruled from 1501 to 1524). In 1501, the Shahs declared independence when Ottomans outlawed Shi’a Islam within their territory.
Safavid Empire was strengthened through the important Shi’a soldiers from Ottoman army fleeing persecution. When Safavids came into power, Shah Ismail was proclaimed the ruler. By 1510, the Empire had already conquered the entire region of Iran.
The most important decisions made by the Safavid Empire when it came into power was declaring the state religion as Shi’ism. At that time, the religion was completely new to the Iranian culture but the Safavids launched a vigorous campaign that was aimed at converting what was predominantly a population of Sunni by persuasion and at times, they even used force. The Sunni Ulama which was a religious council of wise men was forced to flee and those who stayed were killed.
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Neolithic revolution is also called the Neolithic Demographic Transition. There are also people who called it the Agricultural Revolution. It refers to the first verifiable revolution in history of Agriculture. The revolution was wide scale involving different human cultures from the hunting and gathering lifestyle to settlement and agriculture which supported the increasing population.
There is archaeological data that shows that domestication of different animals and plants evolved at different locations across the world. The starting point of these domestications is indicated by the data to have been the geological epoch in Holocene at around 12,000 years ago.
Nevertheless, Neolithic Revolution entailed more than adoption of limited techniques in producing food. In the following millennia, the revolution transformed the mobile and small groups of people who were initially hunters and gathers who had until that time dominated the human history into the sedentary societies that were based in the built-up towns and villages.
The sedentary societies modified the natural environment that they were used to radically through specialized cultivation of food crops. They engaged in activities like deforestation and irrigation in the production of food. Different technologies that included food storage were employed by these societies which enhanced food production while making surplus food available.
Developments brought about by Neolithic revolution provided a basis for increased population and more
settlements. Specialization as well as trading economies and divisions of labor all started with the Neolithic revolution. Non-portable art development and architecture, political structures, centralized administrations, depersonalized knowledge systems such as writing and hierarchical ideologies as well as private ownership of property all have their basis on Neolithic revolution.
The first and full-blown Neolithic complex manifestation is seen in the cities of the Middle Eastern Sumerian. The emergence of these cities marks the end of prehistoric Neolithic era. Relationship of the Neolithic characteristics and the onset of agricultural activities, sequence of their emergence and the empirical relations in different Neolithic sites is still a subject of research and academic debates. The characteristics also seem to differ in different places instead of being the result of the universal social evolution laws.
Before Neolithic revolution, people lived with their extended families in a nomad life without staying at one place for more than few months. People always lived in temporary shelters and searching for food through hunting and gathering. Before Neolithic revolution people never owned anything because they could easily pack and leave where they were living any time. Neolithic revolution marked the end of this and the start of a settled way of life.
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The rate of photosynthesis is defined as how fast or slow the process of photosynthesis takes place. This can be measured through the amount of glucose that is produced by a plant over a given period of time. This is an area that is of great concern to farmers as well as scientists. To farmers, understanding the factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis can assist in determining ways on how to increase the rate of photosynthesis for bountiful crop yields.
There are various factors that can affect the rate of photosynthesis like light intensity, temperature and carbon dioxide concentration.
With regards to light, it is important to note that the rate of photosynthesis increases with the increase of light intensity or when the light gets brighter. Many plants spread out their leaves in a way such that each maximizes the amount of light that is falling on them; the lower leaves are not shaded by the ones above. However, too much light supplied at high intensity can significantly damage chloroplasts. There are also certain woodland plants that synthesize more efficiently in dimly lit areas, these are called shade plants.
The higher the temperature; the greater the rate of photosynthesis. One important thing that should be noted is that photosynthesis is a chemical reaction and the rates of most chemical reactions are heightened by temperature. However, in the case of photosynthesis, the rate of the reaction slows down at temperatures above 40 Degrees Celsius. The reason for this is because the enzymes that are involved in the chemical reactions of photosynthesis are temperature sensitive and destroyed at higher temperatures. The effect of temperature on photosynthesis can be compared to that in enzymes. When the enzymes are exposed to very high temperatures, they breakdown and are distorted. If the temperature is so low, the enzymes move around so slowly for a reaction to take place.
Carbon dioxide plays a role in the manufacture of sugar in the process of photosynthesis. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of the earth varies from 0.03% to around 0.04%. In case there is an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide, the rate of photosynthesis reaction will also be increased. In the open air, it can be challenging to undertake the experiment. However, it can be successfully conducted inside a greenhouse. In fact, quite a number of crops like tomatoes and even lettuce often produce higher yields when grown in greenhouses. Farmers often add additional carbon dioxide into the greenhouse so as to increase the concentration as well as the rate of photosynthesis of the crops. Due to the increased yields that farmers can get from the procedure, the additional cost of carbon dioxide is always not an issue.
The use of carbon dioxide in raising plants has been by several farmers today. Instead of pumping the waste gas into the atmosphere where it is a pollutant, it is directed into greenhouses for use in the photosynthesis process for additional yields.
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U.S. Revolutionary War
The U.S Revolutionary War took place between 1775 and 1783. It is also called the American War of Independence or Revolutionary War. This was a revolt against Great Britain by thirteen states, which joined in1776 to form the United States of America. It is important to note that initially, the war was limited to the colonies before it became world in 1778, pitting Britain against Spain, Netherlands, France and Mysore. This essay analyses the timeline of the war, by capturing the most significant events, which took place.
According to history, British taxes on Americans were the main cause of the war as the Americans resisted the levies. Americans held that the taxes they paid British masters were unlawful and needed to be dropped with speed. Open rebellion of the British taxation began in 17 74 after Patriot Suffolk Resolves annulled the ruling government of Massachusetts Bay. The tension arising from this move led to war breakout between the militias supporting Patriot and British troops at Lexington and Concord. This happened in April 1775. The Patriots carried on with the fight and by spring, 1776, they took over all the thirteen American colonies, before the Continental Congress announced independence on July 4, 1776.
During this time, the British were busy consolidating its forces to counter the revolt. They attacked the rebel army of George Washington, and managed to capture of New York City in 1776. Their continued saw them take over Philadelphia in 1777. British strategy was to use American loyalists whom they tried to enlist into the war. There was poor coordination within the British military, leading to its capture in 1777.
It is important to note that at the beginning of 1776, Spain, France and Netherlands began supporting the American revolutionaries by providing them with supplies, ammunition and weapons. The victory at Saratoga compelled Britain to consider self-governance for all the colonies. However, France, an interested party, joined the war to prevent the Americans from approving a compromise peace deal. Spain joined France in 1779, thwarting British efforts. France and Spain offered decisive support to Americans and diverted all British resources that came from North America.
In order to remain relevant, the British had to change tactics. For instance, 1778 saw it shift its attention to the Southern colonies. These colonies had played a major role in handing them victory when they repossessed Georgia and South Carolina in 1779 and 1780 respectively. In 1781, British forces failed to recapture Virginia after being neutralized by French naval forces, leading to the capture of about 7000 British solders. This was one of the greatest blows on Britain, as it could not continue fighting. 1782 witnessed minimal war as both sides resorted to peaceful negotiations. In 1783, the signing of the Treaty of Paris marked the end of the war, recognizing the sovereignty of the United States. This opened way for a more elaborate international peace agreement, which saw some territories exchanged. However, the involvement of France in the war had massive impact on its side, as it contributed to accumulation of huge debts that weakened her economy. This bred the French Revolution.
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How Temperature Affects Volume
To understand how temperature affects volume, it is important to know how matter works. Mater comprises of tiny
particles that have energy. Temperature is energy in form of heat. This energy is what is used in cooking food, keeping the living spaces warm and even some machinery uses heat to function. Gas is used in different parts of the world to produce heat that increases temperature.
Temperature affects different things including human beings. When temperatures are low, people start shivering. When temperatures are high, human beings start sweating. Apart from human beings, temperatures affect other substances in the environment as well. Effects of temperature on these substances affect the volume that they occupy.
For instance, the connection between volume and temperature is the basis on what thermometers work. Airtight glass tubes are the most commonly used type of thermometers. These have reservoir bulb in one end. This reservoir contains colored liquid.
The volume of this liquid increases as the temperature increases. This forces the liquid to move upward in the narrow tube. Volume of the liquid in the reservoir increases with increasing temperature forcing the liquid in the reservoir to keep moving up the tube. The numbers on the tube translates to the increasing volume of the liquid with increasing temperature.
The effect of temperature on volume is seen by the effect that the temperature has on the space that is occupied by the liquid. When temperature is increased, most substances expand. On the other hand, decreasing temperature cause the liquid to contact.
The explanation of this reaction can be derived from the behavior of atoms and their size. Everything including liquid is made of tiny particles of matter known as atoms. Even when liquid of anything is not moving, atoms are always moving. Atom of anything are always wriggling around as well as bumping into each other. This is what happens to the atoms of the liquid.
As liquid gets hotter the atoms starts moving faster or jostling around more vigorously. As such, they occupy more space increasing the volume that is occupied by the substance. Nevertheless, effect of temperature on volume differs. Some substances will occupy more volume when exposed to high temperatures than others. Others will occupy less volume when exposed to extremely low temperature.
Variation on the effect of temperature on the volume occupied by different substances depends on various factors including their molecular mass and other structural properties of the substances.
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Information security, is very important as it helps to prevent unauthorized access or use and affects every organization including affected medium-sized enterprises. The essence of information data systems cannot be understated and they should thus be secured at all times so as to maintain their resilience and credibility regardless of challenges they face.
An electronic document security system has to be enforced together with new technologies so as to prevent leakage of important customer information from business information systems. As the management, we need to have in place open channels of creating awareness and enhance management support systems that can enhance the overall security of our medium-size online business. Creating awareness can help in reducing fraud and abuse of computing infrastructure hence increase return on investment for the business (Wright, Freedman & Liu, 2008, p. 3). By implementing the electronic document security, we will be able to control confidentiality of information sent to customers or third parties (Smallwood, 2012, p. 10).
Lack of such technologies would cost our enterprise through different illegal means and also result in loss of potential and willing investors. As the management of our medium-size online business, we have to introduce mechanisms and document security systems for preventing data loss and leakage of confidential information to our competitors. By doing this, we will not only protect our company from the dangers and high potential costs of cybercrimes, but also improve our credibility with our customers and partners.
Networks usually perform different roles, and they can be differentiated in terms of their structure, purpose, activities and results.Therefore, network activity is a technique that can be used to depict differences between activities in a particular operation or project.Some of the distinct network activities may include enforcement of relative delays, preferential caching of data, and placing limitations on the effect of administrative utilities on production work. The amount of incoming traffic flow through a firewall is usually used to monitor the differences between network activities. Anomalies in internet packet flow is used to differentiate between the different network activities and malicious activity are usually detected easily because they tend to send excessive traffic hence exhausting the legitimate resources and often targets unused addresses in the network.
Malicious network activity examples may include malicious spams, scanners, worms, and backscatters. Scanners are malicious network activities that come from a single source and usually target the same port in different machines or even different ports on one machine on the network. These will generate excess flow of Internet packet and can also be differentiated by examining the Internet packet size to show whether or not it deviates from the normal. Additionally, scanners can also be differentiated by observing the sources and destinations of the packets. While normal Internet activity possesses different source and destination addresses, the malicious and suspicious Internet activity can share similar source and destination addresses.
The signature-based approach is also used to differentiate these activities by comparing threat signatures to observed events and this helps in identifying particular differences. Malicious network activity can be distinctly identified as they usually originate from the website servers while trying to leave the network through established firewalls. These network activities infiltrate through the firewall and flow into website servers and may also leave the website servers in the nature or form of malicious activity. Compared to normal activity, malicious or suspicious activity flow is much lower.
Traynor, McDaniel, and La Porta identified two new Denial of Service (DoS) threats in cellular services for data. They exploit the link setup and destruction procedures in different networks which implement the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) by utilizing low traffics on average terms.The first loophole entails the attack of logical channels instead of raw theoretical bandwidth, and this leads to reduction of the amount of traffic necessary to deny service (Traynor, McDaniel, & La Porta, (n.d), p. 311). Thus type of attack exhausts resources and prevents access of service temporarily and can be achieved by sending numerous text messages to a particular network sector consistently so as to ensure that the Temporary Block Flow (TBF) timers expire, resulting in denial of the network from reclamation of its logical resources.
The second loophole or susceptibility is caused by the inefficiency in accessing protocols by cellular data networks and the Internet. The denial of service (DoS) vulnerability happens as a result of similarities in the flow of network treatment, where uniform treatment of all flows regardless of size or duration shows the lack of flexibility of the cellular data network. Any slight changes in the conditions of the system can make it vulnerable to such attacks and because of its rigid design, the subsystems implement assumptions appropriate for one sub-set of traffic on every other traffic. For instance, an attack can occur when such assumptions cause the system to automatically amplify a single incoming packet to a series of expensive delay-inducing setup operations. Similarly changes in system conditions can lead to failure of execution of commands in the system. This ultimately makes the system susceptible to attacks and breakdowns.
By exchanging information between foreign and home base stations systems can authenticate or verify the details of any supplementary characteristics allocated, such as special data services (King, 1995, p. 109).Rogue base or corrupt stations imitate the legitimate base stations so as to confuse the subscribers who are legitimately trying to access services (Burmester, 2006, p. 83).Snarfing involves obtaining large documents from computer programmers without the permission of the author and it usually happens when one uses illegal means such as hacking to access the information of the other programmers.
However, eavesdropping is considered to be legal if used for the general good of the public. An example of this is the interception of the communication of terrorist groups planning an attack on innocent people or even helping in tracking stolen goods. Generally, the security goals of GSM are enhancing confidentiality and anonymity on the radio path. It also aims at preventing fraud by creating strong authentication codes and its ultimate goal is to prevent compromise of security amongst competitors with ill intentions. SMS framework is a platform where people can exchange encrypted and digitally signed text messages. Public key cryptography is usually used in this case to secure communication between private parties.
Burmester, M., Yasinsac, A., & International Workshop on Secure Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and Sensors, MADNES 2005. (2006). Secure mobile ad-hoc networks and sensors: First international workshop, MADNES 2005, Singapore, September 20-22, 2005
King, G. A. (1995). Understanding and designing computer networks. Oxford: Newness.
Smallwood, R. F. (2012). Safeguarding critical e-documents: Implementing a program for securing confidential information assets. New Jersey: John Wiey & Sons.
Traynor, P., McDaniel, P., & La Porta, T. (n.d). On attack causality in internet-connected cellular networks. USENIX Association, 16th USENIX Security Symposium. Retrieved from: https://www.usenix.org/legacy/event/sec07/tech/full_papers/traynor/traynor.pdf
Wright, C., Freedman, B., & Liu, D. (2008). The IT regulatory and standards compliance handbook: How to survive an information systems audit and assessments. Burlington, MA: Syngress Publishers.
Computer Games in School
Information Communications Technology has gone through incredible progress and expansion for a number of years because of progression and improvement. Consequently, tutors, scholars, policy makers even learners are expecting complete incorporation of PCs into the school core curriculum. Utilization of PCs in learning institutions is thought to spur learners in taking part in video games also. So as to get rid of the likelihood of learners taking part in more play than learning, decision makers as well as academics are looking for methods of including computer games in school so as for students to get entertained and learn simultaneously.
Games have been leisure for people for a long duration. This is chiefly because they are entertaining therefore, a preferred manner of utilizing their free and pastime whereas taking part in dynamic competition. With technology improvement, these games can now be enjoyed utilizing PCs with young kids joining school using more than 50% of their time on a PC playing video games. Accordingly, their school time is impacted which is portrayed in their marks and performance on physical accomplishments in school. Tutors and researchers are thus looking for means of incorporating these computer games in school core curriculum so as to make sure that learners play while learning.
Effects of Computer Games on Players
Computer games in school can affect the actors who are chiefly learners either constructively or destructively. Positive impacts incorporate action computer games in school improving the player’s visual-spatial abilities, educational video games educating the player’s special and particular skills as well as know-how and pro-social games amassing player’s comprehension whereas reducing their rate of hostility and anger. On the contrary, negative impacts comprise of amplified hostility, anger, conducts as well as thoughts, deteriorating school performance, impacting attention capabilities and addiction founded on a contrast on the amount of time used playing and learning or reading (Sara, Katelyn, Craig & Douglas, 2012, p.647).
So as to make sure student’s life does not impact their learning, it is wise to include computer games in school set of courses. Certain schools have by this time attempted utilizing these games in providing correspondence as well as investigational studies. The tutors have confirmed that the gaming exposure surges student’s performance in the course of visual chores as they enhance their response times as well as target localization. In addition, spatial attention as well as mental health enhances as a learner uses time undertaking PC games (Sara, Katelyn, Craig & Douglas, 2012, p.650).
These games can be assimilated in teaching biology, mathematics and reading skills. Canon, a company in U.S uses video games in training copier experts while Volvo educates car salespersons utilizing an online PC game. This in addition shows that computer games are essential in educating and growing reasoning and physical abilities amongst young learners as well as even utilized by adults in the working zones. Computer games for instance Bronkie the Bronchiasaurus were valued as helpful and endorsed for individuals looking forward to enhance self-care, know-how as well as educational performance for asthmatic kids (Sara, Katelyn, Craig & Douglas, 2012, p.652).
Leonard Annetta asserted that, Discover Babylon, a video game created by students from University of California holds correct scientific and historic data. Therefore, it can substitute learning by involving students in deciphering historical and scientific difficulties whereas growing their comprehension abilities. By networking with a PC whereas playing video games, learners get and enhance their reasoning abilities, mental capabilities, building of vibrant models useful in real world, improve their problem-resolving abilities as well as assess how trustworthy or credible source of data is prior to distributing it (Leonard, 2008, p.230).
Ben Williamson on the other hand asserts that, even though computer games in school is usable in education industry, there is no experimental evidence that students can academically merit from their assimilation in the school core curriculum (Ben, 2009, p.10). He conversely says that, video games are creators of know-how, authentic exercises, persuasive, as well as agents of media literacy and utilization of big ideas. Therefore, computer games in school should be included in schools for helpful as well as proficient provision of education whereas learners develop and improve their mental and reasoning abilities so as to turn into dependable and trustworthy adherents of the community (Ben, 2009, p.16).
This article utilized journal sources so as to concentrate on how PC games can be effectively included in the classroom by tutors so as to make sure learning is provided well and capably. The three articles talked about how technology development and improvement surged utilization of computer games in school could spur learners to take part more in learning as they play.
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Ben, W. (2009). Computer Games, Schools, and Young People, Futurelab Research and Development Programme.
Leonard, A. (2008).Video Games in Education: Why They Should be Used, Theory into Practice Journal, 47(1): 229-239.
Sara, P., Katelyn, M., Craig, A., & Douglas, G. (2012). Children, Adolescents and the Media: Video Games; Good, Bad, or Other? Iowa University, Department of Psychology, Elsevier.
Divorce is one of the main problems that have penetrated today’s society and has negative effects on societies economically, socially and psychologically especially for the parties involved. Economically, parties involved in divorce litigation which has financial implications and may ultimately cost the wealthier couples more when they have to divide their property. Socially, a person may be viewed as a failure especially if they go through more than one divorce. This may have psychological effects on such persons as they go through criticism and the pain of divorce. Additionally, where children are involved, they may suffer psychological toll after the divorce. Children may also exacerbate divorce legal battles as parents seek custody and this may result in the children choosing sides in certain cases. This can be psychologically tumultuous for the children and cause strain between parents. This can result in emotional, psychological and legal battles. Although in most cases women are given custody of children, there are instances where men are awarded custodial rights. This can cause devastation for the women and divorce can be even more complicated in same sex families.
Divorce has suddenly become a very important issue that needs to be urgently addressed because of the frequency with which divorce cases are occurring. The fact that divorce negatively affects children also makes it important for society to prevent it. According to statistics from the
U.S. Census Bureau, one in every two marriages end up in divorce (McCurley & McCurley 1). In the United States, the estimates of first marriages that end up in separation of divorce range between 40-50%. This estimate grows even larger to stand at 60% for second marriages (Hawkins & Fackrell 42). The past five decades have seen an escalation of divorce as compared to the 1970s and 1980s.
Regardless of the soaring rates of divorce, the importance of marriage cannot be overlooked especially considering that it has been attributed to increasing couple’s lifespan. McCurley & McCurley states that “married people live longer, suffer fewer health ailments, have higher net worth and are sexier than single people” (1). The need to stay married is not only for purposes of safeguarding the welfare of children in the picture but also enhancing the overall well-being of the couples involved. This makes it imperative for any forward-thinking society to foster lasting solutions that deal with divorce related concerns.
Professional help through marriage counseling is considered one of the plausible solutions that couples can take in a bid to salvage their marriage. During marriage counseling, the counselors usually assist the parties involved to explore the main causes of their problems and possible solutions to them. Marriage counselors often use their knowledge and understanding of human behavior and psychology to help couples resolve their problems and sustain their marriage. Through counseling, couples are given a platform for interacting with a neutral third party, in this case the counselor, who not only points out their individual weaknesses and wrongdoings, but also helps each one see the best in the other.
Any relationship and marriage in particular is a union between two people who mutually consented to being together. This makes it pertinent for these two parties to come up with effective solutions when their relationship or marriage encounters challenges. In most cases, problems arise when the couple stops communicating and spend more time with other people or pursuing parallel goals. This makes it essential for the couple to come up with tailored solutions that are fit for resuscitating their partnership. . It is therefore logical to say, “Your relationship will improve when you stop working at changing your mate and warmly allow your mate to be whoever they are” (McDonald & Jackson, 15). Couples can thus keep their marriage intact by accepting their partners as they are and working together.
While lack of commitment is one of the reasons why about 73% of couples divorce, sexual infidelity tops the list as the commonest cause for divorce (Hawkins & Fackrell 44). Lack of commitment may arise when couples ignore gaping problems in their union because of other commitments that consume their time and energy. Additionally, some couples tend to encounter this problem because they push aside the contentious issues in their marriage. Ultimately, failure to communicate stalls a relationship and reduces commitment between the parties. By working out their issues, couples can use communication as an important tool in resolving their differences (Amato & Previti 605).
In the face of a turbulent relationship, women will often be seen to be more vocal than the men because by nature, they observe their relationships more keenly (Amato & Previti 605). Men, on the other hand, often withdraw from conversation and avoid discussing the concerns in their relationships. This culminates into women initiating divorce procedures against them. On the other hand, males tend to withdraw from discussions concerning relationships, and the more reason why women initiate divorce. Open communication is therefore the best way for working through marriage problems and avoiding divorce. Even though consulting with third parties such as marriage counselors may offer viable solutions, the longer lasting solutions are those that are initiated by the couple after intimate discussions and mutual agreements. Third parties may also not receive support from both couples and hence their solutions may not be viable in every marriage.
Lac of communication between married couples is viewed as extremely dangerous as it creates loopholes for other factors such as infidelity, which may lead to divorce. Infidelity being the number one cause for divorce is perceived differently by the sexes. Whereas women feel that emotional infidelity is wrong, men perceive sexual infidelity as negative. According to research, 71% of unfaithful men and 49% of unfaithful women state that infidelity arises as a result of ineffective communication concerning sexual needs between couples (Norhtrup et al).
In order to avoid divorce, couples must endeavor to work things out by committing to each other and communicating openly about their concerns in the relationship. Research shows that most divorcees wished they would have resolved their differences and avoided divorce. Even though infidelity is a major cause for divorce, lack of commitment is the main reason why couples fail to resolve their differences. Despite the importance of marriage counselling in helping couples resolve their problems, a marriage can only be saved when the couple involved decides to communicate and work through their differences together.
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