Armada is a popular Spanish word for a fleet. In 1588, the most fortunate fleet in Spain, the la felicissima armada, made up of 150 Spanish, Portuguese and Naples ships was made. This was the largest fleet of the time across Europe and it was considered invincible by Phillip II of Spain. A description of the fleet was later published in Europe with a main goal of spreading fear amongst the enemies of Spain.
Planning of the Armada Campaign
Planning of the Armada campaign was done by King Phillip II of Spain. He came up with the plan as he intended to sail with his army and navy up the English Channel. The group of about 30,000 men wanted to link up with forces in the Spanish Netherlands led up by the Duke of Parma. They also planned to invade England and spread Catholicism across the region.
Why invade England
King Phillip II had different reasons for invading England. He wanted to put an end to religious differences between the two countries, expansion in the new world of Americans and competition for trade in the region. These were his major reasons among others.
Mary queen of Scots and claim over the rule of England
As a child, Mary had been brought up in a catholic background in France but returned to Scotland to rule. Her grandmother was the sister of Henry VIII and after she suspected that there was a plot to kill her husband Lord Darnley, she fled to England and was imprisoned for 18yrs. This is because Queen Elizabeth feared any plots against her throne.
In 1586, Mary Queen of Scots was executed sending shivers across Catholic Europe. This is an event that also added up to the reasons as to why King Phillip II wanted to invade England in a bid to avenge the killing of the queen.
King Phillip also wanted to help sea beggars and by invading England, he would easily achieve his goals. The Sea Beggars was a small group of noblemen Protestants determined to drive Spanish out of Netherlands. They led a revolt against Spanish occupation under the leadership of William and later on his son Justin of Nassau after his father died.
During the resign of Mary I of England, Sailor Sir Francis Drake enraged King Phillip. It is during the same period that England expanded its trade activities in 1560s and 1570s while building a strong navy. Francis Drake therefore joined the navy as a very young boy and made his name by attacking different treasure ships sailing from America to Spain.
However, his daring act was in 1586 when he set alight Spanish ships in Cadiz harbor with an aim to singe the King of Spain’s beard. This angered King Phillip and added up to his reasons to invade England. He then established a strong superiority navy under the Spanish Armada to spread Catholicism in England.
The Duke of Medina Sidonia was elected the commander of the great Armada and on board, was army soldiers ready to invade England. They fought a fierce battle before and during a stormy weather that destroyed many ships. 65 out of 150 ships in the Armada returned to Lisbon.
Getting Started: What is an expository essay outline?
What is an expository essay outline? It is a roadmap showing key elements and sections of an expository essay. At this point, it is equally important to define an expository essay. This is an essay explaining a specific subject in-depth and details concise opinions of other people on the same issue. An expository essay outline may also be a report. Unlike other essay papers, the main purpose of an expository essay is to furnish the reader with facts about the subject matter. You may also describe this type of essay as a coalition of facts and opinions.
To put together a good expository essay, you need well-researched facts to convince your audience that you have a mastery of the subject. It is not easy, but with this manual, you should become an expository expert in any field.
This handout contains the following:
- Drafting an Expository essay outline
- How to write an expository essay
- Elements of a good expository essay
- Mistakes to avoid when working on your essay outline
- Selected examples of expository essay outlines
Are you ready? Let us get started…
What is an expository essay outline and how do you draft one?
Crafting a winning expository essay can turn out to be a tasking assignment that will leave you drained and cursing your course. However, it can also be your favorite homework if you understand the basics of expositions.
Unlike in general essays, expository writing takes a format, which you have to adhere to when working on your paper. To organize your ideas logically, you need an outline for your paper. This begs the question; what is an expository essay outline? In simple words, it is a skeleton of your expository work.
Here is what should appear in your expository essay outline:
- Start with a hook to pique your audience
- Give the background of your subject
State your thesis
- Body paragraphs
- Flesh out your paper with research evidence
- Support every issue to make it valid
- Achieve smooth transitions between paragraphs
- Restate your thesis
- Reveal significance of the issue
- Challenge your audience
We shall expound on these elements in other sections of this handout. Keep reading…
The golden rules of expository essay writing
To write a professional expository paper, here are three principles to always remember and apply whenever you are working on your assignments.
Have clear facts – as you gather details from other sources, present your work accurately such that the content of your paper does not conflict the published facts of the original articles. Do not deform the meaning of anything but focus on emphasizing the source.
Back your analysis – Use the information from different sources to affirm your position. You achieve this by reviewing literature or scanning what different writers have published before you embark on your expository assignment.
Do not give surprise conclusions. Link your analysis and the conclusions you make to enhance logical flow of ideas and prevent losing your audience on the way. Never leave the reader to imagine what you meant when you have the chance to make clarifications.
With these golden rules, what is an expository essay outline should not bother you anymore. Reflect on the rules even as you examine the following example of an outline:
Example #1: Expository Essay Outline
The following is an example of an expository essay outline. Examine it, putting emphasis on the key elements of the outline:
- Start with the hook
- Give background information
- State your thesis
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Fact 1+Evidence
- Fact 2+Evidence
- Summary of thesis statement
- State the main significance
- Bring out pending questions
This is a good expository essay outline. From the example, the introduction, body and the conclusion form the basis of the essay. You may view the entire piece by visiting kibin.com.
With the above example and the introductory sections, let us focus at some of the elements of an expository in details.
The key elements that define an expository essay
As you prepare to work on your expository essay, always remember that exposition requires you to tailor your argument. Though you may begin with personal ideas, you need evidence from authentic sources to convince your readers.
In some cases, your instructor will assign you a topic to work on. Alternatively, he or she may give you the freedom to choose own topic. Whichever the case, a mastery of the following components is vital as you reflect on what is an expository essay outline.
Ideally, an expository essay follows the standard format of an ordinary essay. You will have an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. In terms of the length, stick to your instructor’s rules. However, expository essays take a five-paragraph format.
The first paragraph is your introduction where you orient the reader. Using a hook, grab their attention and proceed to give them a reason to read on. The intro also gives contextual formation about the topic and concludes with a thesis statement.
The second, third and fourth paragraph form the body of your essay. Here, prove to the reader that you did a meticulous research by fleshing your essay using support materials. Use topic sentence to introduce every new idea and maintain smooth transition between the ideas.
Your last paragraph is the conclusion. Do a summary of the issue, reveal its significance and include a call to action by challenging your audience to act. In case your paper is long, you will need more arguments to solidify body paragraphs.
Thesis statement is probably one of the elements that cut across all written assignments. It gives bearing, and direction to your paper. A good thesis statement will act a backbone of your essay. In exposition, your thesis statement carries your main idea. Build a holistic thesis that does not depend on your opinions but rhymes your evidence.
Use the body of your essay to support your thesis statement. Remember that in a 5-paragrah essay, you will need three arguments, backed with undisputable evidence.
Do you now understand what is an expository essay outline? To drive these points, take a look at the following example:
Example #2: Expository Essay Outline
A. Attention grabber-HOOK.
C. Thesis statement– state your position on the issue
- Body Paragraph 1: First Point
- Follow the map of your thesis statement and discuss the first point.
- Give evidence to support and expand your first point
- Briefly introduce second point for smooth transition
Body Paragraph 2: Second Point
- Follow the map of your thesis statement and discuss the second point.
- Give evidence to support and expand your second point and make it valid
- Briefly introduce the counter augment as you transit into the conclusion
- recognize the opposing views plus evidence
- negate the counterarguments
- Use a call to action to drive your point and close the discussion
Do not introduce new information to the conclusion
Revise and edit your essay.
This is another excellent example to help you understand what is an expository essay outline. You can view the en tire outline by visiting www.wdeptford.k12.nj.us.
Remember that this is not the only format. Be flexible and ready to adjust to a new format depending on the essay instructions.
Final ideas to help you understand what an expository essay outline is:
To write an excellent expository essay, employ the following nuggets:
Select a topic. Pick a good topic, which is interesting, arguable and manageable. Avoid too broad or too narrow topics.
Draft your thesis. Have a statement that controls your ideas. Ensure that you support this statement to the letter.
Select your method of develop. Flip through all the methods and choose that which serve your thesis.
Organize your essay. Ensure that your ideas flow logically and with clarity.
With these ideas, what is an expository essay outline should no longer pose a challenge when handling writing assignments.
Example #3: Expository Essay outline
Topic I. _________________________________________________
Subtopic A. ___________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
Subtopic B. ___________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
Subtopic C. ___________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
Subtopic D. __________________________________________
Supporting details 1. ______________________________________
From this example, you can see important elements that will give a fantastic expository essay. Notably, you must provide evidence on every point you give to make it valid. You can view the entire outline by visiting www.valdosta.edu.
Make this handout your daily companion and become a super writer… all the best.
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Russian Revolution Timeline
The Russian revolution was an event that will forever remain in the history of the nation. It was marked with lots of activities that have been documented over the years. This paper highlights some of the most dramatic and significant events that took place during the Russian revolution and how they occurred over time.
It is believed by many that the genesis of the Russian Revolution can be traced back to 1894 when Czar Nicholas was crowned to assume the seat of power. After the death of Alexander III, Nicholas became the new leader. One year later, Lenin’s brother; Vladmir Lenin is thrown into exile after being arrested on grounds that he was planning to assassinate Nicholas for power. He was kept in confinement for one year and one month then exiled to Siberia for 36 months.
In 1903, the Russian Social Democrat Party holds a meeting; however, the meeting does not turn out so well. The people are split into two factions with some throwing their support over Lenin while others a different leader. Among the two groups, there were those who identified themselves as the majority (Bolsheviks) and others as the minority (Mensheviks).
In 1905, a revolution breaks out in St. Petersburg. However, it does not last for long before being put off by Czar Nicholas. The revolution was triggered by Tsarist troops that opened fire on peaceful demonstrators at St. Petersburg. This was followed by a general strike across Russia. Referred to as the Bloody Sunday, the revolution came to a close when Nicholas promised the people a constitution.
In 1914, World War I breaks out and Nicholas is forced to take charge of commanding the Russian army in order to protect his country from the devastation presented by the war. Two years later, reports surface of the death of Rasputin. Having been introduced to the aristocracy 12 years ago, many Russians did not like him.
In February 1917, another revolution begins. The people refused to report to work and took to the streets in protest of Nicholas’ rule. Many were unhappy with the way he governed the country, thus, took to the streets to express their anger. One month later, Czar Nicholas tries to step down in favor of his brother but the later refuses. In July, Lenin comes back from exile and tries to take over the temporary government formed by Russian aristocrats but fails retreats to hiding.
In October 1917, Lenin succeeds in taking over the government. He splits the Russian Social Democrat Labor party and creates his own before taking control of Russia. In 1918, he signs a treaty to pull Russia out of WWI. Later in the year, he had arranged and had Czar Nicholas and his family killed.
In March 1918, Lenin changes the name of his political party to the Communist Party. Four years later, he would join hands with Joseph Stalin after establishing the United Soviet Socialists Republic. The two worked together in imposing communist policies on the people. In 1924, Vladmir Lenin passes on leaving Joseph Stalin to take over the throne. Stalin would go on to rule Russia using communist ideologies for several years to come.
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The Long March
The Long March started in 1934 October and lasted till 1935 October. It was the most historic six thousand miles journey by the Red Army which was China’s Communist Party. It wasn’t just one Long March rather, a series of marches as Communist armies made an escape to the West and North. Eighty thousand soldiers were part of the walk but roughly, only eight thousand or nine thousand made it through the trek. At the end of the trek a Communist base was established in Yan’an and the March became the focal point of events in the mythology of Chinese revolutionary.
The march that is best known was the one from the province of Jiangxi which commenced in 1934 October. At that time, the First Front Army was close to annihilation by troops belonging to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek’s troops all this within their stronghold because the army was led by a military commission that was inexperienced. Under Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai leadership, the communists managed to escape in a retreat to the north and west. They walked for nine thousand kilometers in three hundred and seventy days. The route used by the communists was the trickiest terrain in west China as they first traveled west then later North finding their way to Shaanxi.
The commencement of the March was after Mao Zedong ascension to power. The leadership of Zadong at the time of retreat helped him gain support from party members. The March was a bitter struggle and one that only one-tenth of the army managed to complete. It represented a significant chapter in history of Communist party and sealed the prestige of Mao as well as his supporters in the decades that followed. However, it is important to note the role of Mao is a disputed one with many claiming his role was not just exaggerated but that certain events were completely fabricated.
After making an escape from the Chiang encirclement, it became obvious to leaders of the party that the intention of Chiang was interception of what still remained of Red Army hence they had to make reconsiderations regarding the route the army should take. They made a rendezvous plan with the aim of joining Hunan’s He Long’s army.
Mao was the one who made the suggestion the Red Army should change direction and head towards Guizhou where he believed defenses of the enemy would be weak. To make the decision on which direction the Red Army should follow, on 12th December, 1934 a meeting was convened at Tongdao which was close to the Guizhou and Hunan border. The proposal made by Mao was endorsed by Zhou thus overruling objections raised by Braun and Bo.
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Spanish American War
Spanish American war was the conflict between Spain and US which led to the end of Spanish colonial rule and acquisition of new territories in Latin America and Western Pacific. The war was as a result of independence struggle by Cuban which commenced in 1895 February. Numerous sensational newspapers graphically portrayed repressive, brutal measures exercised by Spain increasing the level of sympathy Americans had for rebels.
The calls for demand that the US should intervene increased after USS Maine battleship was sunk in Havana harbor. The battleship was mandated with the task of protecting United States citizens as well as their property after the breakout of anti-Spanish riots. An inquiry that was carried out by the Navy declared inaccurately that the vessel was damaged by a mine. In the attack, two hundred and sixty six Navy men lost their lives while 2 high rankled soldiers lost their lives as well.
Within weeks after Maine sinking, intelligence operatives moved to intercept a letter between the ambassador to Spain that was directed to the US and friend in Havana. The letter was a disparagement of the United States president McKinley and intimidated on plans of sabotage against property held by Americans in Cuba. Several newspapers made publications of the letter and this served to further agitate public opinion. On 19th, April, 1898 Spanish rule was brought to an end by congress.
The declaration of war on the US by Spain was made following the United States war declaration on 25th. This was retroactive to 21st April. The war that ensued afterwards was pitifully one sided because Spain had not prepared its army or the navy for war with a power that was quite formidable like the US. On 1st May, 1898, a squadron was led to Manila Bay in Philippines by George Dewey destroying a fleet that was anchored there in a leisurely engagement leaving 7 American seamen severely injured. By August, Manila was under the occupation of United States troops.
The Spanish Caribbean fleet, that was quite elusive and under the rule of Pascual Cervera was spotted in Cuba’s Santiago harbor, by the United States reconnaissance. Under General William Shafter a regular troop’s army and some volunteers landed on the Santiago East coast and advanced towards the city in a bid of forcing the fleet of Cervera from the harbor. The fleet was decimated though the US did not sustain any losses. The Spanish also surrendered to the Philippines but the fleet of the US remained and commenced on a campaign that would acquire the island as a territory of the United States. The conflict that ensued afterwards lasted till 1914.
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Effects of Euro Zone Crisis on South Africa
The euro zone crisis posed a serious and real threat to South Africa’s economy. By January 2013, South Africa businesses had estimated a loss of US$ 15 billion in revenue because of the crisis. With 4 out of every 10 businesses affected on a global scope, there was an increase in the number of businesses that chose to make investment elsewhere.
An International Business report that was published by Grant Thornton’s estimated that the crisis wiped out $ 2trillion off revenues on a global scope and the effect would have a long term effects for EU business prospects which in turn would choose to carry out less trade in the country.
Towards the end of November 2011, 505 of finance professionals in South Africa felt the euro crisis had impacted their businesses negatively while another 28% claimed they expected their businesses to get affected by the crisis.
The crisis still poses a serious threat to the economy and the most optimistic Europe scenario translates to bad news for the country’s trade with Europe. The possibility of South Africa benefiting from Euro trade is therefore dampened unless there is employment of new growth strategies and alternate trade partners found.
At least a third of manufactured exports from South Africa are purchased by European countries. This means that the economy is heavily dependent on the European countries and though there are slight improvements noted in the euro zone economy, it is likely that recession will continue. This is especially true in the face of tightened bank lending conditions and widespread fiscal austerity. It is because of reasons such as these that the demand for exports from South Africa by European countries will continue to go down.
The expanding economies of Asia are however providing a source of demand for local exports from South Africa. Though this is the case, the demand is of raw materials and commodities rather than manufactured goods and this has also put a strain on South Africa’s manufacturing industry.
While the South Africa government has faced all these challenges, it has proven that it is willing to take the necessary actions needed to cushion its economy from the economic slowdown experienced globally. It has put in place national budget and policies that are geared towards creation of an environment that is conducive to allow growth of the economy.
However, for the plans to be effective there is need to put in place greater controls on government spending in order to ensure funds are used effectively.
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Importance of Procurement Management In Public Sector
Procurement is applied so as to increase the profitability of a given organisation. Profit in this context is not necessarily defined in monetary terms. Procurement in the public sector entails streamlining processes, reducing the prices and costs of raw material and finding better supply sources. This function of reducing the bottom line is placed in the docket of high executives in the public sector. The executive board is responsible with handling procurement functions in the public sector.
Perhaps the fact that the procurement function at an organisation is in the job description of a selected few is why it is one department that is mostly marred by corruption. Especially in the public sector, it is common to find that money exchanges hands in order for the procurement process to go in the favour of particular people. This is normally a source of a lot of conflict in most organisations. However, when handled in the proper way, procurement management normally works to the advantage of the organisation and its clients.
Since there are no stakeholders passé when we are looking at procurement management in the public sector, it is necessary to focus on the gross output. In this case the public sector can come up with strategies to maximise this output. For example they can focus on training their staff in order to make them more efficient and in the long run make their services better and hence improve their output.
The stakeholders at the public sector level are the taxpayers. The finds that the public sector carries out its functions with is basically gotten from the taxpayers. The taxpayers therefore expect that the public sector will carry out all its functions accordingly and be accountable. Procurement management procedures are done according to the law of the land and high levels of transparency and accountability are applied. For example, issuing of government tenders normally follows an elaborate procedure. The companies awarded such tenders have to meet certain criteria that are already described by law. This structured procurement management wards off a lot of disputes and even court charges on the claim that the taxpayers’ funds are being misused or unfairly distributed.
The law of the law also greatly affects how all other functions of procurement management are undertaken. For example, these functions lie in the docket of procurement officers in a given sector. Government officials are not supposed to influence these processes in any way. Using their political influence control the procurement functions is illegal. Therefore, proper procurement management ensures fairness, openness and accountability in the public sector. When a truly deserving company is issued a tender then the public sector flourishes because they will not be paying high prices for substandard services or goods.
In a sense, procurement management in the public sector is important because it ensures that the sector is getting value for money.
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Infant Mortality in Africa and America
Infant mortality refers to the deaths that occur during infancy and especially in the first year of life. Infant mortality rate varies from one continent to another. In essence, infant mortality rate is the widely used health status of a country and it is helpful when it comes to international comparisons. Africa and America are two widely known continents that have high infant mortality rates and there are few similarities and differences that come up when looking at this issue.
Globally, infant mortality rate has declined between 1960 and 2001 in both less developed countries [LDCs] and more in developed countries MDCs]. In both Africa and America, this has been possible due to the health and mortality reduction initiatives in each continent. In 2008, America ranked 29th globally in infant mortality according to CDC reports. The report further stated that nearly seven babies in U.S die out of 1000 live births and this is more than 28, 000 American babies who die before their first birthday. When it comes to Africa, a report by WHO showed that 63 per 1000 live births occurred in many parts of Africa. This rate was six times higher than in the American regions.
Globally, the infant mortality rate has decreased from an estimated rate of 63 deaths per 1000 live births in 1990 to 35 deaths per 1000 live births in 2012. In the case of American, birth defects and low birth weight were cited as the leading causes of increased infant mortality. This was a survey conducted by National Center for Health Statistics. Babies born to teenage mothers were the most likely to weight too little as report said.
In the United States for instance, an infant is counted if she or he exhibits any sign of life as alive regardless of the month of gestation. It also differs when it comes to African. The American rates of infant mortality were due to high rates of premature babies as compared to other European countries. Other factors that were termed to lead to high rates of infant mortality included obesity or poor prenatal care.
In the case of Africa, infant mortality is inversely related to war, corruption in health related institutions and political unrest. In most cases, war has been the key cause of increased infant mortality in Africa. A war that takes place where a woman is planning to have a baby is quite stressful. Such a case does not affect the woman, but also the fetus. Countries such as Somalia, Angola, and democratic republic of Congo have all reported high cases of infant mortality.
The good news in both infant mortality cases in Africa and America [South and North America] every nation is trying hard to reduce the infant mortality rate. The establishment of the Millennium Development Goals [MDGs] is one of the great initiatives aimed towards reducing infant mortality. Unfortunately, Africa is not likely to meet the goals by 2015. WHO is also focused on reducing the effects of malaria, HIV/AIDS and provide family planning solutions.
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Association Rule Learning
Definition of association rule learning
Association rule learning is a technique used to discover underlying relationships in a large repository of information found in a relational database. It is used mostly by businesses to determine the relationships between their sales, supplies, employees and clientele among other things. Most association rules are made in formulaic or statement form. For instance if a client purchases eggs and bread, they are 80% likely to purchase milk as well.
In association rule learning, association rules are usually split into two:
- An antecedent (if) which is found in the data
- A consequent (then) which is found after combining the antecedent with a particular item
Useful concepts in Association Rule Learning
The association rules are created through analysis of data in order to determine frequent “if/then” relationships. There are some vital concepts that are normally used to determine the most important frequent relationships:
- Support – this is an indicator of the frequency with which particular items appear within the repository or relational database. It measures the significance of a particular data set or variable. It also helps to eliminate or prune the items that appear infrequently from the database and hence narrow down the variable-relationship search. The main downside of this concept is that it can prune out important items from the data set especially if they appear less frequently.
- Confidence – this is an indicator of the number of times the “if/then” relationships deduced have been confirmed as true. It is also called strength and data derived from support calculations is used to determine the confidence. The downside of confidence as a concept is that it is calculated in such a way that any consequents which have support levels will automatically have high confidence regardless of whether the items involved have minimum or maximum association.
- Conviction – this is a concept that was developed with the aim of accurately capturing the directions of associations between items. Since confidence failed to take into account the accuracy of the associations, the conviction would do so by taking into account information regarding the absence of the consequent.
- Leverage – this concept measures the difference of the units appearing together in order to determine which independent variables can still be categorized together as an antecedent and consequent.
- Lift – this concept determines the probability that two variables would co-occur even if they were independent statistically.
Importance of association rule learning
Association rule learning is a subject that has been extensively researched and written about. It is important in different fields and has been used in the following areas:
- Businesses use association rules to predict customer behavior and shopping patterns.
- Association rules are used in shopping basket data analysis which is commonly done by supermarkets and chain stores.
- It also helps in product clustering and positioning especially for products that have high association levels.
- Association rules are used in designing catalogs in accordance with the preferences and tastes of a targeted clientele.
- These rules can also be used in store layouts and designs.
- In programming, the association rules are used in building programs that have machine learning abilities.
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Factors Affecting Hatchability of Eggs
The success of the poultry industry depends on how an entrepreneur or famer is determined and focuses on excelling in the field. Moreover, it all depends on a regular supply of day-old chicks a process that is impacted by the fertility and hatchability of the eggs. All is not well in egg production and when it comes to hatchability of eggs. There are both genetic and environmental factors that influence this process. Understanding these factors will make it easy to succeed in all scales of egg production.
Hatching of eggs is the production of baby chicks. Different methods have been embraced on how to hatch eggs. Decades ago, eggs were hatched by placing them under broody hens. About ten to twelve eggs were placed under one hen to hatch. This method of hatching eggs has not been effective for vast baby chick production. Today, for better and increased hatching of eggs, Incubators are the best method to go for.
Incubators are the vital equipment that makes the hatchery process easy and successful. Many types of incubators are available in the market, but you should always go for the best, although the principle of all modern machines for commercial egg hatching is the same. Incubators can occupy a capacity of approximately 14,000 to 100, 000 eggs. Nevertheless, the egg hatching process cannot be successful if a number of factors impacting the hatchability of eggs are not put into consideration. They include;
- Temperature- The hatching eggs must be kept at temperatures of 25 to 30BC before setting. Normal development of the embryo depends on the heat being held within the incubator. A still-air incubator should be operated at a higher heat than the forced-draft incubator. A temperature of 39BC should be considered to produce good hatching results. In essence, high temperatures at any time of incubation period will led to more harm than lower temperatures.
- Humidity- It is the amount of moisture in the incubator at any given temperature. The amount of humidity in the incubator will control the rate of evaporation from the set eggs that depends on air speed, heat, shell thickness and the size of the eggs. Too much moisture loss from the incubated egg will lead to death of the embryo. For correct amount of humidity in the incubator, it is wise to enlarge the air cells or consider the weight loss of the eggs.
- Ventilation- Free movement of air, water vapor, oxygen and carbon dioxide through the pore of the egg shells is vital for incubation. The developing embryo should be able to breathe well.
- Turning and position of the incubated eggs- In small incubators ,the eggs should be maintained in a horizontal position during the process while in large incubators, eggs should be placed in a vertical position. In addition, in small incubators, eggs are moved when turned while in large incubators, eggs remain in a stationary position and turned via an angle not less than 90 in opposite direction. The positioning and turning process of hatching eggs helps prevent the embryo from sticking to the egg shell membranes while turning makes it easy to complete contact of the embryonic membranes with food material in the egg.
- Hygiene- Hatching eggs should be clean and stored in neat containers in the sanitary room. Contaminated eggs do not hatch and their poor quality is reflected on the chicks if they hatch.
Other factors affecting hatchability of eggs are egg selection and candling, improper fumigation, egg handling and toxicity to name but a few. Hatchability of eggs requires a lot of efforts. The process can be demanding and costly. Thus, it is wise to pay attention and seek help if having any doubts or complications in the egg hatching procedure depending on the method that you go for. Veterinarian assistance will never disappoint and will guarantee better yields and income.
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Capitalist Democracy and Democratic Capitalism
Capitalist democracy defines the rights that are exercised in the market or social setting in the use, abuse, exchange, and output, along with the inhabitation of resources, properties, and property rights. Therefore, capitalist democracy regulates the equal achievement of degrees between economic powers and political powers. A government that embraces capitalist democracy is, thus, a state that adopts a systematic manifestation of private property rights in the way that citizens use their resources, properties, and other available opportunities, in full knowledge of the adverse social impacts (Maria 2).
On the other hand, democratic capitalism refers to states that have embraced capitalism through political parties. In such countries, people are expected to publicly show the interest in owning properties and resources, while in full enjoyment of their rights. Those who embrace capitalist democracy are mainly political parties that pretend to not care much about the necessary measures of poverty eradication. Thus, it is clear that the government places limitations on economic and political powers among the citizens, organizations and corporations. This is done while also making sure that citizens who contribute handsomely to the economy get the most benefits, while the rest are left with just enough capital and resources to ensure that they are able to sustain themselves on a daily basis (Maria 4).
Capitalist democracy is therefore, better since it accords the people the power to grow without discrimination but based on their contributions to the economy. This ensures that all people are empowered politically, economically and socially in equal measures so as to sustain their daily lives. In the US, it can be said that the country is practicing democratic capitalism. This is because of the fact that the country has social classes like the lower, middle and upper classes. On the contrary, organizations compete in order to acquire political influence and favors for social, economic and political gains so as to remain in control. Therefore, America cannot be included in the list of countries that are looking towards achieving equality between economic and political powers.
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Maria, Qassim. Democracy and Capitalism: Clash of Ideologies, Theory, Policy, and Practice Development Studies, 2011
Masculinities and Femininities
The roles that the society endows a woman or a man and the roles that women and men are considered to undertake distinguish them. The presence of the testosterone hormone among other physical attributes is what gives manhood a definition. Other defining characters include the traditional status of a man being the head of his family, aggressive nature, catering for the needs of the family including shelter, clothing and food among other needs that are necessary for a family’s existence. Being a woman on the other hand entails possessing feminine characters as well as playing feminine roles. Women naturally have feminine reproductive organs. Women are traditionally considered to be caring, tender-hearted and submissive.
Among the words that are used in describing men include caring, gorgeous, and handsome. Women are described using adjectives that include sexy, charming, beautiful and seductive among others. An ideal woman or man has these good qualities without a fault. As such, finding an ideal human being is impossible because in some ways, everybody has a fault.
The applicable expectations for women in today’s society include their collective responsibility. This is because both women and men have been made equal by justice and equality. As such, the expectation of the contemporary society is that a woman should be considerate, sensitive and hardworking. On the other hand, the contemporary society expects men to be hardworking, caring, loving and gentle. There is a variation in these expectations when compared with those of the older generations since the traditional society had distinct duties and roles for women and men. However, these duties and roles are not distinct in the modern society. The law takes both genders equally.
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Technology and Communication
The technology and communication field has undergone rapid changes with developments in certain technological innovations and advancements. Cloud computing is a new modernization trend in the sector of technology and communication and has expanded since it was incepted in 2007 (Zissis, 2010). Cloud computing is technology that is web based that makes it possible for data to be managed and hosted over real time communication network or the Internet mainly for business and personal applications. The technology and communication has been adopted by numerous professionals especially in communication and technology for purposes of keeping at par with the new era of technology changes. The technology is also considered as secure, cost effective as well as suitable to companies that have invested in technology such as Amazon and Google (Winkler, 2011). However, the ever increasing use of cloud computing by various firms comes with uncertainties in relation to the existing application of IT majorly in communication. There are numerous benefits and disadvantages related to cloud computing technology, its concerns and risks as well as future potential on if organizations should use or adopt the technology and communication.
The technology of cloud computing is effective in application and eliminates the need to invest in expensive and stand-alone servers or software over a network. By leveraging on the capabilities of cloud computing, organizations effectively save licensing fees, get rid of overhead charges and save time which includes data storage cost, management and updating software. Usually, the cloud is availed at rates that are considerably lower when compared to conventional approached since the technology lovers overall expenses of IT according to Gulrajani and Bowler (2009). For example, the technology is scalable and convenient with emergence of payment models like pay-as-you-go and one-time payments which make cloud computing far more attractive (Gens, 2008). Consequently, cloud computing makes it possible for firms to be more analytical and technical since the technology delivers cash flow that is enhanced by eliminating capital expense that is associated with development and maintenance of server infrastructure. It also simplifies data back-up process and recovery since the data in the cloud is not on a physical device (Zissis 2010). Due to this, several cloud solutions offer a flexible and reliable data back-up and data recovery resolution.
Cloud computing is also known to offer convenience and continued availability throughout the world since public clouds offer services easily available anywhere to end users regardless of where they are located. The technology also makes it possible for individuals to access information easily as well as accommodate the increasing need of users in different geographic locations or zones (Gens, 2008). Therefore, this allows real time collaboration as it becomes less difficult to view, modify and access shared files and documents over the Internet. Additionally, services uptime if often guaranteed since it provides continued resource availability. This is due to the fact that majority of cloud vendors use multiple services in order to ensure there is maximum redundancy and in instances of system failure, alternative servers automatically switch over. According to Winkler (2011), the deployment of cloud computing is often established on a robust architecture. This therefore provides redundancy and resiliency to users. Such ability also offers automatic fail-over between hardware platforms while also ensuring there is effective service for disaster recovery. Additionally, according to Gulrajani and Bowler (2009), cloud computing also ensures there is easy access of quick system integration and deployment. A system for cloud computing can simply be up and running within a short duration quick deployment with automatic integration of software.
Cloud technology additionally offers increased capacity of storage for businesses and applications. The cloud application and system can store and accommodate more data in comparison with computers since they offer unlimited storage capacity. As such this effectively eliminates worries regarding the possibility of running out of storage space. This also spares businesses the requirement of upgrading computer hardware for storage thus reducing general Information Technology costs (Gulrajani & Bowler, 2009). Additionally, cloud computing as well ensures effective performance and scalability for business and personal applications. Consequently for instance, cloud instances are often deployed automatically whenever they are needed. Businesses therefore will pay for the data storage and applications space they need. Additionally, cloud computing as well ascertains elasticity simply because cloud technology can be effectively scaled in order to meet the changing demands of technology and communication. In regard to performance, the cloud system uses distributed architectures that offer excellent computation speeds. According to (Zissis) 2010, cloud computing system also involves small learning curves for people as well as businesses. The applications also entail smaller learning curves since people are indirectly or quietly used to them and what is more, users also easily adopt them like Google Docs and Gmail.
Privacy and security are often the main concerns in regard to cloud computing services. By leveraging an infrastructure that is cloud based, organizations in actuality give away private information and data which is highly confidential and sensitive. Providers of cloud service are tasked with the management, protection and detainment of critical data. Therefore, it is crucial that cloud providers should be reliable (Anthens, 2010). The existence of the organizations can be jeopardized and as such all the possible alternatives should be explored before a decision is made o on whether to use cloud computing. In the same manner, end users might also feel unwilling or uncomfortable about surrendering their data easily to a third party. According to Winkler (2011), when it comes to cloud computing, privacy is a major issue as such, users and firms are supposed to trust their vendors will protect their data in appropriate manners and ensure the same is not accessed by unauthorized users.
Usually, cloud computing services are faced with technical as well as downtime difficulties. Because of this, most organizations cannot effectively deal with cloud computing service vendors who often experience downtime and technical difficulties. However, over time, all systems can face system dysfunctions and outages as well as downtime even in cases of excellent cloud providers. Additionally, Anthens (2010) argues the entire cloud computing setup is dependent on ideal Internet access and challenges in connectivity or network renders the entire setup useless. Gulrajani and Bowler as well mention that services of cloud computing offer limited flexibility and control (2009). Given cloud services and applications run in third party or remote virtual environments, users and organizations in most instances have limited control over the software and hardware functions as well as execution. In addition, because remote server and software are used in cloud computing, usually the system lacks most of the features if applications that run locally (Gens, 2008).
Another drawback of cloud computing is its absolute dependency on the provider which often results to vendor lock-in. Vendor lock-in often leads to instances where organizations are unable to migrate from their providers once they begin using their services (Gens, 2008). For example, if a user wants to switch to another alternative cloud provider, it is really cumbersome and difficult since there is massive data to be moved from their existing cloud provider to a new one. Consequently, this has proven to be the reason why organizations and people as a whole need to exercise caution and thoroughly consider options while selecting a vendor. Usually, cloud computing is prone to vulnerability since solutions that are cloud based are exposed to public Internet as such, they suffer severe attacks as well as other breaches of security. On top of this due to the inter-dependency of the system, once the data machine is compromised, then vital business and personal information is easily leaked.
To conclude, cloud computing (Web-based technology) is a considerably new trend of modernization in communication and technology sector that has expanded considerably since inception. The technology is viewed as secure, cost effective as well as appropriate to organizations already investing in technology like Amazon and Google. However, the ever increasing application of the technology by different organizations poses some uncertainties in relation application of information technology like issues with privacy and security, technical difficulties, limited flexibility and control, downtime and technical difficulties as well as instances of vendor lock-in. Despite these drawbacks, cloud computing is in the infant stage and it has a large application potential for the future as well as the possibility of additionally research been carried out in order to mitigate the shortcoming associated with the service.
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