The Ontological argument is an argument for God’s existence based entirely on reason. According to the argument, there is no need to wander around looking for physical evidence of the existence of God; we can easily work out that he exists just by thinking about it. Ontological argument purports to be an a priori proof of the existence of God. The argument was first proposed by St Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century. His main aim was to refute claims by some people that God does not exist. In his view, the atheist is not just mistaken but internally inconsistent.
St Anselm in his proposition of the ontological argument claimed to have derived the existence of God from the concept of being than which no greater can be conceived. He reasoned that, in case such a being fails to exist, then a greater being –namely, a being than which no greater can be conceived, and which exists- can be conceived. However, this would be absurd in that, nothing can be greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived. Thus, a being than which no greater can be conceived- i.e. God exists.
The ontological argument asserts that that idea by some people that God does not exist is just as absurd as the idea that a four-sided triangle does. According to the argument, we can easily tell that the claim that God does not exist is false without having to look into it in any detail. The claim that God does not exist is self contradictory. The argument further points out that, to call something that is not all-powerful God would be like calling a shape that does not have three sides a triangle, which would not make any sense.
According to the ontological argument, God is perfect and all-powerful. If something is perfect, then it could not possibly be better than it is, there cannot be anything better than perfection. If we think of God as perfect, then we must think of God as a being that cannot be imagined to be better than it is. It is therefore, impossible to conceive either of there being anything much greater than God or of it being possible to imagine God being better than he already is.
Despite several people having supported the Ontological argument, it has also received its fair share of criticisms. For instance, Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason claims that ontological arguments are vitiated by their reliance upon the implicit assumption that existence is more of a predicate. However, as Bertrand Russel observed, it is much easier to be convinced that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them. This helps in explaining the reason why ontological arguments have fascinated many philosophers for over a thousand years. According to another critic, Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, using the analogy of a perfect island, he suggested that the ontological argument could be used in proving the existence of anything.
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US Electoral College
The United States constitution specifies the United States President and Vice President are to be selected every four year by a small group of people. These people are individually known as ‘presidential electors’ and collectively as the ‘Electoral College’.
Therefore, the Electoral College is not a place but rather a process. It was put into place by the founding fathers and the constitution specifies that every state is entitled to have one member of its U.S Representatives and U.S Senators.
Today, the total number of electoral votes is 538 and it corresponds to the 435 United States Representatives from the fifty states plus the 100 United States Senators from the 50 states plus another 3 members of the Electoral College that the District of Columbia became at liberty to under the 23rd Amendment that was ratified in 1961.
After every ten years, the 435 United States Representatives get reappointed among the state according to the latest federal census as such reapportioning membership of the Electoral College among all the states.
The US Electoral College was based on several anticipations and assumptions of the constitution Framers. Some of these include the following:
- Candidates wouldn’t pair together on a similar ticket with assumed placements towards each office of the Vice President and the president
- Every state would choose a district system of choosing the electors
- Each presidential elector would employ or exercise their own judgment independently when voting
- The system as it was designed would rarely produce any clear winner as such, election would be sent to Congress.
Based on the facts stated above, some scholars argue that the Electoral College is intended to nominate candidates and from there, Congress is mandated with the task of choosing the president and vice president. Each state government also is free to have its own strategy or plan for selecting its electors.
The theory behind the constitutional indirect election of the President and Vice President of the US is that while Congress is generally elected by the people, the President and Vice President are elected as executives of a federation of states that are independent. James Madison in Federalist No.10 argued the constitution was designed to serve as a mixture of population and state based government.
The Congress therefore would have two houses which include the Population based and State Bases Senate House of Representatives. At the same time, the President would be elected based on the mixture of two modes.
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Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
Childhood disintegrative disorder refers to a condition where a child develops normally during the age of 3 or 4 and then they lose language, social, motor as well as other skills that have already been learned over the first months. Childhood disintegrative disorder is also called the Heller’s syndrome or disintegrative psychosis. The cause of this disorder has not yet been found.
Childhood disintegrative disorder has several similarities with autism. In some cases it is considered as a low-functioning form of autism. It was described originally by an Austrian educator called Theodor Heller in 1908. Earlier, Autism had been described by Hans Asperger and Leo Kanner. Previously, Heller had described the syndrome with the term dementia infantilis.
Some researchers consider childhood disintegrative disorder as a part of autism. However, this disorder differs from autism because people with childhood disintegrative disorder depict serious regression after some months of normal development. The loss of the learnt skills is also more dramatic than that of people suffering from autism. Additionally, childhood disintegrative disorder tends to develop at a later stage than it happens with autism.
Despite the fact that the cause of this disorder remains unknown, there are studies that link childhood disintegrative disorder to the nervous system and the brain. This is because children who suffer from this disorder lose communication skills, nonverbal behaviors and other skills that were learnt earlier. All these are related to the nervous system and the brain.
Among the symptoms of childhood disintegrative disorder include lack or delay in spoken language, impairment of nonverbal behaviors, inability to maintain or start conversations, failure to play, loss of bladder and bowel control, loss of social and motor skills, loss of communication and language skills and problems or difficulties in forming relationships with family members and other children.
Once detected to suffer from this disorder, the child is examined by a health provider to determine whether they are suffering from it. Proper examination is very important because the disorder can be confused with others such as pervasive developmental disorder or childhood schizophrenia. The most significant symptom of childhood disintegrative disorder is loss of the developmental milestones. Diagnose is generally made when the child loses functions in about two developmental areas.
Childhood disintegrative disorder is treated just like autistic disorder or autism. This is because these disorders are the same. Steroid medication is an experimental treatment that helps in slowing the rate at which the condition progresses.
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Nivea Case Study
Describe the first “P” in the Marketing Mix, People. Who are the consumers and what is the nature of their demand?
People denote the knowledge, level of expertise and services of individuals working for a company, as they help in getting the firm from its challenges. In most cases, customers will make decision about products and services and the delivery depending on the representatives of the company. In this case, company employees require service knowledge and outstanding interpersonal skills to present a quality service. They also need the capacity to choose, recruit and retain the right people with excellent skills and matchless abilities. Consumers buy products either for use or resale. In this case, the consumers are teenage women and mothers acquiring the commodities for their daughters who share common lifestyle and attitude. They buy products in company of other friends who are shopping other goods from groceries.
Describe what is meant by a business being ‘consumer led’
This refers to when a business firm operates in response to the tastes and preferences of buyers in the market. For Nivea, it endeavors to meet the needs of its customers through innovative products. It addresses lifestyle needs of its customers, making it consumer friendly. A consumer led business always improves its current products and introduces new ones to fulfill the demand of buyers. Over the years, Nivea meet beauty needs of its customers, offering value for their money through quality products. This makes Nivea, a customer led company.
What are the key parts of the Marketing Mix? Explain how each works with the others
A marketing mix encompasses understanding the market in terms of what customers want, how they will use the product, branding, color, price, size, and features, which address the needs of buyers. Through market research, it is possible to identify market segments with regard to attitude, age and style. Companies can collect this information by gathering data from customers, listening to their comment or through product testing. The product is the center of any marketing mix, since it creates the need to be in the market, priced and promoted by qualified people.
After indentifying a product, the second step is pricing. Price of a product refers to a cost, which maximizes profit margins of the business and guarantees value for customers’ money. It is important for a company to provide customers with high quality products, worth the cost. Additionally, establish if your customers are price-sensitive, i.e. will a slight drop in price lead to a higher market share or will small increase lead to extra profit margins. Moreover, a company should factor in discounts and compare prices with other players in the market. Too high prices repel customers while too low prices attract losses. Price is key because every product needs a price tag before getting to the market. Through price, a company will make profits or losses.
Promotion is about deciding the appropriate time and place to communicate marketing messages across the target market. Promotion is usually through ads in print or electronic media, internet, billboards, and PR strategies. Among others, a firm identifies how competitors in the market reach their target audience, best promotional times, and identifying any environmental issues, which could determine the timing of the promotion. Promotion makes a product competitive in the market as it denotes the availability of the product. Promotion further ensures that the product is in the right target market.
Place is where customers will find the product. Will they visit the internet, or physical store? How will they access distribution channels? Identify the need for a sales force and establish the activities of competitors and their locations. Identifying the most appropriate point of sale is paramount. Once a company has identified the product, promoted and price, it meets the needs of customers in a specific location.
Explain why the balance of the marketing mix is as important as any single element
Balancing the marketing mix is of great significance because the product reflects the efficacy of the company and makes it possible for customers to identify affordable products, depending on the purchasing power. Additionally, having such a balance is importance as it ensures that the firm produces high-quality products, which satisfy customers’ needs. This further helps in retaining the product brand. Moreover, the price tells the organization about customers’ acceptability to buy the products. Balancing the price is also essential to ensure that the company has satisfactory performance rewards and their jobs, making them more productive. Balancing the mix through place allows the company to have a higher market share and make higher profits through increased sales. Such diversified global market further makes the organization competitive internationally.
Analyze the marketing mix for NIVEA VISAGE Young. What are its strongest points? Explain why you think this is so
For a company to develop new products, it needs knowledge of the market, through product gathering and collection of important data from customers. Nivea Visage Young uses a range of pricing methods to price its products. These include cost-based, which covers costs, penetration cost, which encourages customers to buy and price skimming, which guarantees the firm high profits. For place, Nivea Visage Young uses a range of distribution channels, like retail outlets, where customers receive skin care products. The company further sells its products in high street stores mainly for youths and mothers. It uses different promotional strategies like direct mail, business to consumer trade fairs, branding and public relations. Uses product samples for customers and has an online magazine to publicize its brand to young women. Nivea Visage Young’s strongest point is the use of the internet to reach young women, since this category of people uses the internet a lot. As a result, it is possible for the target group to know more about the available products.
Good Ways to Start an Essay
In order to deliver essays that will attract your audience and compel them to read on, you should know good ways to start an essay paper. They way your essay is introduced will determine whether readers will be interested in it or not. The following section will not only show you some of the good ways to start an essay paper but also offer advice on how to choose the right approach to pursue when writing an essay introduction. Besides, you will also be able to find examples illustrating how essay papers should begin.
Essays are academic papers that require proper analysis and evaluation of the topic of discussion before writing. The introduction part of an essay paper is written to inform readers about the topic and motivate them to continue reading. The essay should start on a high note that can capture the attention of the audience. Therefore, it is advisable that you know a couple of good ways to start an essay for success.
Tips on how to choose good ways to start an essay paper
There are various ways through which an essay paper can be introduced. However, it should be noted that academic papers follow a particular writing format that you should always consider. The following are some of the points to also consider when choosing good ways to start an essay paper.
Get information about the topic
Despite the approach that you will pursue in starting the essay, you will need to also provide readers with a precise background information about the subject. This will be used in setting the stage for your thesis statement. Therefore, it is important that you evaluate your points keenly in order to come up with a few points or facts for introducing the paper. The information should be based on outstanding facts about your subject.
Refine your thesis
At the point of picking a strategy for writing the introduction paragraph, you must have decided on the main claim of the paper. But, it is important that you refine it further to ensure that it represents your specific reason for writing the essay.
When refining the thesis, you should also draft a plan that will be used to show readers how the paper is organized. It is recommended that you come up with a unified statement that highlights the main claim and plan of the paper.
Know the type of essay
There are various types of essays that you can be asked to write including analytical, argumentative, persuasive, and expository among others. Each of these essays play a specific role and requires a particular format or style of writing. Therefore, it is advisable that you also consider the kind of essay that you will be writing in order to choose the most appropriate approach for the introduction.
For example, a short story about yourself or anecdote can work quite well for a personal essay introduction unlike an argumentative essay.
Consider your audience
An audience refers to readers or people to whom the essay is addressed. Based on your target readers, you should always start the paper with information that they can read, understand and relate to with ease.
Choosing good ways to start an essay paper
Just as hinted above, there are numerous ways on how to frame the introduction of an essay paper. However, not all may work for you in every paper. The following are some of the good ways to start an essay that you can choose from.
Anecdote or quotation
It many circumstances, it is said that emotions appeal more to readers than plain facts. One of the best ways of evoking emotions in essay writing is starting the paper with a brief story that is memorable and relevant to the topic of discussion.
In case you decide to use an anecdote, always go for a short narrative that is engaging while also creating a clear link to your argument that will be expressed in the paper. You can draw from myths or legends that tend to answer a similar question to your own. For quotes, you should choose those that are outstanding.
Interesting facts about the subject
Another way to start an essay is giving some facts about the topic that are not known to many people. In order to make the introduction compelling, you should identify facts that readers should know but not likely to access. Find something out of the obvious to tell your audience in the introduction, ate least that would compel them to finding out more from the rest of the paper.
The facts presented in the introduction of your essay should be surprising and related to the problem that the paper seeks to address.
Starting an essay paper by highlighting something or a point that you disagree with can be another way of introduction. For instance, you can begin by giving the long-standing belief about an idea, then transition to the different conclusions that your discussion will present. This approach is mainly recommended for argumentative essays.
You can also start an essay paper by posing a question to the readers. Rhetorical questions are often used but you can as well just ask one that deserves an answer. The question should be short and well linked to the topic of discussion.
Generally, an ideal way to start an essay paper should be one that can enable you to easily formulate a brief, topical and compelling introduction.
Writing an essay introduction
Depending on the way that you choose to start your essay, there are other elements of an introduction that you should also keep in mind. In fact, the good ways to start an essay highlighted above should mainly be used as the hook or ‘’attention grabber.’’
Other elements that should also be included in the introduction of your essay include:
- Brief relevant background information about the subject
- Thesis statement
- Plan showing how the essay is organized
All these should be presented in the first paragraph of your essay to portray a typical introduction. However, you should always try to make the paragraph short so your readers can have a quick grasp of what the essay is all about.
A good essay introduction should start in the following order:
- Attention grabber or hook: Among the various ways highlighted above, choose one to use in formulating the opening statements.
- Background information: In order to put the paper into context, you should also give a brief description of the issue or problem that your essay seeks to address. The points given here should reflect general information about the topic.
- Thesis statement: The introduction of an essay paper should also make a clear statement of the specific issue or claim that will be discussed in the body paragraphs and conclusion. The overall point should be coined into one or two sentences long for clarity.
- Plan: Lastly, the introduction paragraph should end with a ‘road map’ to illustrate how you will prove or defend your thesis.
On a final note, the introduction should smoothly lead your readers into the rest of the paper. This implies, you should use a few connecting phrases to enhance cohesion and proper flow of ideas.
Although essay introductions should be short; just one paragraph long, certain longer or complicated essays may require two opening paragraphs.
Examples of Essay Introductions
By reading well written samples of essay introductions, you can also get ideas on how to easily select good ways to start an essay paper on just any subject. Below are some samples to refer to for more on how to introduce an essay.
Sample Introduction for an Essay about Five Important Economic Factors Affecting Banks
‘’How Important is the banking industry?
Since the 17th century, the banking industry has marked its niche as one of the most important financial sectors in any economy. Indeed, a country’s economic prowess can progress or slow down depending on the performance of its banks…’’Read the rest of the introduction here.
Introduction for an Essay on Human Sex Trafficking Around the World
‘’Economic and social imbalances as well as different kinds of conflicts that are as a result of politics have led to migration of people internationally and domestically throughout the globe. Technology mobility, sex tourism and capital has received a boost as a result of globalization…’’ Continue reading the sample introduction on this link.
Introduction for Personal Statement Essay
‘’From the time that I was a child, I have grown an intense desire in the nature around me. I originate from a household of three with revenue of about $30,000. The household chiefly relies on my father who is a businessman. Looking at the exceptional impact he has on my life, I believe this is the motive I picked a desire in economics primarily…’’Click here to read the whole sample introduction.
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The basics of how to write a conclusion for any academic paper
Concluding your essay could be a tricky affair. What else do you need to tell the readers when you have presented a good introduction and excellent body? Do you repeat you have just said in previous sections? You will face this dilemma whenever you are working on writing assignment. Do you want to avoid these mindboggling worries? Then you should have the secrets of how to write a conclusion at your fingertips. This will ensure that piece together a final paragraph that will leave readers wanting more of your stuff.
Look out for the following sections in this guide:
- Writing a good conclusion
- Elements of a good essay conclusion
- Errors to avoid when concluding an essay
We have made these tips flexible because every academic paper requires a unique conclusion. You are free to adjust where necessary to fit your assignment needs. Come on! Put on a big smile as you go through this knowledge enrichment process. Here we go…
The principles of how to write a conclusion that you should know from now
The conclusion is that final part of your academic paper. It is probably the impression that the reader will carry for the rest of their lives. It is true that you probably remember a thrilling movie you watched, a fascinating book you read, or a moving speech you followed because of the concluding remarks of the author. This is a pointer to the important role of this tiny but determining part of an essay.
A good conclusion should clear any doubts and convince the reader that they did not waste their time; the piece was worth reading. Without a proper conclusion, you are likely to devalue all your points in the paper and discourage the reader.
Generally, here are some hints on how to write a conclusion:
Restate your topic – Do not tire going back to your topic. After all, you might be shocked to learn that the reader does not recall your topic by the time he or she is getting to the last paragraph.
State the importance of your topic – Remind the audience the significance of your topic. This convinces them that it was a good idea to spend time going through your essay. No one wants to waste time on something that has no value. Time is money!
Restate your thesis – Go back to your introduction and synthesize your main idea for your readers once more. Do not copy paste, your argument. Reword it to make sense to the person looking at your work. You do not want anyone to know that you are a lazy writer.
Capture the counterargument – Every argument has rebuttals. Address these negative views and emphasize why your audience should agree with your opinion.
Call for action – You want your audience to act. Go ahead and challenge them to do something. In addition, you may make recommendations for future researches to improve on the findings.
Practical strategies of how to write a conclusion without repeating yourself
Mastering how to write a conclusion ought to be an easy task because you already know the main argument of the paper, thesis, evidence and counterarguments. However, the challenge is making it the best part of your essay since it is what the reader remembers at all times even after putting aside your piece.
Here are suggestions that should clear your way and make conclusion writing as easy as putting down your name.
TIP 1: Provide answers to ‘so what question’ – You have not done your homework, if you cannot justify the importance of your paper. As you conclude your essay, show them its significance.
TIP 2: Do not give a summary – Conclusion is not time to repeat everything you can recall or all you have said in your paper. As you put together this paragraph, remember that the person looking at your work has already read your paper. Show them how your points and evidence harmonized to support your thesis throughout the text.
TIP 3: Redirect your audience – Do not end on a flat and boring note. Leave the reader with something to do, perhaps applying the paper in the real world. Since most introductions move from general statements to specifics, your conclusion should be the opposite. Go globally.
TIP 4: Generate new meaning – As you think of how to write a conclusion, focus on bringing out something new for your audience. Use whatever you have to create new meaning. Achieve this by demonstrating how your ideas work together.
How to draft your conclusion and end your essay in style
Renowned writers in the world understand the secret of making impact with a piece of work; have a strong conclusion. Why do you want the reader to remember your work? This is the time to prove that you are worth residing in their memory.
An effective conclusion is beyond summarizing your argument. Instead, it should appreciate your ideas by emphasizing the significance of the work. Do not lose the energy you injected in your introduction, pump it in your concluding remarks and end strong. Ask the following questions as you prepare to do your conclusion
Guiding questions when writing a conclusion
- How does your idea connect with class discussion?
- Have you added any new ideas to your conversation?
- What are the limitations of your research?
- What is the effect of your strongest argument in the paper?
- How do you get back to the situation in the paper?
These questions give a sense of closure to your idea. While you may not have the answers down, keep in mind the responses and use them to fine-tune your concluding paragraph.
Below is a good example that shows you how to a write a conclusion. Examine it before we proceed to other segments of this guide.
Example: A good Conclusion
In this example, We Can Live without Petroleum, the essay discusses the pros and cons of petroleum that can help the reader make a decision on whether or not man can live without petroleum. Here is the conclusion:
There is enough evidence to show that petroleum has a range of advantages and disadvantages. For example, petroleum boosts social, economic and political development all over the world. However, petroleum is a major environmental pollutant threatening human life. From global warming to land degradation, petroleum does not offer a safe haven for human beings. As a result, the world should explore alternative sources of energy like the green energy to overcome man’s overdependence on petroleum…
In this conclusion, the writer recaps the main issues in the essay, reminding the reader the pillars of his argument. The paragraph also gives recommendation on what the world should do in weighing whether we can do without petroleum or not.
This example captures the fundamental principles of how to write a conclusion. With practice, you too can master the art of warping up an essay just as experts do.
Final thoughts on how to write a memorable conclusion
Among other reasons, remember that a conclusion is your last chance to woo your audience to agree with you. You have your excellent opportunity that you are a scholar, thinker and professional writer. You want them to spread the word and probably recommend you as a top writer on the topic or field. If this is the case, nail that final paragraph as if you have never done before.
Convey a sense of closure by signaling the reader that your discussion is closing. However, remember not close off the discussion. The following thoughts should work in your favor. Apply them and see the magic of having an appealing conclusion:
Return to your introduction- A good research paper is always circular in argument. As you wind up, revisit your first paragraph, by moving from what you already know to the unknown.
Provide a solution to a problem – The purpose of a research paper is to offer an answer to an existing problem. The reader wants to know the solution you have for a problem you captured in the thesis statement. State how your findings can be applied in a larger concern in the real world.
Final points – With your conclusion, tie together all the points in your essay and suggest the way forward. As you do this, refrain from introducing new ideas in your paper. If you have not captured it anywhere in your paper, then you probably do not need it.
Keep it brief. The last rule of how to write a conclusion is keeping it short. A standard conclusion should be 10% of your paper. Do not give a long and unwinding end. Go for what matters.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of an Article
Knowing how to write a critical analysis of an article is very important because your university professor will most probably ask you to critique a journal or newspaper article at some point. A critical analysis is a subjective form of writing in which a writer expresses personal evaluation or opinion of a text, which in this case is an article. This can be a journal article, a magazine article or a newspaper article. While writing a critical analysis, you should read an article and think about it critically. It is important that you start by understanding the prompt or assignment question. This will enable you to understand the angle that you are required to take in your critical analysis.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article from a newspaper
- Know the event that led the author to write the article
Before you start analyzing the article, know why the author wrote it. This can be an event that happened or an event that is about to happen. When you know the reason why the author wrote the article that you are required to analyze, you can understand the purpose for writing it or the goal that the author wanted to accomplish by writing the article.
- Read and analyze the title
You can know the main idea of the article by reading its title. Before you start reading the body of the article, think about the title of the article and write a subjective opinion about it. You can also form basic points that you would include under the title in your mind if you were to write an article on that title. This will give you the first impression and help you in forming a critique of the article.
- Read and analyze the body of the article
After analyzing the title of the article, read the body to find out how the author supports the main idea as expressed by the title. To analyze the article critically, read it several times. Take notes while reading. Come up with a list of the analytical questions that will guide you in your analysis. Use these questions to form your critical analysis of different aspects of the article. For instance, what words does the writer uses in the title and the body of the article? Why does the author use these words? Is the author biased or objective? Does the author make and substantiate claims with valid arguments in article? This is a vital step of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article because it determines what forms the basis of your critique.
- Consider how the author supports claims in the article
In this step, analyze the article carefully to determine whether the author has provided adequate factual material which supports the presented ideas. The author can quote witnesses, state information sources or provide statistics in supporting claims. An author of an article can also be an eyewitness to an event or the author can obtain information via a news service.
- Consider your opinion about the reportage
Since critical analysis is subjective, you should give your opinion about the reportage. Is the reportage true, biased or balanced in your opinion? Explain your opinion while citing examples of instances that support your claim from the article.
- Explain how the author presents different points of view
For instance, tell readers whether the article under analysis is an editorial, a balanced article, an informative article or a convincing article. Again, support your stance with evidence from the article that you are analyzing.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Wrap up your analysis with your final view or opinion of the article. Tell readers about the tools that the author used to pass the message, the goal of the article and whether the author accomplished that goal. Also tell readers about the target audience and whether the article had impact on the intended audience in your opinion.
How to write a critical analysis of an article from a scientific journal
A scientific journal article is different from a newspaper article. As such, even how you analyze a scientific journal article should be different from the way you analyze a newspaper article.
To analyze a scientific journal article, follow these steps:
- Read the article and the critical analysis prompt
Start by reading the assignment and the article that you are required to analyze critically. Understand what the assignment requires you to do and whether you are required to take a particular angle in your analysis. Find out if there is a theoretical framework on which the argument in the article is based.
- Summarize the article
Summarize the goals or objectives of the article, methods, findings, analysis and conclusions. Explain how they are presented by the author. Show your comprehension of the research that the author of the article presents using one or two paragraphs.
- Highlight the strengths of the scientific article
Characterize the features that you find useful in the article. Tell readers about the aspects that are strong in the article. For instance, tell readers whether the article has sections that are particularly helpful.
- Highlight the weaknesses of the scientific article
Characterize the aspects of the article that you find confusing. For instance, are there apparent weaknesses of the study that come out in the article? Did you find any section of the article confusing and why? Support your claim with evidence from the article.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Conclude the analysis by telling readers how effective or ineffective the article was in presenting the findings of a scientific research. For instance, did the author suggest directions for future studies? Were the findings and analysis presented in a conclusive manner? Leave readers with a sense of completion after reading your critical analysis.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a critical analysis of an article
- Always identify the objective of the author
Before you start your critical analysis of an article, identify the objectives of the author. Ask yourself, what was the motive behind writing the article? What did the author want to achieve by writing the article?
- Identify any theory in the article
Is there a clear theoretical framework in the article? Does the author make vital theoretical assumptions? Are there clearly defined concepts in the article?
Identify the argument of the author in the article. Find out if there are specific hypothesis made and whether the author of a scientific journal article states whether they were supported by the study or not.
- Identify the main points and evidence
Tell readers what the main arguments or points made by the author in the article are. Are there conclusions or inferences made by the author? What information or evidence does the author provide to support the arguments, inferences or points? Is the provided evidence used to measure something? Is the provided evidence factual? Does the author of the article present factual data?
Tell your readers whether the author is reliable. State what the sources of evidence or information are. Are the sources of the provided evidence identified? For instance, can the eyewitness mentioned in the article be reached? Does the author give examples of specific publications, organizations, journals, books or web sites? Are the sources secondary or primary or are they from other sources like textbooks. Does the author site authorities? What are the credentials of the authorities and are they credible or not and why?
- How persuasive is the author?
Tell readers of your critical analysis whether the author presents evidence that is consistent with the presented argument? Does the author present a convincing argument? If yes, tell readers why and if not, explain why. Can the presented evidence in a scientific journal article be interpreted in another way? Do you have adequate evidence to support your judgment? What additional evidence do you consider necessary to judge the made claim’s validity?
- Global view
Tell your readers whether the author makes general assumptions in the article? If yes, state them. Does the author present a world view of the findings presented in the scientific article? Is there a different viewpoint or world view that should be considered on the basis of the presented findings?
Does the author use propaganda words in the article? Does the author use propaganda techniques in the article to make arguments?
- Your take
Do you disagree or agree with what the author says in the article and how they say it?
- Use a sample to write your critical analysis
To know how to write a critical analysis of an article with ease, review a sample critical analysis of an article. You can find a critical analysis of an article here.
Get help with your critical analysis of an article
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How to Start a Conclusion
As a student, you should know how to start a conclusion because you will be required to write it severally when concluding essays, term papers, research papers and other academic writing assignments. A conclusion can be defined as a paragraph that gives you a chance to wrap up your paper or essay in a tiny package while bringing it home to your reader. It is the closure and summation of all ideas that you presented in the introduction and body of your paper or essay. The goal of a conclusion is to ensure the satisfaction of the reader after reading your piece of writing. However, starting a conclusion is not easy and that is why you need a guide to help you start this paragraph.
A guide on how to start a conclusion
Prepare to write a conclusion
Contemplate about the purpose as stated in the introduction and tone
While writing the conclusion, consider the purpose of your paper or essay as stated in the introduction. For instance, why were you writing the essay? Was your aim to entertain, persuade, inform, or argue a point? Your answer to this question should dictate how you write the conclusion. Make sure that the tone of your conclusion matches that of the entire paper or essay. If you were writing to inform readers, remind readers what you informed them, if you were writing to persuade readers, give them your final thought and if you were writing to entertain, provide a humorous conclusion.
Answer the “so what” question
This will enable you to start thinking about what to include in the conclusion. Once you have written the introduction and the body of your paper or essay, ask yourself, why should the reader care? Make sure that your conclusion answers these questions to shape the thoughts of the reader.
Read what you have written
Before you start writing the conclusion of your paper or essay, read what you have written in the body and the introduction severally. While writing the conclusion, make sure that you have your introduction fresh in mind. The conclusion should follow the logical transition from the introduction, to the body and then the conclusion. You can maintain this transition only when you have the rest of the essay in mind. Therefore, read what you have written in the introduction and the body to come up with a focused conclusion that addresses the most vital points in the paper or essay.
Write the first draft of the conclusion
Although “In conclusion” words are overused, they are a popular way of starting the conclusion. These words provide a transition phase that can help you in getting started with the first conclusion draft. You can start with these words then replace or remove them later after writing the first draft.
Pre-write the conclusion
Most students under utilize a pre-writing strategy but it is very effective when it comes to writing a conclusion. In fact, you should try it out as you master the steps on how to start a conclusion. Pre-writing should come before writing a draft. While pre-writing, put your ideas down. Come up with sentences that explain the covered topic. Conclude your paper or essay instinctively after writing the entire essay. As you pre-write the conclusion, ask yourself why readers should care or so what? This will enable you to form the answers that you provided in the body and supported with evidence using clearer sentences.
Start the conclusion
Make the first sentence a transition
The first sentence of a conclusion ought to create a bridge between the ending thoughts and body paragraphs. Connect the sentences of the body with the conclusion using phrases and words from the topic. Make sure that the first sentence creates a clear transition from the body to the conclusion.
If you were writing an essay on exercise benefits, the first sentence of your conclusion can read like this, “There are several benefits of exercising three times in a week.”
Start your conclusion with the topic
You can restate the topic of your paper or essay in your conclusion. Also tell readers why the topic is important. However, use different words in restating the topic. Tell readers about the importance of your topic in a few sentences.
When writing a conclusion for an essay on the side effects of school bullying, you can restate the topic in a sentence like this, “Bullying is very common in school and it should be stopped.” The sentence that follows should explain the importance of the topic. It can read, “Children are not treating their friends with respect and kindness as they should.”
Restate thesis statement
Remind readers the thesis that you stated in the introduction using different words. Use new words to phrase your thesis and show readers how you have proven it in the essay or paper. This is a very important step of a guide on how to start a conclusion because it enables you to write a conclusion that serves its purpose. Restating a thesis statement in the conclusion gives it a sense of finality. It gives the readers a feeling that the journey that started at the introduction has come to an end at the conclusion.
Include a phrase that links the conclusion to the introduction
Start the conclusion with a phrase that links it to your introduction. For instance, you can use imagery or comparison phrase that reiterates the introduction. This will enable your introduction to bring the idea or theme of your introduction back through the conclusion. This will enable readers to wrap what they have read in the paper or essay and form a clear perspective on the topic.
Contrast and compare
If you were writing about several characters, animals, groups or anything that can be compared and contrasted, use the presented ideas to do this at the beginning of your conclusion. Use a single statement or observation that is relevant to your paper or essay to follow up the contrasted or compared ideas.
In a paper about vacation sports, start the conclusion with a statement like, “Whether you choose to sunbathe in a Florida beach or to ski the Aspen slopes, vacation ought to be an enjoyable and relaxing experience.”
Start your conclusion with a rhetorical question
A rhetorical question can be an effective way of starting a conclusion because it emphasizes a point. You can use this strategy especially if your paper is argumentative. Come up with an evocative question to drive point home.
When writing an argumentative paper on smoking and its ban in public places, you can start your conclusion with a question like, “Are some people allowed the right to interfere with the health of those around them?”
Start with a clear statement on the basis of your argument
You can open your conclusion with an opinion or statement whose basis is what you tried to argue or persuade readers about. This should be a sentence that restates your topic while providing a way that readers should adopt while thinking on the basis of the information or argument that you presented in the body of the essay or paper.
If the thesis statement of your essay was, “People should make sacrifices which do not bring obvious benefits on the basis of their morals,” your conclusion can start with a statement like, “Some people make sacrifices that do not seem sensible until their motives become apparent.”
How to start a conclusion using simple strategies
There are strategies that you can implement when starting a conclusion to make the task easier.
- Echoing the introduction: This implies bringing the readers full-circle. For instance, if you started your essay with a description of a scenario, start the conclusion with the same scenario.
- Challenge readers: Give readers a challenge to redirect the information that they got from the paper so that they can apply it in life.
- Look to the future: This entails emphasizing the importance of the essay or paper as well as redirecting the thought process of your readers.
- Pose questions: This is an effective strategy because it gives readers a different perspective on the discussed topic.
Each of these strategies is effective depending on the kind of a paper or essay that you have written. It is therefore important that you read the introduction and the body of your essay or paper carefully to determine how to start a conclusion of your paper or essay in the most appropriate and effective way.
Get help with your conclusion
If you encounter difficulties in writing a conclusion for your academic paper or essay, contact us for immediate assistance. We offer the best academic writing help online and sample papers. You can also visit our website’s homepage for additional information about our writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to start a conclusion and sample conclusion on the papers found on our blog.
Rhetorical Analysis Outline
Rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that analyzes an argument in specific text. The task of writing such an essay is not easy but with an outline, organizing your paper becomes easy. Rhetorical analysis outline is a structure that guides you on how to put your thoughts, ideas and points in the final essay and develop a compelling argument. In this article, you will find useful tips on how to structure an outline for your paper, how to use and examples of good outlines for different essays. Read on.
Composing an ideal rhetorical analysis outline
Before you write a rhetorical analysis essay, you got to work on a good structure and stick to it. This is because
It can be quite challenging to organize your thoughts and ideas structurally
It is also easy to get mixed up and get swept when discussing or analyzing the work of another writer
Note that despite the fact that you are discussing the work of another writer, you are still expected to keep the structure of basic essay which includes an introduction, thesis, body and conclusion
For the introduction, you should try to grab the attention of target audience and in a few sentences
Develop a narrow and strong thesis statement
In the body of your rhetorical analysis, you would want to enhance your thesis. You have to concisely analyze your essay by taking one paragraph to analyze each aspect of the writer’s argument. It is however very important that you do not agree with the author’s text or the speaker you are analyzing. In some cases, you may feel that the argument of an author actually crumbles
Therefore, take another perspective and analyze the text by criticizing lack of proof of the thesis statement and point out areas where the argument starts to break down.
In the conclusion, you would want something solid and a wrap up that is conclusive or ultimate in general. Consider discussing how you see the argument from a positive or negative larger view.
Structuring your outline as above is imperative when writing your essay because you will have a better and clear understanding of particular text sections and more specifically, those that serve the general goal of the writer. It will help you answer the questions
What’s your general objective for analyzing the text?
What do you have to do to achieve your analysis goals?
What kind of rhetorical moves do you wish to make or could you possibly make
What to include in a rhetorical analysis outline
Introduction: background information and thesis
The introduction of a rhetorical analysis essay should include background information about the topic you are analyzing. This information should help target audience to understand the nature of your analysis. For this reason, offer details on the title of your work, author and details of publication. It is also imperative to include a statement of the speaker’s argument and topic.
Create a solid thesis statement offering an evaluation of the writer’s main argument. Go ahead to offer specific examples and analytical reasons or appeals.Body: Analysis, Interpretation, and Evaluation
Main argument 1: focus on the use of logos in source and
Draft the first supporting paragraph giving logical examples of the type of logical appeal. State whether the appeal is based on deductive reasoning, cause and effect or inductive reasoning. In either case, give supporting evidence, statistics and illustrations.
Supporting paragraph 2: give an explanation as to why the example you have given is effective for the argument the author is making.
Main argument 2: pathos in source
Focus on the way the author used pathos in source. Give concrete examples of the pathetic appeals and target audience from trace. This means that you should write this paragraph giving examples of what appeals to the values of audience’s and their motivation.
You should also write the second supporting statement evaluating the effectiveness of this appeal on the argument. It is an essential part of rhetorical analysis outline and gives more credibility to your essay.
Main argument 3: Ethos
Give solid examples of ethical appeals employed by the author. State the appeals while using text, author and constraints from trace to gain more authority, achieve more credibility. Note that ethos can be invented or situated ethos.
For the second paragraph, it is essential that you evaluate carefully the effectiveness of the argument.
Conclusion: Final thoughts and re-highlight evaluation
A rhetorical analysis essay also includes a conclusion and it is usually a summary of your assessment, final thoughts and it should be a re-emphasize of your analysis. Therefore, make the final statement about the nature of the argument in regards to the topic. For instance, you can state whether the topic is highly emotional, is it a new topic that should be used to motivate other people or a subject that is unlikely to be addressed in the future.
Rhetorical analysis outline examples
With the above information on what a rhetorical analysis outline entails, you should be able to organize your paper. However, you can effectively write your analysis by reviewing a few examples of rhetorical analysis outline.
Good examples help you to extend your understanding of what a topic or text is all about and how it works rhetorically. Note that many students are used to summarizing what the text is all about instead of analyzing the content. In a rhetorical analysis outline, you ought to examine and evaluate why the text says something about particular things.
You ought to state clearly what the general purpose of the author is. This should also be in the most natural way. Therefore, reviewing different examples will enable you to sum up how specific text operates or functions within the entire essay.
Rhetorical analysis outline examples will also help you to clearly see how the text you need to analyze operates at a micro level, sentence by sentence, paragraph by paragraph and section by section. This kind of analysis is specifically useful based on the fact that it helps you to write a good summary, focus on an analysis and critique of the speaker’s rhetorical methods.
- Introduce your subject or analysis topic
- Make your statement clear
- Engage readers
- Focus on objective analysis
Summarize rhetorical situation
- Determine the issue
- What is the context?
- Who is making the argument?
- Who is the target audience?
- What is the thesis or main point?
- What kind of argument is being presented in the text?
Summary of the argument’s appeals
- Give a summary of ethos, describe the character of the author, credentials, and state his or her good will and likeability
- Summarize logos and describe in detail the work of logos for instance, is the author’s argument logical or not? Give evidence for the same
- Pathos- what are some of the specific emotions that the argument evoke
Give a summary of the claim negotiates opposing statements
- Does the work acknowledge opposing evidence and claims? Does it do so fairly and thoroughly?
- Does the text refute the opposing views or claims? If so, how?
Summary of weaknesses and strengths
Can you find any errors, any problems with the arguments? State them
Write the conclusion, briefly and concisely
Find the above rhetorical analysis outline example here.
Pick attention grabber text, something shocking or startling
Write a brief summary of the essay with the author’s info
Draft a thesis statement, choose what to start with, for instance is the statement effective or not effective
- Reason 1
- Reason 2
- Reason 3
- Reason 4
When giving reasons supporting your thesis statement, you should be very careful, do not go crazy, but be natural and honest. This will help you to keep your analysis on focus.
- Supporting point one
- Supporting point two
- Supporting point three
- Supporting point four
Write how your supporting statements or points work together enhance your thesis
State what the author might have done to make his or her effective (if you argue that the statement was effective, do you think that it could have been better? If so, give reasons.
Download this outline and get more details of how you can structure your paper.
Talk about the speaker, occasion and subject of your analysis
Write about the purpose of the author and what the author does in the topic of analysis
Focus on audience; does the author employ the right tone to keep the audience? For example, the author creates a highly dramatic tone to convey to target audience that the winds have inescapable effects and are sinister
This is the rhetorical analysis outline part and you should include a clear explanation of strategies employed by the author. Most importantly, work chronologically through the text; discuss each idea in each paragraph, one at ago.
The conclusion of a rhetorical analysis is often the easiest part. In one or two sentences, remind your readers of what you said in the introduction and briefly.
This link leads you to the above rhetorical analysis structure and offers more information on ow you organize your paper.
If you need professional assistance writing a rhetorical analysis outline and a rhetorical essay, you can always contact us. We guarantee you custom help on a wide range of academic papers.
How to Write an Essay Fast and Score High
Essay writing is common in every college or university in the world. Regardless of the case you are pursuing, you must have paper-writing tips at your fingertips to withstand the pressure. However, more overwhelming are urgent assignments or exams in which you have less than an hour to deliver a standard essay. At this point, sweating and panic will not save you apart from mastering the tricks of how to write an essay fast. You will have to think fast, decide fast and write fast to score a reasonable grade.
What to expect in this guide:
- Tips for faster writers
- Steps to follow to write fast
- Errors to avoid to write fast
Take a few minutes from your busy schedule and read this article. It is a must have toolkit that will help you fill that blank paper within minutes and still top your class.
The basics of how to write an essay fast and expertly
If you are about to take your exams, preparing for a 30-minute writing test or working on your essay writing speed, then you have every reason to worry about filling a blank page with accurate content within a limited time. Writing a 5-paragraph essay in less than an hour can seem impracticable. But with proper planning and proper guidance, it is as possible as writing your name with closed eyes.
The following tips should help you make your first step toward becoming a faster writer.
Becoming a faster writer
Plan for your essay – Good and fast essay writing is a product of proper planning and preparedness. Spend at least 10 minutes preparing for the task. During this time, develop an outline for your essay, showing a roadmap that you will take.
As you seek deeper knowledge of how to write an essay fast, do not consider planning a waste of your valuable time because your essay needs a structure.
Understand your question – A common mistake that you are likely to make is writing without studying the question. Look for the question prompt to guide your mind as you plan to write. Do not rush through the question; read and reread the question to clear any doubts about what the examiner wants from you.
Brainstorm your main idea – Every academic essay has a thesis statement, which acts as a compass pointer of your writing. You need a path and direction to write fast. Think about your main idea and visualize the flow of ideas. This statement should say what you are writing about in your essay. Make it as clear as possible.
You are ready to write. With your outline and thesis statement in place, you are ready to start writing. Have in mind the time you have so that you do not hand in your scripts without completing your assignment.
NEED FOR SPEED: Things to do to write your essay fast and professionally
Speed is an invaluable skill in essay writing. Not just for essay contests but during your study life. While this is the case, even veteran writers still fumble with writing fast; they make mistakes and submit shoddy work.
As a focused leaner, be ready for surprises from your lecturer. You do not want to be among that lot that cannot pen a simple essay in five paragraphs. With practice and hard work, these hints on how to write an essay fast should help you sort out all your troubles.
What you need to write fast:
To become a fast writer, you need the following:
A pen – This is your basic tool. Even in cases where you are tying your essay, you still need a pen to scribble something as you brainstorm your topic.
Paper – a pen works closely with a piece of paper. Your paper can be either for rough work or for your answer sheet/booklet. Ensure you have enough paper.
Have a watch. Having a stopwatch as you write, whether in an exam room or in your study room will help you work on your speed.
With these three key requirements, here are the steps to follow to write your essay within a time record and score a first class.
STEP 1: Do thorough preparation. Regardless of how limited your time is, take time and put everything in order. The time you spend on planning depends on the total time you have. For example, if you have 60 minutes to complete the task, spend six of them drafting a way forward.
STEP 2: Outline your essay. Ideally, before you start writing, have a skeleton of your essay, showing your introduction, body paragraphs with evidence and arguments, and a conclusion. With this structure, it will be easier for you to piece your thoughts together and write under pressure.
STEP 3: Support your argument before writing. As your figure out how to write an essay fast, think about the evidence you will need to defend your position. While you do not have to flesh out all your details before you start writing, save yourself the trouble of brainstorming your topic when you are already in the writing process.
STEP 4: Write with clarity. Be concise and use direct sentences. Avoid vague language. Stick to the vocabulary you know. You do not have time to consult the dictionary. So, do not take risks. Wrong word usage will not impress the person reading your essay.
STEP 5: Do the introduction. The length of your paragraph will largely depend on the size of your paper. It could range from a sentence to several paragraphs.
What makes a good introduction?
- It has to be catchy – Start your essay with an interesting approach to wet the reader’s appetite. Do this by use of personal anecdotes, startling stats, quote, etc. Remember that the reader will make an impression of what kind of a writer you are from a few lines of your essay.
- State your purpose – Your introduction should tell what you are writing about. Do not let the reader keep guessing when you have a chance to orient them at this initial stage.
- Give the scope – As you think about how to write an essay fast, visualize the scope of your paper. Your intro should help the reader know how much they should expect in the rest of the paper.
- End with a thesis statement – Your thesis statement should come at the end of the introductory paragraph. As we have mentioned above, your thesis captures your main idea or claim that you intend to defend in the rest of the paper.
STEP 6: Support your arguments. Here, delve into evidence to support all your claims. As you do this, focus on your main topic, and avoid going off the tangent. Be specific when giving examples to eliminate ambiguity.
STEP 7: Write your conclusion. This is your last paragraph. It offers you a chance to make a lasting impression in the mind of the reader. Your conclusion should sum up the whole idea. Revisit your thesis statement. Does your evidence support your claim? Do not introduce any new ideas at this stage.
TIME SAVING TIPS: How to write an essay fast without making silly mistakes
Perhaps the main reason why you should appreciate the principles of how to write an essay fast is to avoid making costly mistakes. Here is the catch. You must strike a balance between writing fast and remaining flawless.
That sounds and indeed, it is not easy. Wait a minute…below is the formula. Avoid these mistakes and you will gain your speed writing skills without any hustle:
The Don’ts of Writing Fast
Avoid a flawed structure – Nothing irks the reader like a poorly structured essay. Let your ideas flow coherently from the introduction to the conclusion. Even where you are writing in prose, the main parts of your essay should be distinct.
Avoid irrelevant content – Stick to the issues under your topic. Pulling anything from the blues to fill the empty space will earn you no grade.
Avoid illogical writing – Ensure that your ideas and essay parts connect well. Achieve this through smooth transition from one idea to another without leaving the reader handing.
Avoid being someone else – Though you have read many articles, stick to your writing style, without emulating anyone. This makes your writing and essay original.
We hope that this handout on how to write an essay fast will provide you with all the answers you need to improve your writing speed. Like the fastest athletes in the world, PRACTICE.
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Sample Essay about Yourself
Knowing how to write a sample essay about yourself is a crucial step towards enhancing your oral and written communication skills. An essay about yourself is not quite different from other essays or academic papers and knowing how to write one can be quite beneficial to your endeavors at school and also career. With proper guidance and insights that are offered herein, you will easily find out how to develop a good essay about yourself.
A sample essay about yourself can also be called a personal essay. The aim of writing this kind of essay paper is to explain yourself to the readers by addressing your traits, talents, experiences, skills among other elements that can be used to describe you as fit for a particular position or duty.
You can be asked to write a sample essay about yourself for college admission, job application or even scholarship application. On the other hand, it can also be given as an assignment at school. Therefore, it is very important that you know how to write a good sample essay about yourself in order to be successful.
Guidelines on how to write a sample essay about yourself
Considering that there are several things you may need to discuss about yourself, writing a personal essay can sometimes seem challenging. However, there is no reason to worry, instead, read the following guidelines to easily find out how to craft a strong sample essay about yourself.
Identify the purpose or theme of the essay
Personal essay can be written for different reasons, and it is always advisable that you determine the reason for yours in advance. A personal essay can be aimed at entertaining readers, informing them and supporting or opposing a particular position.
For example, if your essay is for a job or college application, the purpose is to inform. Defining the purpose of the essay will assist you in brainstorming ideas for the essay and also choosing an ideal approach to take in writing.
Think about what to write
A personal essay should clearly describe you to the readers in such a way that one can easily know who you are by reading the paper. Although it may not say much about yourself, it should give comprehensive information that can be used to understanding the kind of a person that you are.
Therefore, it is important that you take some time to think of what to share in the essay. When doing this, always remember the purpose of the essay. There are various ideas that you can explore in writing a personal essay including overcoming obstacles, great successes among others.
Try to think of those experiences, skills and talents that can effectively describe you to the audience. It is advisable that you list as many as you can remember in order to have a variety of options to narrow down to.
Revise your points
Personal essays are often timed and you will also be given specifications on the number of words to cover in the paper. Thus, you have to properly argue out your points and come up with the key ones that can be used in giving a better description of yourself.
Depending on the purpose of the paper, carefully choose your points from the listed experiences, traits and skills. The key points should be supportive of the role that you intend the essay to play. In order to have a better flow of ideas, start by choosing the points for the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion in that order.
Try to think of the essay as a story about yourself when identifying the points to use. Your points should also include additional information or examples that will be mentioned in the paper to make a compelling discussion.
Draft an outline
After you have decided on the particular approach to pursue and main points for the paper, the details should be well listed down in an outline. This is a plan showing the various sections of the essay and points to be addressed in each.
In creating an outline, try to be as clear and brief as possible. It is advisable that you categorize your paper in three sections representing intro, body paragraphs and conclusion. Under each section, you should list down the key points that will be discussed.
After creating the outline, ensure that you carefully go through it in order to ascertain whether the points included therein are as required.
Steps on how to write an essay about yourself
Writing a sample essay about yourself entails creativity, attention to details and proper flow of ideas. Besides, the purpose of your essay must be clearly brought out to distinguish it from other kinds of essays.
Follow the procedures outlined below to easily write a personal essay.
The opening statements of an essay about yourself should tell your audience about the purpose of the essay. Besides, you should also give a brief introduction of yourself which can be done in the form of an anecdote or just a simple statement.
In order to enhance the clarity of your essay, you should also narrow down the introduction to portray a single or specific theme. There is no condition that you have to start describing yourself from the start, the story can begin from anywhere provided that you stick to the purpose of the paper.
In the body of the essay, you should give a detailed explanation of the theme, experience, skills or traits that you wish to share with the audience. In writing, give a unique idea or point in every paragraph. Besides, you should also ensure that every paragraph gives a comprehensive explanation of the point addressed therein. Use at least two examples in every paragraph to add some weight to the story.
A good personal essay paper should vividly discuss what you are bringing to the table or capable of doing in your current state.
When describing yourself, avoid vague statements and very long statements that may make your work to look substandard. You should be creative in telling your story but be careful not to deviate from the facts and important elements of the essay.
The essay can describe both your private and public life, giving information about your education, growth and even career. However, it is advisable that in case there is certain information that you do not wish to share, simply leave it out of the discussion.
The last part of the essay should give your audience the point of the story or tell them why reading the sample was important. Generally, the conclusion should briefly sum up your story and point out to any future expectations or commitments from you.
An essay about yourself should not be very long, lest it becomes boring. Make the story quite short, about just one or two pages. However, there are instances whereby you will be advised on the number of words. If so, always stick to the given word count.
Examples of Personal Essays
The following sample essays can also offer you more insights on how to write a sample essay about yourself. Carefully read them to find out how personal essays should be crafted.
Sample essay to describe myself
‘’My name is John Smith, and I am a senior at Frederick Douglass High School. I am a good student with a 3.4 grad point average. The university that I want to attend is Georgia Tech because I want to become a civil engineer and there are many reasons why I should be enrolled. Firstly, I am a hardworking and dedicated student. Secondly, I am a friendly, sociable person. Finally, I have condemned myself to be a success…’’ To read the rest of this sample, simply click here
Sample personal essay
‘’My name is Cassandra Duncan. I grew up as an only child and only grandchild on both sides. The youngest of all my cousins and the only child in a small neighborhood that consisted of a bunch of adults, I never really learned what it meant to just be a kid. And, I certainly never learned how to relate to other children.
Accustomed to being around primary adults, I was always mature for my age. Even my own friends often annoyed me during my adolescent years…’’ Get the whole sample on this link
Sample personal essay for a job application
‘’Leon Thomas is the Regional Manager for American Family Insurance’s Northwestern Region. He oversees all claims and underwriting leadership for the region and serves as its liaison to the corporate office in Odenville. Originally from Odenville himself, Leon grew up just a few miles from the headquarters of the company. However, his was one of the few families in town that had no family members employed at the company…’’ Read the remaining parts of this sample on this link
In case you may need professional assistance on how to write a sample essay about yourself, simply talk to us. Alternatively, you can also refer to our homepage for more on how to easily get the best essay help.
Consumer movement refers to the effort of consumer protection promotion through a social movement that is organized and which exists in several places. Usually, consumer organizations are at the front position of such a movement. It also advocates consumer rights especially those that are infringed through actions taken by governments, organizations or other firms that provide services and goods to consumers.
Where it started
The first conference on an international scale was held in 1960 March in The Hague. Several consumer organizations participated in the conference and five of these signed papers creating the International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU). Consequently, as a result of that conference, the global movement was formed.
The term “consumer movement” is used in writing and is comparable to “consumerism”. Consumerism is a traditional term and one that is practiced by modern day age consumer organizations. It refers to progression of consumer protection which includes passing of customer protection laws by legislators.
Additionally, it includes educators teaching consumer policy, product testers who ensure products are within the desired quality standards and regulators who policy consumer laws. Note that consumer movement is non-profit group and it promotes the interests of consumers through reformation of practices upheld by corporations or government policies. Therefore, consumer movement is described as a subset of “consumerism” discipline.
The United States
During the 1960’s, US lobbyists of the Chamber of Commerce and the National Retail Federation begun using “consumerism” referring to the movement in a hostile and depreciatory manner. This was with the aim of denigrating the movement and Esther Peterson’s work in her position as the Special Assistant to the materialism and commercialism President. The term has an ideological foundation and some of the people who were behind the idea of the movement include:
- Ellen Swallow Richards who pioneered home economics
- Upton Sinclair who raised public interest in the protection of consumers
- Herbert Hoover who demanded that products should be tested and insisted on the need for application of technical standards in product manufacture
- Thorstein Veblen who introduced advertising theory and conspicuous consumption concept
Historians recognize the publication “Your Money’s Worth by Stuart Chase and Fredrick J. Schlink as the event that led to establishment of consumer movement. The publication of the book, according to historians was innovative leading to introduction of product testing concept which forms the basis of modern day age consumer movement.
Consumer movement is believed to have its origins in the US. From the 1960’s through to the 70’s scholars started recognizing consumer activism “waves” setting the stage for a whole movement to be born with the purpose of protecting consumer interests.
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Comparative advantage is the economic theory regarding probable trade gains for firms, individuals or nations arising from their technological or factor endowments. An agent enjoys comparative advantage over a competitor if they are in a position to produce goods at low relative autarky price or opportunity cost which is the lowest marginal cost before trade.
The theory is a classical one and it was developed in 1817 by David Ricardo. It explains why some countries prefer to international trade regardless of the fact that workers in their countries are efficient in production of every good compared those in other countries. He further made the demonstration that when 2 countries with the capability of producing 2 commodities engage in free market then each country increase its consumption through export of the product it has an advantage over while they import the rest of the goods.
However, this is as long as there is exists a difference in productivity labor between the two countries. This theory is viewed as the most influential but counter-intuitive theory, it implies comparative advantage is what greatly influences international trade and not absolute advantage. Further, the theory holds that as long as one partner has the capability to produce products at a faster, cheaper and better pace, then they enjoy absolute advantage.
Nations fear to participate in free trade because they are aware of the fact that it is easy for them to be out-produced especially if the other countries have comparative advantage in varying areas which can boost imports rather than exports. This theory therefore stipulates countries are supposed to specialize in specific products for purposes of exporting and import the rest as long as they hold absolute advantage over such products.
This theory can best be illustrated through use of simple examples. For instance, if A is skilled at making cabinets and painting and they spend a day either building a cabinet or painting a picture they have comparative advantage over B who has the same skills but takes one day and a half to construct a cabinet or 3 days to paint. This example is also true in cases where trade is carried out at international level.
Britain offered its support to the theory by outsourcing food (Importing cheese, grains, meat and wine) and shifting focus on manufactured goods for purposes of exporting as such, making it the workshop of industrial revolution. In a nut shell, comparative advantage theory encourages nations to participate in free true trade and also pay attention to areas they have high advantage rather than bolstering weak industries through imposing tariffs that only serve the purpose of stifling production that could lead to overall wealth gain.
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Principles of How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis
A rhetorical analysis is an evaluation of how an author, speaker or creator of an original piece of work uses different strategies to make his or her argument. You can write a rhetorical analysis about a speech, film, text, painting or any other media, used to pass a message to a target audience. Thus, your task when you have such assignment is to find out the techniques, which the rhetorician uses to accomplish his objective. Besides, you may also include the effectiveness of these approaches. To gain more knowledge on how to write a rhetorical analysis, continue reading this guide.
In this article, you will find the following sections:
- Tips on rhetorical analysis
- Steps to follow when writing rhetorical analysis
- Selected examples of rhetorical analysis essays
This guide contains everything you need to enhance your rhetorical analysis ability. Do not read hurriedly; take your time, synthesize and apply these tips in your future assignments. Your plane to success is about to take off… are you ready? Here we go…
A summary of guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis
Every piece of literary work targets a specific audience. However, the challenge of passing the message is in influencing the listener, reader or viewer. Even more demanding is finding out the success of tools, which one applies to make a case.
A rhetorical piece influences the audience in the following three ways:
Entertaining – Creates light moment for the audience
Persuading – Tries to influence the audience to abandon their position on a subject or issue and support the author’s stand. It is common in political rallies, debates and argumentative writing.
Informing – Some rhetorical works explore a subject and offer insights to the audience to broaden their understanding of the subject matter and broaden their worldview.
Keep the three elements at the back of your mind as you delve into how to write a rhetorical analysis because they will help you evaluate an author’s strength or weakness.
Remember that as you work on your rhetorical analysis, you are not taking sides on whether you agree with the author or not. For the purpose of your assignment, stick to the ‘how’ the author makes his or her point and spare the critic for your critical analysis.
Elements to look out for when writing a rhetorical analysis
As you find out how a rhetorician applied various techniques in their work, your focus should aim at the following:
Target audience – These are the people the author had in mind while creating the piece of work. Ask yourself the people likely to read, watch or sit back and listen to that narration. If you can crack this nut, then you understand author’s mind.
Author’s purpose – Are you able to answer the ‘why’ question? What compelled the creator to put together that piece of work?
Organization of the work – Find out the structure of the work plus how this arrangement may affect the audience.
Language usage – What kind of language does the author use. Does this language match the level of the audience? Establish different ways the language complements the author’s efforts to influence the reader.
Appeals – Perhaps this is the most important element that will give you a grip on how to write a rhetorical analysis. These are the tools, which rhetorician use to build an argument. They include pathos, logos and ethos. Do not be anxious about these appeals, we have a whole section explaining each with relevant examples.
Supporting evidence – These are proofs, which the creator of the work gives to back their argument.
3 Easy Steps to follow when writing your rhetorical analysis
With the above background about rhetorical analysis, let us look at three simple steps to follow when handling your assignment. By the time you are through with the third step, you will have honed your skills to a standard level.
Step 1: How to spice an introduction when writing a rhetorical analysis
The introduction of your rhetorical analysis plays a major role because it sets the pace for the rest of your paper. It will give the reader a reason to read on or trash it and move to something else.
Apply the following tips to come up with an excellent introduction for your rhetorical analysis:
Start with a hook: Pique your reader from the word go. Begin your analysis with something interesting that captures attention. For example, you can use anecdotes to tell short stories, which relate to your assignment. You may also use startling statistics, a quote from a famous personality etc. All these will leave your audience longing to read subsequent sections of your rhetorical analysis. If you can hold their interest, then you are on the right path towards mastering how to write a rhetorical analysis.
State the purpose of your rhetorical analysis – Orient your readers by saying why you are writing the paper.
Give the context of your analysis – Do not go straight into analyzing the text. Contextualize your analysis to move with every reader at the same pace. People want to know where you are coming from before you show them the destination ahead.
Do not forget your thesis statement. This statement comes at the end of your introduction paragraph. It captures your main idea and gives direction to your paper. Thesis will also enhance the logical flow of your points.
Let us look at an example before we move to the next section.
Example: Rhetorical analysis Intro
“Cleaning: The Final Feminist Frontier” by Jessica Grose
[Hook]: ‘A woman’s work is never done’ is a common American saying, which most women grew up knowing it was true. [Context]: Jessica Grose, the author of “Cleaning: The Final Feminist Frontier,” is one such woman. [Author’s purpose]: In her article published by the New Republic in 2013, Jessica holds that while modern men are helping in childcare and cooking at home, cleaning unfairly remains a core responsibility of women. [Thesis Statement]: The author enhances her credibility through personal anecdotes and reliable sources, giving stats and applying emotional appeals successfully; but Grose’s argument weakens toward the end as she tries to woo the audience, denting her credibility.
Adapted from: stlcc.edu/Student_Resources/
This is a nice rhetorical analysis introduction. Study it and try drafting your own using the secrets of how to write a rhetorical analysis, which we have previously covered in this guide.
Step 2: How to create appealing body paragraphs for your rhetorical analysis
This is the analysis section of your paper. The body will carry the weight of your paper and determine the quality of time you invested in research.
Explain the strategies, which the rhetorician uses to develop his argument. It is important to discuss what the author is saying chronologically such that you move from section to section or paragraph to paragraph.
The epicenter of your rhetorical analysis is the appeals (ethos, logos and pathos)
Using ethos in your rhetorical analysis
This refers to how the author presents himself as a reliable authority on the issue at hand in order to earn the audience’s trust and respect. The author’s past reputation, knowledge on the topic and style of writing marks his credentials.
How to blend pathos in your rhetorical analysis
This is how the author makes emotional appeals to the reader or viewer. Rhetoricians always humanize a topic by hitting the human element of the issue. You can look for an instance where the author uses evokes sympathy from the audience. Also, bring out overuse of pathos, which always results into manipulation of the audience.
Crowning your rhetorical analysis with logos
The last appeal that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis is logos. This is the author’s claim and use of evidence to back it. Look for credible sources plus how the author weaves the points together.
Conclusion: Final step of writing a rhetorical analysis
At this stage, you have done all the donkeywork. Crown you work with a positive lasting impression. You can achieve this through:
Restating your thesis – Reword your thesis; explain how it harmonizes with the author’s main points.
Restating your main ideas – Be brief. Explain how these points support your thesis.
Call for action – State any action i.e. the need for further research. Also, challenge the audience to do something after reading your analysis.
At this point, you have enough tips on how to write a rhetorical analysis. What’s more, get on to your assignment and nail it, as simple as that.
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Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline
Knowing how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline is the best way to organize your thoughts and ideas in proper format for a good paper. A well written outline will offer you a better plan on how to craft the various sections of your rhetorical essay paper. In fact, writing an outline enables you to set the pace and tone of the essay while also putting things in proper order.
A good rhetorical analysis essay outline will make the task of writing your paper quite easy and fast since it contains the basic points to be discussed. An outline is a framework of how you intend to present the essay from start to conclusion. This implies it should show all the ideas that you are planning to share in the paper, according to how they will be presented.
Although the definition of a rhetorical analysis essay sets it on a different plane with other types of essays or academic papers, the writing formats are almost similar. Therefore, the skills on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline can as well be applied in other papers.
Writing an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay requires careful thought, reasoning, contrast and comparison of ideas. By being able to deliver a good one, you can significantly enhance your writing and general communication skills.
Tips on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline
At the time of writing a rhetorical analysis essay outline, you must have done thorough research on the topic and identified various ideas to use in analyzing the given piece. However, there are a few pointers that you should take note of in order to deliver a unique and well organized outline for the paper.
One of the most important things to note when writing an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay is that the paper is not a summary, instead should explore and give a detailed account of the various elements of rhetoric used in the piece being analyzed. This means that your outline should highlight all the aspects without being too brief.
The points presented in the outline are the ones that will be discussed in the essay paper, thus, you have to carefully go through each of them to ensure that they will effectively serve the intended purpose.
Refine your thesis statement to reflect the specific claim that you intend to explain in the essay. Remember it is the thesis that will guide you on the points to include in the outline.
Some of the key elements to look into include the speaker, occasion, audience and purpose. Besides, you should also consider the topic or subject of the essay. It is also important that you look into the tone of the ideas that you plan to discuss.
Before writing an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay, it is also advisable that you re-examine the appeals of the paper. These include the ethos, pathos and logos.
You should also clearly define the style details that could make your paper to look and sound unique. These include elements like imagery, diction, syntax, and tone among others.
Another point that you need to consider is clarity. In order to avoid problems when writing the essay, it is advisable that you use simple language for easy reference. In the case whereby you are unable to use catch phrases, write full sentences or statements.
When choosing the points to list in the outline, try to always go for strong points that can make your argument more compelling. In case there is something that you are not sure of, it is important that you research on it to acquire sufficient information.
Since you will be required to give references to your sources in the essay, always make sure that all your sources are credible. It is recommended that you do away with information that does not have a reliable source since such would make readers to doubt your facts, and even end up spoiling the entire paper.
It should also be noted that an outline is not an actual essay but a simple plan. This implies you should simply list your points precisely without giving too much details. However, the outline must reflect the actual points or ideas that will be discussed in the final paper.
The best way to write a rhetorical analysis essay paper is through chronological order. Thus, your outline should also be crafted in a similar order for the best results.
Procedures on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline
After making sure that all your points are in order, you can now proceed to writing the rhetorical analysis essay outline. The steps outlined below will guide you on how to craft a good outline for a rhetorical analysis essay.
The introduction to a rhetorical essay should give general information or summary about the subject being analyzed so readers can know what to expect in the discussion. In the outline, list the key points that will be used in telling readers about the topic.
It is also advisable that you clearly write your thesis the way it will be put in the essay. In the thesis, you should also hint how the argument will be supported in the paper.
In the introduction, you should also list the SOAPS for your analysis, just so you don’t forget when writing.
The outline should show how every paragraph in the essay will be presented with regards to content and order.
The best way to organize the body paragraphs for your essay is through separating them into sections that highlight the ethos, pathos and logos. This will help in bringing out the rhetorical appeal of your paper.
Under the logos section, list at least one claim and highlight how it will be evaluated in relation to the subject of analysis.
For ethos, show how you will analyze how the speaker or writer has applied his or her position to enhance credibility.
In the case of pathos, you can simply list the details that may change the perception of readers or viewers on the subject of analysis.
In order to give the paper more weight, it is advisable that you list more than two evidences or quotes to help in explaining your appeals.
It is also advisable that you write a short statement indicating how you will wrap up the discussion by highlighting the consequences and impacts of the appeals.
The main aspects of a conclusion are restatement of the thesis and main ideas and giving directions to further research if necessary. Simply write a short statement indicating how you will re-phrase the thesis in the final part of the paper.
You should also list the key points of the paper that will be briefly illustrated in the conclusion to remind readers of the discussion. On the other hand, you can also simply write a short sentence to show how you will summarize the points discussed in the paper.
In case there is need for further studies on the subject, you should also indicate in the outline, how you will present it in the essay.
Examples of rhetorical analysis essay outline
It is also recommended that you read rhetorical analysis essay outline samples in order to easily find out how a good one should be crafted. The following are some examples to inspire you in writing.
Sample Outline for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
- Introduction: Background and Thesis
- Background Information
Information about the work
- Title, author, publication info
- Statement of the author’s topic and argument
- Thesis Statement
- Main reaction to the writer’s argument (Evaluation)
- Support with specific, analytical reasons (Appeals)
- Body: Analysis, Interpretation and Evaluation
- Main Point 1: Use of Logos in source …
(Read the whole outline on this link.
Detailed sample Rhetorical Analysis essay Outline
- Introduce an article from the New York Times entitled, ‘’Is This the Nastiest Election Ever?’’ authored by Peter Manseau
- Purpose: To persuade the audience that this election is no worse in terms of ‘’dirty campaigning’’ than any other election in history.
- Audience: Readers of the New York Times, specifically Americans interested in the upcoming election.
- Context: Several weeks from the election
- Thesis: Pater Manseau of New York Times uses rhetorical strategies like ethos and logos…
Find the entire sample here.
Sample outline for a rhetorical analysis essay; The Use of Appeals in King’s ‘’Letter from Birmingham Jail’’
Thesis Statement: Although one might think that Martin Luther King Jr., would perceive the clergy men who wrote ‘’A Call for Unity’’ a hostile audience, he wisely answers them as if they were, not ardent segregationists, but a wavering audience not aware of the entire argument.
- Ethos: A strong ethical is mounted establishing credibility
- Many outside Authorities…
Follow this link to read the whole sample.
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