Effects of Euro Zone Crisis on US
The euro crisis isn’t just a predicament facing the Euro Zone but rather, one that affects the global economy. The crisis hit in 2008 leaving behind an unprecedented history and affecting the global economy disrupting world order. No one knows for certain the duration the crisis will last or what kind of end result impact it will have on the global economy.
Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece and Ireland are among the countries that have the largest GDP debt ratios and huge unsustainable fiscal deficits. The recent Standard & Poor’s cut rating by the United States cut the credit ratings of 9 Euro zone countries.
Austria and France got stripped of their Triple A status that was coveted by many countries and it also downgraded the rescue fund (EESF) one notch to AA+ from an A. This downgrade was an echo of the views held by Germany, the only euro zone major country to have retained its top position. In accordance to Standard & Poor’s, such downgrade was inevitable taking into account the cuts in creditworthiness of Austria and France two guarantors of EFSF.
The EFSF was set up in May 2010 by seventeen governments sharing the same currency in order to make provision of emergency loans to some of the countries that were needy. It boasts of having an effective lending capacity of five hundred billion Euros which is based on eighty billion Euros and a callable capital that amounts to six hundred and twenty billion Euros.
Europe is also a key trade partner with North America and China as such the crisis also has a major impact on the economies of these two countries. Apart from the slowdown, governments can also decide to reduce spending and cut their budgets which can lead to unemployment. Such factors will also serve to bring the euro into an even much more deep recession.
The default by Greece had been in the offing since the crisis struck after talks between creditors and the Greeks down. Greece was supposed to come into agreement with private sectors so it could accept its voluntary losses on Greek bond holdings.
The European countries have already embarked on policies that will help with deficit cutting and which might damage the prospects by drawing out the demand of the economy. According to OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) the worsening state of the euro zone crisis will affect the demand for oil. The crisis is also expected to impact consumption of oil from emerging economies driving increased global usage of fuel.
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Sustainable Management of Rangelands
Rangeland is a term used to in the US describe unforested, extensive lands that dominate the western half of the continent. Across the globe, rangelands are known as plains, shrub lands, steppes, grasslands, prairies, tundra, swards and semi-deserts.
There are different types of rangelands and together they form at least half of the earth’s total land surface. At least forty eight percent of the land in Idaho is rangeland. Rangelands are used for production of a range of services and goods desired by society and this includes livestock forage, wood products, wildlife habitat, mineral resources, wildland recreation, natural beauty and open space.
It is because of geographic extent and important resources of rangelands that it is important for them to be used properly. What is more, proper and sustainable management of rangelands ensures that people everywhere benefit from them. This includes purposes such as wildlife habitat, watersheds, grazing by livestock, aesthetics and recreation as well as other associated uses.
Developing management plans for rangeland requires information about:
- The objectives of the land owner
- Current condition of the rangelands
- Intended use
- Productive capabilities of the rangeland
The first consideration that should be weighed when carrying out management of rangelands is how the vegetation resource will be used for any prescribed grazing system. Some of the factors that need to be taken into consideration include the grazing period, animal impact, rest, levels of use as well as deferment that the changes will bring to the community.
The second aspect that needs to be considered is identification of practices that are necessary for implementing the desired grazing system. This is because such practices can help influence or control livestock movement which is necessary for ensuring there is even grazing distribution. The practices might include stock trails, fencing, herding, water developments and salting etc.
There are also supplementary practices which can be taken up in order t ensure that sustainable management of rangelands is achieved. Such practices can lead to dramatic changes and should be applied and planned carefully and they include, brush management, prescribed burning, mechanical treatment, water spreading, fertilizing and seeding.
There are professionals who oversee the management of private and public rangelands. There is also a growing number of professionals who work as resource facilitators for purposes of bringing together resource facilitators so they can craft suitable stewardship plans. Sustainable rangeland management is founded on ecological principals and deals with use of a range resources and rangelands for different kinds of purposes.
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Disadvantages of Outsourcing from Local and Foreign Companies
What is outsourcing?
Outsourcing is where a company decides to contract a third party to carry out a business process on its behalf. Outsourcing may be domestic or foreign. It can entail moving employees and assets from a domestic or international firm to another. In foreign outsourcing cases, the firm can off shore or relocate its major business functions to another country.
Why do companies outsource?
The main motivation behind outsourcing is the need to source for more cost effective services from both domestic and international firms. Companies have over time discovered that labour in certain international destinations is way cheaper than in their countries. This is why they seek services from the cheaper labour markets.
Additionally, companies also outsource services so as to increase productivity levels by concentrating on the business activities that they are best at. When the minor activities are taken care of by the outsourcing firms, the employees can then concentrate on the major pursuits of the organization.
What are the disadvantages of outsourcing?
- Employment problems. When an organization outsources its services to firms in foreign countries, it creates employment gaps in its own country. This is because foreigners gain jobs at the expense of the locals who are left unemployed. This has a ripple effect on the economy at large.
- Confidentiality and insecurity issues. There can be loopholes in security and confidentiality when companies decide to use third parties to carry out their business activities. This can be in the form of leakages of important company information to other companies hence compromising the security of the company.
- Companies can become complacent when they only have to focus on the activities they are good at. They may intensify their activities towards producing the same products hence overlook the changing trends in the markets. The employees might also focus less on customers and concentrate on the market products.
- Job insecurity and disloyalty among employees. When employees know that the company is capable of outsourcing their services they feel less secure about their jobs. This creates disloyalty on their part because they are uncertain of their future in the company.
- Poor services. Companies can get poor services when they outsource their services from poor companies. This can beat the logic of outsourcing and make companies get worse instead of cutting on costs.
- Stiff competition. When several companies in a particular industry begin to outsource services, they unintentionally create stiff competition within the industry. This is because they make it easy for more entry players to access the market and hence raise the standards of the industry.
- Growing and hidden expenses. When so many companies begin to outsource services they can raise the demand for the services and hence make it expensive to access the services. Besides, the labour standards and costs have risen in some countries which were originally considered ideal destinations for cheap labour. There are also other hidden costs especially in terms of legal fees for outsourcing especially from foreign firms. This makes it more expensive to outsource from the foreign firms in such countries.
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Importance of Self Motivation
Self motivation, in simple terms is the force or drive that makes an individual to achieve more than what they set out to do. It is about doing a task or job well not because it pays well but because one wants to. People who are self motivated will always want to give their best and will often take responsibility even when they don’t have to. Self motivated people will have the tendency to:
- Work for longer hours than others.
- Become team leaders
- Learn and develop new skills while also taking up regular courses
- Take over problems and come up with solutions
- Go beyond and above what their job description says.
Self motivation is the key to life’s skills and an aspect that every individual should think of possessing. It pushes an individual to achieve goals, feel fulfilled and improve their quality of life. In addition to this, individuals who are self motivated tend to be:
- More organized
- Excellent at time management
- Self confident and they also have high self esteem.
Self motivation is closely correlated to personal achievement and goals. In order to get motivated, an individual must first of all, spend time thinking about their personal goals as well as what they intend to achieve. Everyone has the desire to achieve something and it is this aspect that makes it possible to carry through life.
As an individual achieves more, their self confidence increases as well and this in turn increases their desire to achieve even more. Conversely, when someone fails to attain or meet their goals, their confidence and self esteem suffers and this has a negative impact on their motivation to set higher goals. Self motivation is crucial because:
- It makes it easy to accept opportunities and challenges that crop up.
- It makes it easy to plan one’s life and also helps point the most suitable direction to follow.
- It boosts enthusiasm for life
- Self motivation provides the opportunity to live a fulfilling life.
- It empowers and encourages individuals to live an enthusiastic life.
Self motivation makes it easy for individuals to achieve any of the following:
- Monetary goals-What one expects to earn at a given point.
- Career goals-Where an individual expects their career to take them and the level.
- Academic-The knowledge or qualifications one wants to attain
- Physical-Development of skills in a particular sport
- Domestic-How one wants their domestic life to be in future
- Ethical goals
- Creative goals
B y setting goals and planning on the strategy to use to achieve them is one of the most reliable and efficient ways of staying motivated. To stay motivated, one must stay positive, acquire and learn new knowledge, stay with enthusiastic people, set goals and set out to achieve them.
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Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional organization that brings together sovereign states. Formed in 1991, the organization currently includes states like Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The member states, while forming the organization, declared their interaction on the basis of sovereign equality. The CIS is a regional organization whose formation was triggered by the fall of the Soviet Union.
The Commonwealth of Independent States was formed when the elected leaders of three nations; Russia, Belarus and Ukraine signed an agreement to form a new association that would take the place of the former United Soviet Socialist Republics. It after signing the agreement that these three nations were subsequently joined by the Central Asian states of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and the others mentioned above. Among the nations that made up the former Soviet Union, there are three that declined to be part of the organization. These include Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.
The Commonwealth Independent States officially began operations in January 1992. The organization designated the city of Minsk, Belarus to act as its administrative center. This association of states was created with the aim of not only being a symbolic union but also one that exercises coordinating powers in trade, finance, security and law making. Besides, it has also been instrumental in the promotion of cooperation when it comes to the prevention of crime across the borders of member states. In order to come up with a fully-fledged common market, some of the member states have moved forward to form the Eurasian Economic Community.
The main functions of the CIS are to foster coordination of the policies of member states with regards to foreign relations, economies, immigration policies, defense, environmental protection and law enforcement. These are aimed at enhancing economic, social and political stability amongst the member states. However, this may not have been effectively achieved since just seven years after the formation of the organization, one of the member states; Georgia withdrew. The withdrawal of Georgia in 2009 was as a result of the hostilities that escalated between her and Russia that is still a member of the CIS.
The top governing body of the Commonwealth of Independent States is a council that is made up of the heads of states of the member states. These include the presidents and prime ministers of the states that form the organization. They are assisted by the committees of cabinet ministers from the member states in key areas like defense and economics.
When coming together, the member states made a pledge to keep all their armed forces and nuclear weapons in one station with a single unified command. However, this did not work well as planned. The integration of the countries that are members of the Commonwealth of Independent States is executed through its coordinating institutions that include executive bodies, charter bodies and the organs of branch cooperation of the CIS.
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Freedom of Information Act
The Freedom of Information Act is a law that gives any citizen of the United States the authority to gain access to information that they may need from the federal government. To most people, it is described as the law that keeps people in the know about their government. Through the law, you are able to ask for certain information regarding government business or activities that you need and access it. The Freedom of Information Act has been viewed by many as one of the vital parts of American democracy.
The Freedom of Information Act was enacted and signed into law by President Lyndon B Johnson on July 4th 1966. However, it only took effect one year later. Despite the freedom that this law gives citizens to obtain federal records on request, there is an exemption that should be keenly noted. The freedom is restricted to certain information or records of the federal government that are protected from public disclosure. In case it is just part of the records that are protected, the particular agency that is issuing the records shall punch that section out and provide you with the rest. In fact, there are nine exemptions to this statute that one is required to know of.
Since there are various agencies that are charged with handling federal government records, it is always required that you know the particular one that can provide you with the information that you need. It is important to be sure of the agency that deals with the information that you need in order to make it much easier for you. According to the Freedom of Information Act, agencies have a mandate to disclose any information that is requested provided that it is not protected. Besides, the law also requires that agencies automatically conduct disclosure of certain information, including those that have frequently been requested.
The administration of the Freedom of Information Act is by the Executive Branch under the command of the President. However, the Information Policy office at the Department of Justice is charged with making sure that agencies are compliant with the directives set out in the act. Through the Executive and this office, various federal government agencies are encouraged to always be very transparent when it comes to responding to requests by citizens to access certain records.
Freedom of Information Act sets out the procedures for obtaining federal government records from the relevant agencies. It is also important that you get to know these procedures to avoid inconvenience and any problems that may arise in the course of making a request. The law also sets out penalties that can be awarded to any agency that acts in a manner that hinders the process of obtaining federal government information. For instance, if an employee or staff at an agency acts in arbitration with respect to withholding the information that you need, the mater can be taken to court and in case he or she is found guilty, disciplinary action can be awarded.
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Human Rights in the United Arab Emirates
According to the Human Rights Watch, the United Arab Emirates has continued to carry out crack down on freedom of association and expression that are some of the fundamental human rights. The authorities have in the past and even to date continue to arbitrarily detain several individuals who are suspected of having links to local and International Islamist groups. In July 2014, 69 dissidents were convicted by a UAE court after a manifested unfair trial whereby there was even evidence of systematic torture at the state security apparatus.
Over the years, the United Arab Emirates have made no reforms to a system that is viewed to facilitate forced labor on immigrant workers. Besides, the working conditions for female domestic workers are way below the standards that are outlined in the convention on domestic workers that was adopted in 2012 by the International Labor Organization. In fact, the UAE has made very dismal progress towards the protection of the rights of migrant workers and women’s rights. In May 2013, after several workers went on a strike protesting poor working conditions and pay at a site in Dubai, the immigration officials responded by issuing 40 deportation orders.
IN 2012, THE United Arab Emirates introduced restrictive cybercrime decree for the arrest of journalists and conviction of amateur filmmakers of interfering with national security. One Abdulla al-Hadidi is one of the many victims who were caught in this trap. He was sentenced to ten months in prison by an Abu Dhabi court in April 2013 for posting comments on social media about a public trail that he had attended.
The labor laws of the United Arab Emirates do not cater for domestic workers with an almost exclusive focus on migrant women. The laws deny domestic workers basic protections like weekly days off, limits of hours of work among others. A unified contract that has been drafted by the UAE for domestic workers and expected to be approved in 2014 has been criticized to fall far much below the minimum requirements that are outlined in the International Labor Organization’s 2011 Domestic Workers Convention.
In July 2013, the media were awash with the report of a Norwegian woman who was sentenced to 16 years in prison in the United Arab Emirates for engaging in extra marital sex after she reportedly went to seek justice from the police after a rape incident. Domestic violence remains a pervasive problem in the region. Men are given the authority to discipline their wives and children, including the use of physical violence by the penal code.
The latest and also considered to be a clear indication of the United Arab Emirates’ disregard for human rights is the case where the authorities denied a Human Rights Watch official access to the country. On January 24th 2014, the Human Rights Watch Middle East and North Africa Director, Sarah Leah Whitson was denied entry into the UAE. Besides, the country also went ahead to cancel a Human Rights Watch conference that was scheduled to take place in the UAE.
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International Law Association
International law is a set of rules that are generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between nations and states. It serves as the framework for the practice of stable and organized international relations. International law differs from the common state-based legal systems and it is primarily applicable to countries rather than private citizens. In some cases, national law may become international law when treaties delegate national jurisdiction to international criminal court or the European Court of Human Rights.
International law association [ILA] is a non-profit organization that is based Great Britain with its headquarters in London and it was founded in Brussels in 1873. The ILA holds it biennial conferences and releases reports of the same for the benefits of the international community. The conference does not have any restrictions as members and outsiders can participate in the conference at a cost.
The International Law Association keeps several committees and study groups that analyze specific facets of the international law. The law findings of these groups are distributed to its members a number of times in a year. The association has 75 conferences that have enough target audience every day. The main objectives of the International Law Association are to promote the study, interpretation and advancement of international law, public and private, making of proposals for the solution of conflicts of law and the study of comparative law.
The international law association also helps in furthering international understanding and goodwill among people of Australian citizenship and the native residents in Australia. International law has helped promote co-operation and mutual development in many countries. Effectiveness of the international law has also helped the international community to create a better legislative net that would aid in the regulation of the relationship between the involved communities.
International law is no longer restricted to regulating relationships between states and can aid in any issue that presents elements of international character. Today, the international law has extended its hand and it has made it easy to offer protection against the criminal actions or cases such as genocide and crimes against humanity especially if these criminal actions are made by individuals. Such responsibilities have been assigned to judicial bodies such as International Criminal Court.
There are numerous activities that are performed by the international law association. This is includes organizing special events such as public lecturers and other functions of relevant international law. The ILA also provides members of its committees by effectively conducting research and preparing reports on topics of the international law. Finally, they also help arranging prizes and internships.
It is easy to become a member of the international law association. Joining the association makes it easy to enjoy corporate support. From the Australian Branch, firms such as Allens, Baker & McKenzie, Clayton Utz and Marque Lawyers make it easy to get the much needed corporate support. Interested students can also join the ILA and gain more experience on the field. Those who are competent enough can also gain job opportunities and succeed in the law field.
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Business Intelligence Application
Definition of business intelligence
Business intelligence is a set of techniques, theories and technologies that businesses use in order to transform large amounts of raw data into meaningful and useful information for the purposes of improving the business. Business intelligence is mostly done through varied software applications. Some of the activities included in business intelligence are:
- Online analytical processing
- Data mining
- Multidimensional aggregation of information and allocation
- Optimizing key performance indicators
- Statistical inference
- Budgeting and forecasting
- Process management
- Group consolidation
- Open item management
- Business analytics
- Complex event processing
- Text mining
- Predictive and prescriptive analytics
- Online analytical processing
Application of business intelligence
Business intelligence is now being used by several renowned companies including several supermarket chains, restaurant chains and even professional sport teams. These companies have experienced success by utilizing business intelligence software in the following manner:
- Using measurement programs that create a history and hierarchy of performance. This shows the management the progress the business is making towards achieving its set goals and objectives.
- Using the analytics programs to assess the performance of the business against set goals and market trends. This helps the business managers and leaders to come up with optimal decisions that can propel the business forward and also utilize resources at hand more effectively. It may involve several technological processes such as data mining, predictive modeling and prescriptive analysis.
- Use enterprise reporting program and software such as data visualization and executive information system to build relevant infrastructure for strategic reporting. This enables to focus on and execute strategic decisions in the business and as such employ strategic management effectively.
- Use collaboration platform program to get perspectives of both internal and external stakeholders of the business. This is done through electronic data interchange and data sharing. It helps the business leaders to encompass relevant data and ideas in their decision making.
- Using knowledge management program to facilitate practical strategic management and adoption of insights that are based on factual business knowledge. This helps the business leaders to gain better management skills and also effect regulatory compliance practices.
How to make business intelligence work
Since every business is different, business intelligence cannot be incorporated as a one-size-fits-all measure. It requires technical planning and a specific focus on the business goals at hand. Not every business will automatically succeed by implementing business intelligence software. It is thus important to consider the following criteria before launching any software for business intelligence:
- Before initiating business intelligence it is very important to establish a committed and realistic sponsorship team for the project. This team should not only comprise of the management of the business but also external sponsors with a reputable business profile. Apart from offering financial support, the sponsors should set goals and closely monitor the business intelligence project.
- Business needs and goals. The business intelligence project should be initiated after establishing specific goals and objectives that need to be assessed or analyzed. It should not just be launched haphazardly. Rather a team should be set up to establish the needs of the organization and market trends before initiating the project with a specific objective.
- Availability of relevant data. It is necessary to profile the data an organization has before embarking on any business intelligence project. Data used should always reflect the true picture of the organization. It should be rich in content, relevant and consistent. Without proper, high quality data, business intelligence cannot work.
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Factors Affecting Automotive Industry in Germany
The origin of the automotive industry in Germany can be traced back to 1886 when Karl Benz registered his first vehicle that was powered by gas. Germany is renowned to be the home of the first four-stroke internal combustion engine in the world and continues to enjoy a unique placement in the international automotive industry. Currently, it accounts for 17% of the total global passenger car production with its OEMs. Besides, it should be noted that Germany is the sole largest auto market in the entire Europe.
Over the years, the German automotive Industry has been doing well in the global automotive sector. However, a crisis hit the industry in 2009 when the global economic production fell. This was the first time that such an incident was taking place in six decades. The drop mainly hit the commercial vehicles production dropping the in international production by 9%. This did not go down well with the automotive industry in Germany as profits got held up and production also stalled.
Just like most industrialized nations across the globe, Germany’s automotive industry was also hit by the international financial crisis experienced in modern times. The crisis negatively affected the demand and supply trends in the market, impacting the industry negatively. Even though it did not stop the manufacture of automobiles in Germany, it stalled the progress.
Today, the automotive industry in Germany can be said to have successfully made its way out of the international recession. The sector has been able to recover and achieve solid growth in the aftermath of the crisis. In fact, this was clearly evident when the German automotive industry issued an affirmation of its position as the mainspring for the country’s national economy. Today, almost a fifth of the total sales derived from the overall manufacturing sector in Germany is from the automotive industry. In the 1990s, this share only lagged at about 13%.
Technological advancement is a factor that has enabled German automotive industry to experience significant growth over the years. Germany’s introduction of OEMs created a new trend in terms of demand of cars across the globe. In the recent years, the automotive industry has re-invented them to suit the needs of various car buyers around the world with much emphasis on brand management and market leadership. This has enabled the automotive industry in Germany to stay well ahead of the rest in a congested international market.
The automotive industry in Germany has also been able to steadily sail to the top because of its focus on manufacturing cars that meet the needs of various drivers in the market. When the demand for smaller and more energy efficient medium-range passenger cars began to take an upward trend, Germany had already began manufacturing them well in advance. This significantly propelled the industry to the top in the international automotive market. The ability of the industry to manufacture cars that meet the need of different drivers is an advantage that has enabled the industry to experience unmatched growth over the years.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Government
In today’s age and era, governments are looking for the best ways to manage challenges that affect their economies. Cloud computing has proven to be an ideal solution because it allows for e-governance. With cloud, governments are able to deliver core services to citizens across different parts of the globe. Even with dwelling city populations, a government is able to reach out to its citizens, manage aging infrastructure and address other challenges within a short span of time.
Through cloud computing, the government is able to manage rapid urbanization. This is based on the fact it is able to manage its IT systems and carry out specific functions efficiently from whenever and wherever. It moves to current IT in metering, procurement and issuing of loan sanctions among other government functions.
It is essential to note that IT resources can be hard to manage. However, with cloud, everything is automated and in an efficient way. The government is freed up of a lot of time it could spent monitoring different functions and on human resources. It therefore has more than enough time to focus on increasing its roster of services or mechanisms for quality service delivery.
With cloud computing, the government is able to manage financial pressures. The government is able to deliver quality services even with limited resources and a tight budget. It also offers a greater advantage in terms of short term and long term savings.
Cloud allows for pay-as-you-go option and pay-as-you-use. The government does not face upfront costs especially when buying IT equipment. The savings are later used by the government during harsh financial times.
With cloud computing, the government is able to reduce the risk of technological obsolescence. This is because of shortening IT upgrade cycles and constant launch of new products. With cloud, the government also does not have to rely on old IT systems for many years. It can easily explore timely upgrades and at a cheaper price.
Cloud computing provides a way for the government to deliver quality products and services. Government agencies are also able to cut down on upgrade costs. Any hardware and software upgrades can be utilized at any time, because they are included in the contract between the government and service provider.
The government is also able to manage other challenges relayed to massive delivery of services to citizens in different parts of the globe. It is now able to deliver time and efficient services in minutes through cloud.
Cloud computing also enables the government to provide a good platform for sharing. Citizens can air their complaints, share their concerns and seek redress through cloud computing. The government ensures that there is efficient and transparent citizen-consumer awareness.
Similarly, the government employs cloud computing when undertaking reforms processes. It has benefited the government a great deal when it comes to e-governance. Agencies are able to share information freely, pool of resources and collaborate with relevant stakeholders to achieve set goals. With cloud computing, these tasks are carried out with no delay.
Cloud computing has also provided a strong foundation for the government to create an ideal environment for good governance.
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Legal Requirements for Obtaining a Search Warrant in the US
A search warrant refers to a request bearing the name of an individual, authorized by a justice or other legal power and giving search powers to an officer for a specified asset and presents the findings before the judge (Nova Scotia v. MacIntyre, 1982). Even though most officers know permissions and procedures for search warrants, several legal pitfalls could discredit a search warrant, lead to rejection of cases or trigger obligation suggestion, binding the officers involved (Holcomb, 2003). Thus, officers require prior legal knowledge surrounding search warrants with the aim of concealing the evidence. Throughout the processes, supporting Constitutional privileges is necessary for officers to discharge their duties ethically, morally and within legal confines devoid of pitfalls.
At all times, individuals have the right to be protected against unnecessary searches and seizures within their persons, houses, papers and impacts (Holcomb, 2003). It is worth noting that The Fourth Amendment prohibits irrational searches and seizures. A search is rational if a judge issues the warrant or under circumstances that necessitate search even without a warrant like a search for weapons after seizure. In case one lacks a “real desire of security” in whatever that is being searched, then The Fourth Amendment’s necessities are invalid.
Using technology to watch over an individual can infringe the Fourth Amendment rights of the searched individual. For instance, tapping a person’s phone calls is a common electronic observation, which the law has improved. Courts have however maintained that this could amount to search based on the Fourth Amendment since the law provides security rights in cases where the individual desires real protection. Courts have held that no one would want a government executor to tap phone calls during discussions. Therefore, an individual has the right of security if they legitimately show that the area under search is personal and or confidential. In this case, the law allows flexibility to tap discussions du ring penitentiary visits since it logically complies with jail security. With regard to the applicable to seizures and searches, the Fourth Amendment Warrant Clause applies to tapping. To get an e-observation warrant, one has to demonstrate the cards motive, depict the kind of discussion to tap, and specify the time.
Likewise, critical circumstances as with standard searches and seizures could invalidate acquisition of a warrant for law implementation. In case where an individual’s life is undermined, the national security is compromised or a plot to commit criminal acts, then the need for first getting warrant could be ignored.
Notably, Congress enacted a ranged of laws in 1986 regarding electronic observation and tapping under the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA). According to court interpretation of the Act, judges have the power to grant search warrants to law enforcement officers. Even though there are many established tests, the courts have maintained this position.
Additionally, the ECPA gives direction for people who come under illegal electronic investigations by the police. If a person goes against the ECPA through their practices, the victim may sue the individual for compensatory harms, reformatory harms, and fair alleviation where fair easing could correct the offense. Here, the offended may only sue the person who conducted the tapping minus unbiased gatherings, which accept the recording as a duplicate.
With the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 2006, telecommunication companies are involved when the law adopts wiretap. This allows access to frameworks and offices that allows tracking communication of one subscriber without infringing on the security rights of an alternate subscriber.
Case law further allows gathering of intelligence from foreign nationals through wiretapping as long as the goal of the practice does not go beyond the existing summon. As a result, the Congress adopted the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) in 1978. The Act gives the evidence before getting an observation warrant together with methods that could be used during investigations and with remote knowledge. The Acts privileges further cover American subjects, which relate to investigation.
Importantly, FISA’s procurements allow investigations under two conditions. Firstly, FISA allows the President to order warrantless wiretapping where there potential severe harm to the US or when private activities on the legislature does not threaten any American. In the second scenario, a warrant may be issued outside sagacity, which falls below the threshold of the primary condition. For FISA to obtain this warrant there must be evidence that the person to be tapped exerts external force and that an outside force could utilize the spot for tapping. FISA too has a court framework under the Department of Justice. “FISA courts” mainly work towards getting warrants, requests steering agreeability, and tests to consistence requests.
However, the Patriot Act made changes on electronic communication laws, including the ECPA and FISA expanding the law to combat terrorism in the US. Importantly, the Patriot Act quashed room for the president to issue warrantless search orders against non-US nationals even though it entrenched US residents leading First Amendment-related exercises. The alterations also saw saved voicemails put under conventional search and seizure laws and from more severe observation laws.
The Patriot Act also allowed wandering wiretaps though they remained disputable. A wandering wiretapping occurs when a court issues a search warrant to officers without identifying the interchanges bearer and other gathering that could be included in the faucet. This is essential to the FBI and brainpower gathering neighborhoods because terrorists could temper with PCs, cell phones and emails so fast after correspondence and realizing that the legislature had tapped the system. This concerned common emancipations exercises as they opined that it undermined the Particularity Clause of the Fourth Amendment.
In understanding the history the US, it is important to note that one of the aims of the American Revolution was to ensure that the rule of law takes predominance in the society. In fact, the principle of law is always equated to an old phrase; the US is a country of laws. Under the principle of law, standards, which make up the US legitimate framework and without arbitrary whims and impulses of the legislature advocate for government activities.
Another line of qualification exists between force and power. Law enforcement officers have the obligation to lead investigations, make arrests, and use lethal force within the legal framework. Any action outside the law constitutes to criminal activity. A good example when Laurence Powell of LAPD was indicted for applying unnecessary force on Rodney King, who had been ceased for speeding. Powell repeatedly hit King even though he had complied and lay on the ground.
The amendment was important to create a protected cushion between Americans and the ruthless laws. The law has three parts. First, it allows protection of US nationals while in their persons, houses and impacts. The second part secures the first but baring unwarranted searches and seizures. The third section prohibits blind warrants and that warrants must identify the area of search and the person to seize.
Where there is a concealment hearing, Fourth Amendment inquiry will always arise throughout a criminal case. A plaintiff who asks for scrutiny of how police got confirmation against them and weigh if the investigation is protected provokes this kind of hearing. If the officers obtained the proof against the Fourth Amendment, then it is avoided during trial and is not presented to the jury (Moenssens, 2005). The Exclusionary Rule discourages officers from misconduct and protects litigants.
In cases where there thorough watchdog, the court is likely to prohibit any form of confirmation. First, it must establish if the Fourth Amendment applies to the case at hand. Before specific search or seizure offers ascent to Fourth Amendment assurance two conditions must be met. First, an administration executor should have led the search or seizure or as per government bearing. In addition, the activities everyone involved including state and law requirement officers and individuals will be liable to the limitation of the amendment. Bothering, wiretapping, and other exercises by private natives would miss Fourth Amendment insurance
Sometimes police perform and execute their obligation without warrants and most searches take place without warrants (Moenssens, 2005). This however does not give police permission to conduct unnecessary searches when a sensible desire of protection exists and there is no plausible reason.
A person has a right to deny police access to their premises if they appear asserting their intentions to conduct a search. However, sometimes people grant them entry to avoid being accused of meddling in investigations or avoid being hurt. Moreover, you have a right to say no to any search and you can put to task the officers to give a recognizable proof as to why they are in your area. The officers may as well read to you the warrant if they do not have a hard copy.
A police officer can obtain a search warrant by demonstrating to a judge or justice that a possible reason exists based on immediate data or prattle data. It is worth noting that the assets and person could be apprehended with search warrants. According to the law, it is easier to get a search warrant than finding evidence for an afterward sentencing. This is because the confirmation in the absence of a search warrant might be insufficient to convict.
In America, police do not require a warrant to search a car as long as there a likely causes to suggest that you intend to commit a crime. Considering the existing law, police may search travelers section, trunk, and car holders, potentially fit to hold the suspected object (Regini, 1999). In addition, officers do not require a warrant to conduct a search of a suspect’s external cover of the weapon if there is sensible suspicion for the interruption. In some cases, police would not require warrant i.e. where the person in charge of the item or items gives assent for search.
In cases involving leased property, the proprietor has a right to deny access to the premise in the absence of a warrant from officers. Here, the same procedures for acquiring warrants involving property owners apply. In a few purviews, officers may search an inn room even minus warrant and consent of the visitor but permission from the lodge administrator. Police officers may further search a specific spot described in the warrant and seize goods portrayed. Police do not search property if the warrant says the lawn. While officers are restricted to the depicted area and items by the warrant, in their search process, they may stumble on a confirmation of wrongdoings and be forced to seize unlisted items.
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Holcomb, J. W. (March 2003). Obtaining Written Consent to Search. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 72.
Moenssens, A. A. (2005). Forensic-Evidence.com: Police Procedures /The Validity of Consent Searches. Retrieved August 14, 2006, Web site: http://www.forensic-evidence.com/site/Police/nonverbalconsent.html
Nova Scotia v. MacIntyre,  1 S.C.R. 175 at p.1791982 CanLII 14
Regini, L. A. (July 1999).The Motor Vehicle Exception: When and Where to Search. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. 68, 27-33.
Economic Factors Affecting Farming
It is doubtless that farming is one of the oldest professions in the world. Nonetheless, there are numerous economic factors, which affect this profession. Today, farmers all over the world confront a range of challenges in a complex economic environment. For example, customers have access to the global market and have a variety of farm products to choose. Oftentimes, farmers are at the mercy of the weather and economic factors. In this article, we discuss these economic factors, which largely affect farming in the world.
To start with, prices of commodities have far-reaching effects on farming. For instance, the price of some farm products is pegged on factors like the weather and future projections by investors in the market. The demand for these commodities for food and nonfood uses further complicate the situation. In most cases, farmers make profit or losses depending on the rates the buyers in the industry are willing to pay for the products. International factors equally have a hand in determining the price of commodities in the local market because of the existing market linkages globally. Consider the performance of a country’s currency! Under normal market conditions, the strength or weaknesses of the dollar will by far affect prices since farmers compete not only with American producers but also with others from all over the world.
Government policies on levies and subsidies also affect farming industry. For example, the American government gives financial support to corn and soy farmers since the federal policy assumes that mass production of such foodstuffs would keep food prices lower. Additionally, this policy ensures that farmers have a measure of stability and allows consumers to acquire a range of processed goods at affordable prices. This applies to products, which are manufactured from commodity crops under the government’s consideration. The basis of this policy is to encourage farmers to continue continue producing these regardless of market trends and conditions.
Another economic factor that affects farming is labor and immigration legislations. In most cases, most agricultural activities depend on labor that is informal and attracts low pay. Furthermore, migrant farmers living illegally in countries play pivotal role in promoting farming activities. However, their illegality affects their effectiveness in offering value addition services to the industry. Because of the poor pay of most jobs on the farm, most native are not willing to take up the jobs. The baseline of this is that most immigration laws affect farming since they have impact on the availability of labor in a country. In countries like India, famers prefer using the cheap and readily available labor as opposed to machinery. On the other hand, the United Kingdom and Japan utilize machines more because of expensive labor. Here, people on the farm could be skilled or not as long as they can use the available machinery. Common machines include tractors, milking machines and harvesters.
Technology also affects farming in different, with numerous advancements. A common area where technology is applied on the farm is through machines and irrigation. The two types of technology play a major role in increasing agricultural products.
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Factors Affecting Automobile Industry in India
Facts about the automobile industry in India
The automobile industry in India is one of the most important industries and it contributes at least 22 % towards the country’s GDP. This industry has grown over the years leading to India being ranked at 7th place in the world for production of automobiles. It is estimated that India produces a total of 17.5 million vehicles every year, 2.3 million of which are exported to other markets. This figure is expected to double with certain government interventions.
Five factors affecting the automobile industry in India
There are several factors that have affected the automobile industry in India. These include:
- Market size. India’s automobile industry has grown largely because of its large market size. The industry has had its fair share of both local and foreign consumers leading to higher production levels. The domestic market has experienced huge sales in two-wheeler vehicles with an estimated 11.3% growth recorded between April 2013 and 2014. There is also a huge market for passenger car sales within the domestic market. The sales for utility vehicles during this period were higher amongst the foreign consumers with a 298% increase in exports of these vehicles. The growing domestic income is expected to make motor vehicles more affordable for local consumers and thus increase the domestic market size for India’s automobile industry.
- Government regulations. The automobile industry in India has received extensive government support and this has encouraged a lot of foreign direct investment in the industry. The government permits 100% foreign direct investment in this industry and it is fully delicensed making it easy for investors to penetrate it and set up shop in India. Additionally, there are also tax incentives and investors can actually export the automobiles for free.
- Research and Development. There have been many research and development initiatives, both private and governmental. These are aimed at improving the automobile industry in India. The government started the Automotive Component Manufacturers Association of India (ACMA) which is an apex body that deals with the automobile industry in India. This body looks into matters such as upgrading of technology in the industry, collecting information on industrial events and trends as well as disseminating this information to relevant stakeholders. The body does this through research and also promotes trade in both domestic and foreign circles. On their part, private investors have also set up research and development initiatives within their companies. For instance the Mahindra and Mahindra research centre for electric vehicles in order to enhance their services in India.
- There are many investors from all over the world who are part of the automobile industry in India. This has created competition amongst several renowned brands of automobiles. The competition has in turn led to economies of scale with most companies working hard to meet the demands of both domestic and foreign consumers.
- Stable economy. Many experts predict that the future of the automobile industry in India is bright. However this is subject to the economic stability of the country and currency inflation rates. Economic stability and low inflation will increase incomes for majority of Indians and raise the domestic consumption of automobiles in the country.
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Solutions to Gender Inequality in the Workplace
It is indisputable that gender biasness exists in different forms at workplace. For example, there are cases where people of the same gender are paid different salaries after performing the same task. In some scenarios, employers hire and train people of the same gender, with the belief that certain jobs are meant for men or women. There are numerous cases where companies fail to promote expectant women and favor those who are not pregnant. History is further replete with cases of sexual harassment at workplaces, most of which are directed to women. With all these, the impact of gender inequality is dire and there is need to tame the situation. This essay explores solutions to gender inequality in the workplace.
The first step towards stumping out gender inequalities in our offices is embracing actions, which promote equality at workplace. For example, it is necessary to empower the management through training. It is true that there are managers who do not understand the basics of gender inequity and have no idea of how to resolve issues relating to this topic. Thus, educate managers in all aspects of discrimination, including common and subtle areas of management. Of great significance is equipping them with knowledge on how to identify discrimination among the staff and be able to deal with the situation. Above all, the management should how measures in place on how to prevent possible cases of gender unfairness at workplace in future.
Additionally, it is paramount to provide childcare support and facilities at workplace for fathers and mothers working for you. Through this, employees get motivated and work hard to achieve their objectives. To obtain better results, it is vital to make family leave available to men and women without favoring any gender. Moreover, empowering women and recognizing their impact at workplace is a practical way of dealing with gender inequalities in business. How do you do this? The easiest approach is showcasing successful women of the organization. This should cut across departments and levels, regardless of the positions these women hold.
While these efforts are important, they should not go unnoticed by everyone else at workplace. This calls for publicizing efforts to augment gender balance. Besides making it known to the employees, external publics like other companies and vendors ought to be aware of these efforts. You can achieve this through media adverts in newspaper editorials, ads or on the company website for everyone to know what you are doing about gender inequality.
Nonetheless, legislation that promotes gender equality is vital. It is the role of the management to develop and implement gender equality policies. For instance, the company should hold the view that men and women deserve the same pay as long as they are performing the same tasks for the company. Besides this, the policies should embrace all-round equality. For such, men and women should be treated fairly and equally during recruitment, training and promotion at all times. However, most companies focusing on maximum utilization of workers, the management should strike a balance between their employees’ duties and their personal lives. For example, there should be equal opportunities for employees to pursue further studies to better their careers without losing their jobs.
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