Solutions to Gender Inequality in the Workplace
It is indisputable that gender biasness exists in different forms at workplace. For example, there are cases where people of the same gender are paid different salaries after performing the same task. In some scenarios, employers hire and train people of the same gender, with the belief that certain jobs are meant for men or women. There are numerous cases where companies fail to promote expectant women and favor those who are not pregnant. History is further replete with cases of sexual harassment at workplaces, most of which are directed to women. With all these, the impact of gender inequality is dire and there is need to tame the situation. This essay explores solutions to gender inequality in the workplace.
The first step towards stumping out gender inequalities in our offices is embracing actions, which promote equality at workplace. For example, it is necessary to empower the management through training. It is true that there are managers who do not understand the basics of gender inequity and have no idea of how to resolve issues relating to this topic. Thus, educate managers in all aspects of discrimination, including common and subtle areas of management. Of great significance is equipping them with knowledge on how to identify discrimination among the staff and be able to deal with the situation. Above all, the management should how measures in place on how to prevent possible cases of gender unfairness at workplace in future.
Additionally, it is paramount to provide childcare support and facilities at workplace for fathers and mothers working for you. Through this, employees get motivated and work hard to achieve their objectives. To obtain better results, it is vital to make family leave available to men and women without favoring any gender. Moreover, empowering women and recognizing their impact at workplace is a practical way of dealing with gender inequalities in business. How do you do this? The easiest approach is showcasing successful women of the organization. This should cut across departments and levels, regardless of the positions these women hold.
While these efforts are important, they should not go unnoticed by everyone else at workplace. This calls for publicizing efforts to augment gender balance. Besides making it known to the employees, external publics like other companies and vendors ought to be aware of these efforts. You can achieve this through media adverts in newspaper editorials, ads or on the company website for everyone to know what you are doing about gender inequality.
Nonetheless, legislation that promotes gender equality is vital. It is the role of the management to develop and implement gender equality policies. For instance, the company should hold the view that men and women deserve the same pay as long as they are performing the same tasks for the company. Besides this, the policies should embrace all-round equality. For such, men and women should be treated fairly and equally during recruitment, training and promotion at all times. However, most companies focusing on maximum utilization of workers, the management should strike a balance between their employees’ duties and their personal lives. For example, there should be equal opportunities for employees to pursue further studies to better their careers without losing their jobs.
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Effects of Gender Inequality in Africa
In Africa, gender inequality is not a new thing. It is an issue that has been raising eyebrows on what should be done to eradicate this collective problem. Gender discrimination is mostly violated in Africa and many countries have not been able to minimize its effects. Gender inequality is a social process whereby people are treated differently and disadvantageously under similar circumstances on the basis of whether they a man or woman. It is a vice that should be condemned by the young, old and even those holding big positions in companies or government.
Gender inequality issues have always focused on the many woes that women have to go through to defend their rights. This is an issue that has impact Africa in many ways and with the greatest magnitude. In many Africa countries, cases of physical, emotional and psychological abuse are reported while others go unheard. Surprisingly, gender discrimination has become the main concern for many governments across Africa, but only a few have hit a considerate scale in the battle with the vice.
There different examples of inequality in Africa that many victims have to endure or succumb to. For instance, some of the Africa nations especially west Africa use rape as a weapon. Militias have kidnapped and raped girls as young as eight years in order to stuck deals with government for the release of the captives.
Another example of gender inequality is fistula and young African girls especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many husbands have abandoned their women in case of such complications and they are stigmatized and rejected by their communities. For young girls in Africa nations, their fathers see them as bargaining tools to yearn for fat dowries. Their mothers cannot talk as they have gone through same mores. Female genital mutilation has led to deaths, loss of fertility and reduced sexual feelings. Lack of access to good education, domestic violence, lack of custody and citizenship rights are many other examples to look at.
Besides unexpected deaths, there are many other effects of gender inequality. This includes poverty. Many countries in Africa are poor because discrimination of a certain gender has made it had to increase productivity in a country. For instance, when hold incomparable household an intra-household know-how and if allowed to work in companies or do chores that are designated to men only aid improve the economy.
Increased infant mortality rate is another horrendous effect of gender inequality. Women are the caregivers in many homes, but many a times, they are not provided proper training on how to prepare build their families and have as many children as they want. In some communities, women are not allowed to go to college, but wedded to bring instant wealth. Health-related courses are helpful in the society if pursued by women as they are usually in-charge of their families. However, men too have a chance to pursue similar courses if interested and bring healthcare services to their homes.
Some Africa countries deprive women from accessing modern information and communication technologies as they are seen as technophobic. In essence, women embrace technology than men and if granted opportunity to learn they can help in industries and help improve economy and general living standards of a community. Gender discrimination hinders development not only in the education sector but also in the health, finance and agriculture sectors. Surprisingly, men like and enjoy women’s work as they contributed to economy wholeheartedly, but they are the first ones to discriminate them. Hence, as human beings, it is wide to mind welfare of person regardless of gender and status and kick gender inequality out of Africa.
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Factors Affecting Food Production in Africa
Agriculture is the spinal column of economy in Africa. Almost every nation in the second largest continent depends on agriculture for day to day survival. Food production industry is quite complex and holds a deep-rooted history. Advancements in technology have also impacted food production. It is a process that comprises factors such as land use and tenure, crop breeding and selection, crop and soil management, livestock breeding and harvesting and much more. A lot of factors have been cited to make it hard for many farmers to enjoy great outputs from their farmers.
Africa population has been increasing on daily basis and the demand for more food has also been affected in most of the nations in need. Millions of people in Africa fight with hunger every day. Most of those languishing in the menace are the victims of natural calamities, rural people and urban poor. African nations have chances of feeding their suffering people if they embrace better governance, better agricultural policies and rely on better agricultural training and many other effective measures.
Africa holds immeasurable potential for boosting food production in every nation. It can easily increase food crops and other profitable agricultural commodities by following the right ways of farming. According to the United Nations, if there is no progress in food production in the continent, then the estimated population of people suffering from hunger will increase rapidly and millions will relinquish to famine by 2050.
Notably, food production in Africa can easily increase with time if better strategies are embraced. For instance, Africa agriculture experienced a 3.5 percent growth in 2008. However, in the same year when recession hit the globe, food price spiked and this was a warning for better production. At the same time, the prices of staple foods also skyrocketed and this makes it clear that governments should be ready to take hold of factors affecting food production. These factors include;
- Water stress- agriculture amounts for 70% of the world’s consumption of fresh water that is also extracted for human use. The United Nations foresees that by 2025, irrigation demands will raise by 50 % to 100%. For farmers living in areas that receive low water amount will suffer greatly. Many countries in Africa take place in water wars, while a quarter of the population is languishing in water stress.
- Climate change- Agriculture is a great supplier of harmful greenhouse gases. Despite climate change been a
globe issue , it Alsip benefits agriculture by providing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere making it easy for plants to releasing more carbon and lead to global warming leading and this will lead to more industrial-scale farming. Unluckily, global warming will lead to increased localized drought. Climate change will also lead to an increase in pests activities which may mitigate food yields. In a sense, climate change can be good or bad for production, but with good agriculture zones, all can be well.
- Global economic crisis- World economic crisis have great impact on food production in Africa. Declining incomes worldwide and the effects of recession have impacted food production in Africa. Other nations that relied on food imports from africa have reduced their spending making it hard for Africa countries to make revenues in return. This has also led to lower exports and prices for agricultural commodities.
- Governmental and institutional policies or failings- many governments in Africa pay less attention on food production or security. Institutional problems have led to lack of funds and debt capital for farmers to invest on farming greatly. Without government incentives, many farmers have moved into other profit making ways.
- Poor access to the markets- Lack of proper infrastructures in Africa has proved to be a challenge to many farmers. Many farmers suffer losses when they lack quicker and better ways of delivering their produces.
Factors such as diseases like HIV/AIDS, slow progress in regional integration and lack sustainability have also made food production challenging in most of African nations. To meet the high demands for food in the continent, multinational and collaborative efforts that integrate the best research, training and technologies needed to increase food production for many decades.
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Silent Springs by Rachel Carson
According to the Silent Springs thesis, organisms that include birds, human beings and animals are dying because modern pesticides are being used without restrictions. The emphasis of this thesis is that silent spring was caused by pesticides’ use without proper precaution which destroyed every organism. The population poisoned itself slowly by misusing pesticides. Using pesticides in this manner leads to the death of not just the pest that is targeted by the pesticides but also the essential organisms.
The aim of giving this thesis this title was to remind readers about the nature of a spring that was there before the introduction of pesticides. This title was aimed at making people envision a silent spring without birds’ sounds since all birds have been eliminated by the used pesticides. The poem, “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” by John Keats inspired this title. There was a line in this poem stating that sedge was withering in the lake and that there were no birds singing.
Carson stated clearly that she is not an advocate of the prohibition of pesticides. Instead, she advocates for proper and responsible handling and use of pesticides. People should be informed about the effects that pesticides have on their environment. Using different case studies, she explained how chemical pesticides affect the environment negatively. She also gives instances where organisms have been hurt by chemicals when handled poorly.
These problems happened because the country focused more on economic growth as well as the benefits of increased agricultural production without paying attention to the negative effects that are likely to occur.
Pesticides refer to chemical or biological substances that repel, control or kill some plant or animal life that hurt the needed organism. There are two major categories of the pesticides that humans use in controlling pests. These are organic and synthetic pesticides. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloror-ethane (DDT) is among the popular synthetic pesticides. This belongs to a category of chemicals that are called chlorinated hydrocarbons. Despite being extremely dangerous, it is used to kill insects and its effects are not realized immediately. It has lasting effects because it moves through the food chains.
This implies that once used, it can affect organisms that it was not sprayed on directly. Dieldrin, aldrin, chloridane, heptachlor and endrin are other types of the commonly used synthetic pesticides. Organic pesticides include malathion, parathion and arsenic. In the Silent Springs thesis, Carson describes the chemical poisons used by most farmers and households in killing insects. During the time when Carson wrote this thesis, DDT was a common non-organic pesticide in use.
Once a DDT pesticide has been introduced in the environment, the movement and persistence of this pesticide determine the level of harm that it will cause on other organisms that the user was not targeting. Majority of the used pesticides are not degradable. As such, they penetrate the soil after dissolving in water after which they harm the organisms that they get into contact with. Aquatic organisms and those living within the soil are affected the most. Many people believed that DDT was harmless because in the power form in which it was used, its effects are not instant. Nevertheless, essential enzymes within the animal bodies are inhibited by the active ingredient in DDT. The accumulation of this pesticide in the body causes adverse effects which eventually are transferred via the animals’ food chains.
DDT is also capable of moving across the placenta’s wall to affect the unborn children or animals after the parents get in contact with it. It affects vertebrates as well since they mostly feed on worms. High quantities of DDT were used to spray trees. Earthworms ate and mulched leaves that fell with this chemical. Birds fed on these warms and therefore they acquired the chemical. There were also birds which ate insects on trees which already had the chemical. Most farmers use insecticides in their farms and these affect fish in their ponds. This is because the chemicals are washed from the trees by rains and deposited in the ponds and other water bodies by the surface runoff.
Humans are also affected by these chemicals. Most people working in the field were affected by DDT. Cancer was one of the effects of DDT in both adults and children. Humans absorb these chemicals through the skin. Rachel Carson conducted extensive research in ecology before writing this thesis. Her thesis introduced the basic ecological concepts in America. Exactly how did the failure to note this interrelatedness led to different problems that Carson highlighted? How was the control programs’ effectiveness limited by this interrelatedness or how did it render them counter-productive?
In the last chapter, “The other road” Carson provides the alternatives that people can use in saving organisms from chemical pesticides. The best alternatives that Carson suggests are biological controls. This is because using biological controls is easy. They are also safe to humans and animals, effective and cheap. Biological controls work within the natural rules. They have no interference with the target insects’ predators. Additionally, they do not affect the environment and habitat of their target insects. There are also biological controls that are able to sterilize insects.
Inspiration that is similar to what Carson provides in her thesis is very important in the contemporary world. With the current technological advancement, people are just using pesticides without considering their effects on them and the environment. Cancer is a disease that is affecting adults and children. Build-up of chemicals in the body might be one of the causes of cancer in the contemporary society yet people are using chemicals uncontrollably.
Biological controls were commonly used in the past but these were gradually abandoned when chemical methods emerged. This is because people wanted to find out if they were effective. Almost the entire population is now using chemical methods and this is becoming problematic. This is because even with the risks that these chemicals pose, people still use them and using biological pest control methods seems difficult to most people.
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Origin of Complex Societies along Nile River
Human civilization is a continuous process that can be traced back to the origin of man. Traditional societies initially used gatherings and hunting as their sources of livelihood. Farming, industrialization and agriculture however set in to offer rise to complex societies gradually. The process was indeed gradual in different communities spreading over the years.
For instance, by the year 3000 B.C complex societies had set up along River Nile in Egypt, Africa. The societies included the Axum and Kush. Dense populations, political and economic power, creativity and spiritual organizations characterized the societies (Bernal 58). This paper therefore analyses the origin of complex cultures along River Nile until 3000 BC.
Civilization along River Nile also took the form of populated cities in the valley of the river. Initially, communities along the valley employed gathering and hunting in the wild as the only resources. Fresh water from the river was sufficient to feed the people that settled on the river bank. Early settlers therefore had more than enough water and food for their survival, and it was during Ice Age.
Ice Age however gradually came to an end leading to more rainfall, increased temperatures and lower sea levels in different parts of the world in 15000 BC. Climate change made it essential for man to domesticate desirable and edible plants and animals to ensure constant flow of food. Man gradually adapted to this kind of life, leading to agriculture and farming. Man, also over time became dependent on this kind of livelihood leading to waning of gatherings and hunting (Burstein 27).
River Nile area is no doubt extremely fertile based on its proximity to water for irrigation as well as its rich nutrients. As the settlers opted for farming, they also cleared more land to enhance their source of livelihood. This was additionally successful based on the fact that new desirable plants grew thus, feeding the community along the bank. The success however led to intensified farming and agricultural practices (Bernal 58).
The valley of River Nile was also cleared even more and by the end of 6000 BC, man settled for more innovative ways of increasing agricultural surplus for economic purposes. As farming became more of an economic venture, many people also settled along the river to clutch the opportunity. It is an opportunity that led to increased populations along the valley of the river by the year 4000BC.
Therefore, people worked and lived closely together than they did in the past years. The trend in the end, led to growth of cities that were characterized by dense populations (Connah 3). Dense populations were also a source of economic power and innovation. The settlers through Nile River opened up links to other regions across the globe creating more economic activities.
The activities included energy sources, housing, construction and manufacturing. Disruptions of natural environment also led to ecological issues creating more economic and social innovations in a quest for survival (Bernal 58). Some of the members of the community for instance took up specializations in different professions thus creating more wealth.
Trade in the form of exchange of goods and services also begun. The art of writing also became essential for record keeping purposes. Governance on the other hand took a more organized structure with more complex communities leading to leadership hierarchy. Hierarchy form of leadership was common in Axum and Kush kingdoms that had powerful political organizations.
By the year 3000 BC, the societies living along River Nile were complex because of such aspects. As a result, it led to civilization in this part of the globe (Connah 15).
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Bernal, Martin. Black Athena: The Afro-Asiatic Roots of Classical Civilizations. London: Free Association Books. 1987. Print
Burstein, Stanley. Ancient African Civilizations: Kush and Axum. Princeton: Markus Wiener, 1998. Print
Connah, Graham. African Civilizations: An Archaeological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2002. Print.
Equador’s capital town and the world’s highest city housing both judicial and legislative activities is none other than Quito. With its strategic location in the Northern section of Equador, Quito serves as the capital town of Pichincha province. The historic sites of the city comprise of the most highly preserved and attractive tourist attractions in America. Also, it has been ranked among the cultural avenues that are most attractive in the world. Quito has a central square situated about twenty five kilometers towards southern section of the equator (Gauderman 55).
Quito has a very large population of over 2, 29, 191 people according to the national census of 2010. In regard to population size and economic advancement, the city ranks second after Guayaquil and it has also been ranked as most developed city in terms of cultural and political affairs, which are the major developmental factors upon which power of political elites, company executives, bankers and wealthy families is reflected. The population of the city therefore comprises of executives who are wealthy and some indigenous eye catching people that make up the largest percentage of the population (Leona 9).
The unique experience of the city which is what every tourist searches for is ranked as the major motivator for the destination. Though the city is built upon historical remains of Incan city, it is well maintained and offers a unique yet modern experience that every modern traveler is searching for. While Quito remains as an historic site that is least distorted in Latin, America, it offers an experience that is realistic to different categories of tourists. Among people likely to travel to the city include, cultural tourists pursuing to enjoy an experience that is unique to the region. Equally, the dental care offered in the city is unique and has continued to attract a large number of dental tourists who visit the city to have their teeth fixed (Robert 11).
The city attracts different kinds of tourists such as single individuals, children, men, women, senior people, families and married people. The city also receives both international and local visitors. While majority of the visitors are from the US, Quito equally receives visitors from other regions of the globe and especially those looking for dental care. Majority of people who into the city are low-income earners opting for the destination because it is favorable and affordable. According to Kathia (47), the city has a potential but ethical tourism that has remained postponed for years though it has an expansive range of educational and teaching instruments for students. Equally, there is also a high demand for cultural and dental tourism that currently is delayed by the ongoing projects that are related to infrastructural facility construction which is inclusive of airport, roads and an electrical system. The physical features of Quito are attractive and include a cool climate, volcanoes, financial districts as well as high class resident facilities. Additionally, it has cultural resources which include the language, customs, etiquette and Krakow historic site (Smith 67).
The tourist attractions in Quito are expansive as well and include beautiful sceneries such as waterfalls, rivers, volcanoes and different kinds of exotic orchids and birds. Equally, the city has a cultural heritage that is attractive and characterized by beautiful historic sites, sports, theater performances and museums. With the rapid development of infrastructural facilities, forecasts indicate there is potential expansion in the sector of tourism in Quito (Robert 13). Equally, the city has taken some commendable steps in promoting business, trade and cultural relations with other cities and eventually, this will expand tourism within the city. Rapid changing market demands and the need of pursuing affordable services has also seen a large percentage of people diversify in tourism sector within the country as majority of people enter into the city easily (Leona 12).
Quito is a tourist destination that is unique with a large variety of physical and cultural resources attracting both international and local tourists. The city is also known for maintenance of non-altered historic sites, which motivate tourists from different walks of life to choose the location. Rapid infrastructural facilities expansion and the impact of globalization indicates there is potential expansion of the tourism industry.
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Gauderman, Kimberly. Women’s Lives in Colonial Quito: Gender, Law, and Economy in Spanish America, University of Texas Press: Austin, TX, 2003.
Kathia, Porter. “Ayni in the Global Village: Building Relationships of Reciprocity through International Service-Learning”, Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 8.1(2001):45-56.
Leona, Martin. “From Guayaquil to Quito: Three Nineteenth-Century Travel Narratives”, MACLAS Latin American Essays, 2001.
Robert, Hook. “Review: Plazas and Barrios: Heritage Tourism and Globalization in the Latin American Central Historico”, Electrical Green Journal, 1.23 (2006):11-23.
Smith, Mick. The Ethics of Tourism Development, Routledge: London, 2003.
The top hierarchy of Apple leadership has tight-knit, small types of management that come from different divisions that are grouped close to Jobs and Tim Cook’s work places. This team has associates who take full liability of anything that may happen as they watch. After decisions are made and orders given by this structure, the expectation is that there will be no failure in their execution.
Their interest is not to see the advancement of 1,000 areas blossom in the entire organization. Their job is clearly described and they do it to their best levels. At the top level, there is a group of approximately 46,000 full-time workers of Apple organization. These are mostly in advertising and marketing fields. The workers have properly drilled routines as well as practices. Most of them come from colleges working in Apple’s shops, Professional Cafes.
There is also the authority style of Job. He has ten rules that include maintaining personal tricks, being callous, and not having concentration categories. Job has an amazing charm that makes him flexible with the workers. He is an unpredictable and psychological narcissist who has an all-commanding self-confidence. Job is an expert in psychological adjustment. He was able to handle difficult choices since the beginning. Apple organization and Microsoft Company had a long term action in court. He went to negotiate an argument directly in order to eliminate this court action. Jobs performed to the best level possible by assigning and pointing areas that are designed for individuals with strong points. He has a great eye for specific details.
Finally, Jobs knows the importance of clients’ encounters and connections. He prioritizes in ensuring that the products of Apple organization have a convenient and easy experience with clients. His main objective is eliminating misunderstandings while simplifying things for customers. This has led to a broad gap between Apple and its competitors.
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- There was an extensive damage caused by Hurricane Sandy in the Caribbean Islands. The hurricane landed in these islands before reaching New York. Here is a description of the damage caused by the hurricane:
- 69 people died within the Islands (Williams 2012).
- 200 people died in New York (Super-storm New York 2:20).
- The hurricane damaged the communication system. It knocked out telephone network completely (Super-storm New York 14:30). A large portion of the infrastructure of the cable companies was lost.
- The hurricane knocked down power lines and over 8 million residents of New York lost power (Super-storm New York 2:35).
- The storm dumped sea water inland causing an explosion of power substations and further destroying electrical grid (Super-storm New York 11:50).
- Fire was sparked by the power lines that were brought down in Queens. This destroyed 111 homes at the Breezy Point (Super-storm New York 19:35).
- The hurricane destroyed a subway system in New York, more so the substation at South Ferry. The storm left it unusable (Tollefson 2013).
- The storm destroyed coastline houses with some being lifted from the ground and later dumped inland. The storm left some houses structurally unsound forcing owners to demolish them.
- The waters of the storm washed away the tracks of overland railway which necessitated their complete replacement.
- The hurricane damaged road network, more so the bridges which were affected the most. The flood waters dumped debris along the roads
2. Hurricane Sandy growing into a super-storm
Several factors created conditions that facilitated the formation of a “perfect storm” which increased Hurricane Sandy (Masters 2012). This hurricane was formed from a huge wave from the African tropics. The wave interacted with the pressure of the low regions found in Central Caribbean. In general, hurricanes that form as a result of huge tropical disturbances grow to larger sizes and this was the case with Hurricane Sandy. This hurricane formed within Caribbean which is a relatively humid region. It is possible for a hurricane to increase in size when it forms within an area where the atmospheric pressure is high.
This storm’s center point passed through Cuba. Despite the fact that this center point lacked energy of a warm ocean since it passed over a land, it had outlying air that was circulating over a warm ocean which kept drawing ocean’s energy. On re-emerging from the ocean, hurricane Sandy had outer portions with extra energy. These may have enabled it to expand further. From Cuba, it moved to the Bahamas. Here, it had an interaction with a trough of low pressure. The upper-level winds of this trough created a shear of a high wind for this hurricane which destroyed it making it weaker. Nevertheless, because of the storm-force winds from the tropics, this storm was able to cover a larger area which compensated for the lost energy.
As it moved towards North Pole, the storm acquired additional spin because of the rotation of the earth. This Hurricane leveraged extra spin which grew its size further. Ideally, hurricane Sandy ought to have entered the Atlantic Ocean to peter out. Nevertheless, the high pressure area over Greenland made the hurricane not to turn into this ocean. It was compelled to double back and move to the continental U.S.
When it approached the New Jersey land fall, it had a contact with a system of low pressure of the extra-tropical region. Cold air was pumped into the hurricane by this extra-tropical storm. This turned it into a system of extra-tropical low pressure. In most cases, the coverage of extra-tropical storms is wider than that of hurricanes. This can be attributed to the fact that their force is drawn from the frontal boundary which may have a length of many miles. As such, hurricane Sandy created a landfall with its strongest winds being spread over a wide area making people in Indiana and Nova Scotia to feel its effects.
Hurricane Sandy grew to form the ‘super-storm’ because several factors were combined in its formation. This hurricane was an event that occurs once per 500 years. Nevertheless, with the changes in the conditions of the global weather that are causing global warming, events similar to hurricane Sandy can become a common phenomenon.
3. Storm surge
Storm surge refers to an increase in water past the predicted astronomical tide (Introduction to storm surge n.d.). The winds of the storm cause this surge while driving water towards the shoreline.
The surge of super-storm Sandy was very large because of two major reasons. One, it was during the full-moon when it arrived in New York (Super-storm New York 37:25). At this time, the earth and moon gravitational attraction is very strong. The bulging of sea water tends to move to the moon. This causes a rise in tides by up to two feet.
Second, this hurricane was already an extra-tropical storm which had winds that were stronger than those of a hurricane. A storm surge was created by these winds. Their combination with high tide caused a large surge of the Sandy storm.
3. Low Manhattan’s damage
Hurricane Sandy caused severe damage in Lower Manhattan because of where it is located. The land on which Lower Manhattan is built was realized after a sea reclamation process. For many centuries, city boundaries were expanded by the residents through damping of different materials into this sea. This created a land where buildings were erected (Super-storm New York 28.00). With increasing land pressure, wetlands of the city became prime real estate that were encroached by the people. Water was taken back after striking of the hurricane Sandy to the initial high line of water. This inundated the settlements of the low lying areas. There were no wetlands that serve as the storms’ buffer. This made the storm hit the human settlements instantly which led to an extensive damage.
There was also a considerable damage in the coastal cities. This is because there were coastal developments near the line of the high tide.
5. Prevention measures
Several measures may be taken as way of reducing the possibilities of the damage of such a storm in future. They include:
- Constructing large walls along the shore or coastline to provide protection against the surge.
- Restoration of the wetlands that serve as buffers of the storm.
- Relocating people to the higher grounds.
- Enforcing and changing the codes of new building to facilitate the construction of storm-resistant structures
Among these measures, some can be implemented with ease. For instance, new buildings that do not conform to new codes should not be approved. People should be encouraged to relocate to high grounds. Barriers might not be effective and building them is expensive. Restoring wetlands might not work either because some are irreparably damaged.
6. New Normal
A ‘New normal’ is emerging. Over the past century, the global temperature has increased sustainably on average. This has an impact on weather patterns globally in different ways. There is a steady rise in the sea level which is reaching high levels that have not been witnessed before. According to the prediction of climate models, such events might start occurring once in every 500 years and eventually once per every 200 years. As such, in the emerging new normal extraordinary weather conditions might become a common place.
- Masters, J. (2012). Hurricane Sandy’s huge size: freak of nature or climate change? Wunderground.com. Retrieved from http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/hurricane-sandys-huge-size-frea k-of-nature-or-climate-change
Introduction to storm surge (n.d). National Weather Service. Retrieved from http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/hurricane/resources/surge_intro.pdf
National Geographic Superstorm New York What Really Happened. Youtube. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bP1EdsiEO8o
Williams, M. (30 October 2012). Superstorm Sandy damage assessment: a round-up. The Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/world/2012/oct/30/superstorm-sandy-damage-round-up
Tollefson, J. (13 February 2013). Natural Hazards: New York City versus the Sea. Scientific American. Retrieved from www.scientificamerican.com/article/natural-hazards-new-york-city-vs-the-sea/
This disease is also known as hepatolenticular degeneration disease, which can be fatal is not acted upon. According the revelations from medical research, this disease affects an estimated one person in every thirty thousand people. It develops as a result of copper poisoning of the body cells and organs. According to medical experts, the disease should be contained at an early stage instead of waiting until it reaches a lethal quantity. This disease usually affects organs like the liver and brain. In normal conditions, the body accumulates excess copper than it can actually accommodate, thereby causing an attack on these sensitive body organs. The presence of copper in the brain and liver can cause serious medical conditions that require immediate attention, otherwise lives can be lost. Copper belongs to the category of trace elements that are required by the body in small quantities so as to undertake various biological operations. However, a lot of the element should be released through body cells and organs by excretion.
This is the concept that helps in differentiating normal people from those suffering from Wilson’s disease, since they are usually unable to excrete excess copper compounds from their bodies. As mentioned earlier, this health condition is genetic and is caused by the presence of excess accumulation of copper in the body, which eventually attacks vital organs. The presence of this disease is noticed right from the time that a child is born, and the patient develops uniqueness in terms of physical and psychological behaviors (Sang, Hee, Sun Ho & Dae Ghon, 2013, p. 500). Excess copper in the body makes the conditions of the body to worsen, and mostly ends in death if not attended to. The symptoms of this condition are evident in the liver right from the time that one is born, however, it is more pronounced during adolescence. At this stage, excess copper in the body begins to acquire a new state and consequently generates adverse effects on the liver. The condition of the liver is only visible through microscopes and upon testing its physical states are determined based on the condition.
Causes and Inheritance of Wilson’s Disease
The cause of Wilson’s disease is directly linked to the failure of a certain gene that is found in the chromosome. The failure of gene 13 is what results into the severe symptoms that later turn into Wilson’s disease. The gene is commonly known as ATP7B, and primarily meant to control the copper levels in body organs. In the event that the gene fails to function as required, the liver is among the first organs to be adversely affected. As a result of this, there is a low volume of copper excreted, thereby leading to accumulation of bile within the bile glands that are found in the liver. This may end up in death. The excess bile that has high levels of copper piles up in the liver, and the compounds of copper seep outside the liver into the bloodstream and finally the brain. Once the copper elements get into the brain, the condition of the body deteriorates. Based on the poisonous nature of these compounds they usually pose great danger to the body organs.
This disease is inherited depending on the gene composition and alignment. The condition is a case of autosomal recessive disorder. This term is related to gene alignments behind its inheritance. For example, a person develops Wilson’s disease upon inheritance of the two abnormal ATP7B genes in the body. This pair of abnormal genes originates from both parents; father and mother (Tamura, Sugawara, Kishi, Hamamatsu, Kaneko & Makuuchi, 2005, 485). The simplest explanation of the occurrence of this disease can best be shown through a diagram. Based on the diagram of this gene, both parents must be carriers of the Wilson’s disease and the gene combination must be that the pair of abnormal genes constitutes the gene composition of the child.
The inheritance of a single abnormal gene by an individual makes him or her become a carrier. Carriers do not have the disease since one of their genes has the ability of controlling the function of copper within the organs. However, two carriers have higher chances of passing on the disorder to their offspring. These cases are established by chance and only take place in special circumstances. According to statistics on the review of the inheritance of Wilson’s disease, there is one case of the disorder in every 100 people. Looking at the cases whereby two people bearing abnormal genes have a child, certain conditions are impacted.
The first case according to the Wilson’s inheritance probability diagram is that there is one out of four chances that the offspring will have the condition. This is an implication that the child inherits the two abnormal genes from the mother and father. This results into the development of the disorder that can eventually be fatal. The second case involves the inheritance of just one abnormal ATP7B genes from both parents. The probability gene diagram indicates that only two chances out of four are available for this disorder to occur. The inheritance of a single gene from the parents is an implication that the child is a carrier and may not necessarily suffer from Wilson’s disease.
The other case is whereby the child has neither the disorder nor a carrier. This means that the child born will not suffer the defect of his or her parents. This rarely occurs since it amounts to only one of the possible four chances. In this case, the offspring inherits normal genes, hence, is free from the condition. The discussion of the occurrence of the mapping and implications on the child is basically behind all the diseases that are genetically induced.
Symptoms of Wilson’s Disease
The symptoms of this disorder can be experienced as early as six years in some people and also as later in life as forty years old. However, there are certain cases whereby the symptoms show in adolescence. Despite all these, Wilson’s disease is inherent in an individual right from birth. The symptoms vary depending on the target organs that are attacked, and the stages of development. The first category of symptoms is impacted by liver attack. The liver starts to develop problems once excess bile is accumulated in the liver. The toxic elements of copper deposited on the liver makes the organ to begin swelling. This condition is usually called hepatitis or simply liver inflammation. Hepatitis is a mild condition, but can adversely incapacitate parts of the body. For instance, existence of hepatitis may result into adverse conditions like jaundice, vomiting and severe abdominal pain. If this condition persists in the liver, it can cause other consequences like liver cells damage called cirrhosis (Brewer, 2005, p. 187). These problems can further impact fatal situations, and usually result into liver failure.
There is also another problem that is caused by severe case of excessive concentration of bile in the liver. With the restricted control of copper in the form of bile, the elements are absorbed into the bloodstream where they accumulate and end up in the brain. The presence of bile in the brain can generate adverse results that may cause physical imparities. For instance, the victim may experience tremor in the arms, general slowdown in speech, difficulty in swallowing food and in extreme cases lack of saliva. Other symptoms of presence of bile in the brain include unsteady walk, seizures and problems in writing.
These physical problems can torment the patient psychologically and even end up in psychological trauma. Some of the signs of psychological syndromes include depression, mood swings and inability of the individual to concentrate on his or her endeavors. Such symptoms make the person to become argumentative and at times even develop strong emotional reactions and vulnerability to anger. Poor state of self control is among the justifications of Wilson’s disorder in the later stages. At this stage, the high concentration of bile in the brain may cause severe conditions if not addressed on time. For instance, persistent accumulation of copper elements in the brain may become a chronic condition causing severe weakness of the muscles, development of dementia, and undue rigidity in the body organs and even joints.
Besides, copper build up in the liver may also be translated to other organs in the body. For instance, excessive concentration of copper in the eyes can lead to severity in the cornea and characteristic feature usually known as Kayser-Fleischer rings (Svetel, Pekmezovic, Petrovic, Tomic, Kresojevic, Jesic & Kostic, 2009, p. 855). This can be portrayed by the development of a brownish pigment in the cornea. Secondary impacts of the accumulation of excess copper is not limited to just the above symptoms but also extends to other body problems like pancreatitis, kidney damage, anemia, development of heart problems, menstruation defects among others such as miscarriages in women.
Diagnosis of Wilson’s Disease
There are various kinds of ways of diagnosing the Wilson’s disorder to make sure that its presence in the body is determined and the quantity ascertained rightfully. This entails the administration of several tests that are varied based on the level of suspicion, and the extent of prevalence. The first test is conducted through blood tests to measure the element known as caeruplasmin. The element is general a protein factor whose role is binding of copper within the human bloodstream. The ability of the body to excrete excess copper is determined by the level of caeruplasmin. In normal body conditions, it is ideal that the substance levels remain high. People with lower levels of it highly suffer Wilson’s disease.
The blood tests will help in establishing the quantity of caeruplasmin in the body. This will ascertain whether one has the disorder or not. The test forms part of the most effective way of determining the presence of Wilson’s disease in the body. Through the measurement of the protein that binds copper in the bloodstream, a conclusion is made on the level of the disorder (Da Silva-Junior, Carrasco, Mendes, A Lopes & De Bruin, 2008). Besides, extremely low levels of caeruplasmin are linked to the high rate of copper loss and consequently adverse conditions. Apart from the blood tests, there are several other tests that are also performed to establish the levels of copper within the body. For instance, other tests on kidney and liver function can also be conducted.
These organs are the most vulnerable to Wilson’s disease, and tests done on them can provide their corresponding states. Hepatitis test among other infections can also be conducted to determine whether the organs are affected or safe. In consideration of tests on the kidney, a brief examination provides detailed results on its status in relation to this disorder. The infection equally affects kidneys and they can at times even fail to effectively carry out their functions when attacked by Wilson’s disease.
The other test that can also be done to ascertain whether one has the disorder is urine test. Urine test is among the most viable means of establishing the contents of copper elements in the body. For instance, optimal levels of copper in the urine translate into a high level or abnormal presence of Wilson’s disease. According to the results of the test, low copper levels in urine may give the implication of lots of copper help up in the kidney, something that can cause severe kidney damage.
Besides, high level of copper in the urine may also mean over concentration of copper in the body. This test is conducted on all urine produced by a person in one day. This disorder can be determined by the presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings. Based on this test, the eye cornea is examined by an optometrist or eye specialist. Liver related tests can also be done to ascertain the level of copper and extent of infection. One of those tests is known as biopsy, which entails examination of a liver sample under a microscope. The results obtained from the test will indicate the extent of cirrhosis and copper levels in the liver.
The specialist can also request for other significant tests like MRI scan of the brain and kidney. These tests can compound the extent of damage in tow organs as impacted by Wilson’s disease (Merle, Weiss, Eisenbach, Tuma, S Ferenci & Stremmel, 2010, p.108). MRI scans provide detailed information on the state of the brain, in relation to the consequential impact of copper deposits. Confirmation of the disorder in the body should be complemented by other secondary tests on an individual’s brothers and sisters. Medical research shows that the brothers and sisters of the victim have one out of four chances of having the disease. With such information, the medical practitioners can generalize that the victims must have higher prospects of Wilson’s disorder. Based on this probability cycle, at least one or more of the victim’s brothers are carriers.
Treatment of Wilson’s Disease
This disease adversely affects the brain and liver respectively, thereby calling for an earlier treatment for the mitigation of the impacts. The first set of treatment method is oral ingestion of drugs. Penicillamine is among the drugs that can be used in reducing copper levels in the body. The drug can shoot down levels of copper that are linked to the inability of the liver to control and maintain the body Ph. When this drug is taken, it ensures that excess copper is expelled from the body in the form of urine. The administration of penicillamine can significantly reduce the concentration of copper in the bloodstream. For instance, it is lowered in cases whereby copper build up in the body becomes less. The drug is an essential preventive measure, and its use must be continued for a period of up to one year. Apart from penicillin, copper levels in the body can also be reduced through the administration of Trientine. This drug is a chelating agent that helps in removing excessive concentration of copper from the body (Okada, Shiono, Kaneko, Miwa & Yamagishi, 2010, p. 1238).
Wilson’s disease can be treated in several ways that may also involve the introduction of zinc into the body. The presence of zinc in the body is critical since it aids the blocking of the gut from the absorption of copper that may impact an excess quantity in the body. Zinc plays a preventive role by blocking the gut, thereby hindering future buildup of copper in the body organs. Apart from shielding the gut, zinc has another advantage over Penicillamine and Trientine, in that it shows no side effects after use. Zinc has a mild effect on the body and normally has no negative effects on the usual operations of the body. Ideals of zinc are related to the state of early signs of the disease. The early stages of infection can be prevented by taking of zinc. Other case where zinc intake is also appropriate is whereby the victim was initially treated using Penicillamine or Trientine, and the accumulation of copper in the body has already started going down. Zinc is also ideal for pregnant mothers since it helps in the proper development of the fetus.
Wilson’s disorder is quite hazardous to the normal functioning of the body, and treatment for life is considered the most viable way of wiping out the effects. This process occurs in sequences and starts from the clearance of excess copper in the body before embarking on mechanisms for stopping future accumulation. Preventive measures can eliminate the chances of re-buildup of copper in the body, completely controlling the future occurrence. Other cases of this disorder may end up in death, especially when determined at later stages of the infection. Such adverse conditions or organ damage may at times not respond to treatment through medication. Thus, the ideal treatment is organ transplant which happens in circumstances whereby the organs are completely damaged.
For instance, destruction of the liver requires liver transplant, to serve the purpose of the liver in the human body. However, this method is quite expensive such that many cannot afford it. Another simple means of ensuring that the body retains its stability is intake of adequate diet. The right diet helps the victim to stay safe from food related conditions, which can deteriorate the physical body. The recommended diets should not contain copper rich foods that may elevate the copper levels in the body (Martin, Bartels, Redlich, Hauss & Fangmann, 2008, p. 218). Every effort is aimed at reducing the copper levels in the body, which can be achieved through the consumption of foods with low copper contents. Some of the main foods to be avoided include liver, nuts, chocolate, legumes, mushrooms, shellfish and lobsters. It is essential for the individual to eat appropriate diet and also adopt correct eating habits in order to control the disorder.
In conclusion, Wilson’s disease is a severe condition that requires thorough diagnosis and treatment. If one gets ideal treatment, the effects in the body will be kept low. Early treatments are ideal for controlling the condition and preventing its future occurrence. This concept is the baseline of controlling the disorder.
Brewer, G. J. (2005). Neurologically Presenting Wilson’s disease: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment. CNS Drugs, 19(3), 185-192.
Da Silva-Júnior, F. P., Carrasco, A. B., Mendes, A., Lopes, A. T., Souza, M. E., & De Bruin, V. S. (2008). Swallowing dysfunction in Wilson’s disease: a scintigraphic study. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 20(4), 285-290. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.01036.x
Lai, C. H., & Tseng, H. F. (2010).Population-based epidemiologic study of Wilson’s disease in Taiwan. European Journal of Neurology, 17(6), 830-833. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02946.x
Machado, A., Deguti, M., Caixeta, L., Spitz, M., Lucato, L., & Barbosa, E. (2008).Mania as the first manifestation of Wilson’s disease.Bipolar Disorders, 10(3), 447-450. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00531.x
Martin, A. P., Bartels, M., Redlich, J., Hauss, J., & Fangmann, J. (2008).A single-center experience with liver transplantation for Wilson’s disease.Clinical Transplantation, 22(2), 216-221. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2007.00777.x
Merle, U., Weiss, K., Eisenbach, C., Tuma, S., Ferenci, P., & Stremmel, W. (2010). Truncating mutations in the Wilson disease geneATP7B are associated with very low serumceruloplasmin oxidase activity and an early onsetof Wilson disease. BMC Gastroenterology, 108-13.doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-8
Okada, T., Shiono, Y., Kaneko, Y., Miwa, K., Hasatani, K., Hayashi, Y., & … Yamagishi, M. (2010).High prevalence of fulminant hepatic failure among patients with mutant alleles for truncation of ATP7B in Wilson’s disease.Scandinavian Journal Of Gastroenterology, 45(10), 1232-1237. doi:10.3109/00365521.2010.492527
Sang Youn, L., In Hee, K., Sun Ho, Y., & Dae Ghon, K. (2013). Brief communication: A Case of Colonic Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Wilson`s Disease. Gut And Liver, 7(4), 500.
Svetel, M. M., Pekmezović, T. T., Petrović, I. I., Tomić, A. A., Kresojević, N. N., Ješić, R. R., & … Kostić, V. S. (2009). Long-term outcome in Serbian patients with Wilson disease.European Journal Of Neurology, 16(7), 852-857. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02607.x
Tamura, S., Sugawara, Y., Kishi, Y., Hamamatsu, N., Kaneko, J., & Makuuchi, M. (2005).Living-related liver transplantation for Wilson’s disease.Clinical Transplantation, 19(4), 483-486. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2005.00371.x
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Church of England Views on Homosexuality
The Church of England has so far been a major player in the development of the debate on homosexuality in the Anglican Communion as well as the English society. While being clear that homosexual acts were not morally upright, the Church of England in the 1950s led the call to decriminalize male homosexual acts. Until 1967, all homosexual acts were considered as criminal offences. Despite the legalization of gay marriage in the UK in March 2014, the Church of England that account for the largest population in the area maintains that homosexuality is a sinful act.
In a document declared by the House of Bishops in February 2014 entitled; Pastoral Guidance on Same Sex Marriage, the Church of England asserts that any form of homosexual behavior is a sin. However, the bishops of the church point out that the Church of England is of the belief that those who are experiencing same-sex attractions are beloved by God and are not to be dismissed out of hand as sinners who are despised by God. The Church of England reminds the church of the virtue of chastity and the need for regulation of sexual appetites in accordance with right reason, which is God’s design for mankind.
According to the traditional teachings of the Church of England, it is not morally upright for people of the same sex to develop attractions towards each other. However, the latest utterances from some of the bishops points out to a contradiction. Some bishops have noted that they would not issue any sanctions on clergy who are entering into same sex relationships. On the other hand, the Church of England allows for the ordination of gay priests provided that they are celibate.
The issue of Church of England views on homosexuality has elicited heated arguments among the followers and even bishops. In fact, it is still a bone of contention between the bishops with some for it and others against it. In 2003, Canon Jeffrey John was appointed as Bishop of Reading despite his pro-gay views. This is a move that has led to continuous criticism of the Church of England with many saying that the church is secretly advocating for homosexuality since it cannot say that the act is a sin when a number of its bishops are gay. Despite Cannon Jeffrey standing down as Bishop-elect of Reading, he was subsequently installed as Dean of St. Albans, meaning that he still serves the Church of England.
Archbishops of the Church of England seek to distinguish between the teaching authority on moral issues that surround same-sex marriage and the pastoral needs of Christians who posses attractions to the same sex. Despite stating that homosexuality is sinful, the Church of England clearly states that it doors are open to same sex couples who have the need to worship. Besides, the church will not hinder the baptism of their children. Homosexuals are welcome to participate in the activities of the Church of England as full members.
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Judaism Perspective of Life after Death
Judaism perspective of life after death holds that death of the earthly life is does not mark an end to human existence. However, Judaism is considered ambiguous when it comes to the issue of life after death. The soul’s immortality, the resurrection and world to come are prominent features in Judaism. Ambiguity comes in when it comes to the logistics of how these things will happen and how they are all related.
Basically, Judaism is mainly focused on the life on earth at the moment instead of the afterlife. It does not provide much dogma concerning afterlife. Thus, it leaves great room for development of personal opinion regarding life after death. An Orthodox Jew can believe that soul of a righteous person will go to a place that is similar to the heaven believed by Christians. They can also believe that righteous people are reincarnated via many lifetimes.
It is also possible for an Orthodox Jew to believe that the soul waits till when the messiah comes so that they can be resurrected. The same Jew can believe that demons torment souls of wicked persons or that these souls will simply be destroyed at death which will bring an end to their existence.
There are scholars who believe that life after death was a concept that was developed in the late history of Jews. Torah emphasizes concrete, immediate and physical punishments and rewards instead of abstract futures. However, there is evidence in Torah showing that life after death exists. There are several places where Torah indicates that there will be a reunion of the righteous with loved ones in the afterlife and the wicked will not be included in this reunion.
The righteous will enjoy life in Olam Ha Ba, which is a Hebrew term literally meaning the world to come. The righteous dead will be resurrected and rejoined with their loved ones and enjoy life in this world. The souls of the wicked persons will go to Gehenna where they will be punished for a limited time of twelve months after which they would be pure to move to the Gan Eden.
Gan Eden is a contrast of Gahenna. It is conceived as a place or paradise where individuals that led a righteous life went to. It is not clear whether Gan Eden is intended for the souls upon death or for the resurrected people when the Olam Ha Ba comes.
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Islamic Perspective of Life after Death
Islamic perspective of life after death holds that human existence does not end at death. Instead, humans continue to exist in form of resurrected physical and spiritual beings after human body dies. Everybody is scared of death and uncertainty of the life or what happens after death is frightening. As such, Islam perspective of life after death tries to explain what happens after one dies. According to Islam, death is a natural threshold of the next level of existence.
Islam holds that there exists a relationship between the conduct of an individual on earth and life beyond death. In the afterlife, some people will be punished while others will be rewarded in commensuration with their earthly conduct. According to Islamic teachings, a day shall come for God to resurrect and then gather the last and the first of the creation after which everyone will be judged justly.
During judgment, people will have to enter the final abode, Paradise or Hell. Islam perspective of life after death and faith are what urges people to avoid sin. In earthly life, it is normal for impious to enjoy and pious to suffer in some cases. However, Islam religion teaches that all will be judged on the Day of Judgment and that is when justice shall be served.
Faith in the life after death is among the fundamental beliefs of Muslims that one is expected to complete their faith. Rejecting life after death renders the other fundamental beliefs meaningless. Muslims explain this belief or concept of life after death and earthly conduct with example of a child that does not put their hand in a fire. This is because they know that by doing this they will burn. When the same child is required to do homework, they might feel lazy because they are not quite sure what good education can do for them in the future.
This is the same of a man who does not have faith in the Day of Judgment. To such a person, obeying or disobeying God does not have any consequence. It is difficult for such a man to lead a God-conscious life. This is because his faith in life after or even in God does not have any incentive. Thus, such a man lives in a world that is full of earthly indulgence. Islam perspective of life after death is a greater factor that determines the course of the life of a Muslim.
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Marketing mix refers to a business tool used by marketers in marketing. It is crucial when determining a brands or products offer and is often associated with the 4 P’s which include:
Marketing mix also refers to set of tactics or actions that a company might use in order to promote its produce or brand in the market. Nowadays though, there are additional Ps such as People, Packaging, Positioning and even at times Politics which are vital elements to the mix.
Description of the 4 Ps
- Price-This refers to value of the product and depends on segment targeted, production costs, and ability of the market to pay as well as supply and demand. It also involves a host of other indirect and direct factors. There are several pricing strategies types and each has an overall business plan. Pricing is used as a demarcation for differentiating and enhancing a products image.
- Product-This is the item that is being sold and it must deliver minimum performance level. If this is not achieved, other elements of marketing mix will not be of any significant use.
- Place-This is the point of sale and whatever the industry, it is important to catch the consumer’s eye and make it possible for them to purchase the product. Retailers always pay a premium in order to get the right location. As a matter of fact, the mantra of any successful business is ‘ location, location, location’
- Promotion-This refers to activities that are undertaken in order to make the service or product known to users and trade. This includes word of mouth, advertising, incentives, awards, commissions and press reports to trade. It might also include direct marketing, consumer schemes, prizes and contests.
‘Marketing mix’ was popularized in 1964 after Neil H. Borden published his article ‘The Concept of Marketing Mix’. He begun use of the term in the late 1940’s after James Culliton described the marketing manager as a ‘mixer of ingredients.
The ingredients in his marketing mix included packaging, servicing, product planning, branding, pricing, personal selling, physical handling, fact finding, distribution channels, advertising and promotions. The ingredients were categorized into the 4 Ps mentioned earlier by Jerome McCarthy.
The framework of the marketing mix was especially useful in the early days of marketing concept when a large section of the economy was represented by physical products. Today, marketing has become integrated into organizations and there is a variety of markets and products factors that have seen authors attempt to extend the usefulness of the fifth P such as people, process and packaging etc. despite the limitations, use of the framework is still strong and most of the marketing textbooks are organized around it.
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Christian Perspective of Life after Death
Christian beliefs on life after death vary slightly from one denomination to another and individual Christians. While this is the case, a vast majority of Christians believe heaven is the place where believers go upon dying so they can enjoy the presence of God. Christians believe that in heaven, they are freed from sin and all other kinds of manifestations such as pain and suffering.
The Bible also teaches heaven is an actual place for instance in John 14:1-6. Life in heaven will have continuity like life in the present world. For instance, people will have bodies just like they do now yet, it will be different than it is in the present life because what people get will be ‘new’ bodies (1 Cor. 15:35-49).
A large percentage of Christians also believe the Bible teaches about the existence of a place known as hell where punishment and judgment will take place for instance 2 Peter 2:4. In the New Testament, there are several passages that provide the description of hell as a place where there is fire (Mark 9:43, James 3:6).
Some Christians have interpreted the imagery of fire as a figurative way of communicating severe punishment. There is also the minority that views the description literally but believes the punishment people will experience will be temporary like that of objects that are destroyed by flames eventually.
Roman Catholics hold believes that are slightly different as they believe in purgatory. To them, purgatory is a temporary place of punishment for Christians who died with un-confessed sins. The Catholic Church Catechism states ‘All who die in God’s grace and friendship , but still imperfectly purified, are indeed assured of their external salvation; but after death they undergo purification, so as to achieve holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven’.
The questions most Christians ask include whether there is life after death and what type of form it takes. There are conflicting answers to these questions such as:
- Some christians believe that eventually, they land in Hell, Heaven, Sheol, Purgatory or some other state, condition or place
- They believe they cease to exist in any form or simply disappear
- The souls are separated from the body and they go to hell or heavy while the bodies remain on earth where they decay
- Some Christians believe they sleep for a long duration upon death before they wake up for the final judgment
- They are incarnated into new bodies where they live another lifetime on earth as an animal or human
While Christians hold different views about life after death, the Bible remains ambiguous about matters that are related to the same.
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The Wars of the Three Kingdoms
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, was a combination of conflicts, which took place in Scotland, England and Ireland from 1639 to 1651. This was after the three Kingdoms had been put under the leadership of a single monarch. One of these conflicts was the English Civil War, which saw English Parliament execute King Charles I for alleged treason in 1649. The Wars of the Three Kingdoms also include other uprisings that occurred through 1650s up to the time for English Restoration, when Charles II took the mantle of leadership after eleven years of no monarch.
It is important to note that The Wars of the Three Kingdoms stemmed from religious differences and tensions across the three Kingdoms as Protestants and Catholics fought for supremacy. The bone of contention in most cases was whether the monarch was to dictate the religion of individual citizens. While the monarch wanted to exert authority by presiding over the religion of the land, most people wished to make personal choices on matters of faith. They felt that the monarch was denying them the right of worship.
On the other hand, Parliament sought autonomy over the monarch by establishing laws that empowered it. Of great concern was if the King was allowed to raise taxes without seeking Parliament’s approval. This sent jitters among members of the House of Lords who failed the monarch was overstepping its mandate. The issue of taxation was closely related to the control over the military. For example, Parliament opined that the monarch was to seek the House’s consent before increasing the size of the troops. According to pro-parliament system, this was to eliminate cases of monarchs misusing power for self-gratification.
Besides religion and taming the powers of the monarch, The Wars of the Three Kingdoms was based on the sovereignty of individual kingdoms. For instance, Ireland and Scotland were pleased with the domination of England in various matters. They were not satisfied by the fact that they appeared to be underdogs. Importantly, the success of the English Parliament to oust and execute the King under Oliver Cromwell, played a major role in breeding a constitutional Great Britain, with powers over Scotland and Ireland. With its political power centered in London, it was evident that England had triumphed over the others in The Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
After The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Ormond arrived at Cork on September 30, 1648. He came along with his army, and he was funded by the French government. In December of the same year, Scotland moved to support King Charles II and Sir Charles Coote. The merger forced the governor to escape to join royalists, who came under siege until 1649. It is important to note that initially, Irish had an informal army, which was raised by the society. As a result, majority did not have skills and competence to engage in sophisticated battles. Veteran soldiers were in limited numbers, with deficiency work force following Spanish and French idea to take Irish men to reinforce their troops during the Confederation period. Between 1644 and 1649, France received about 7000 Irish men while Spain got about 4000.
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