Tumor Suppression Gene
Tumor suppression gene also known as antioncogene refers to genes regulating cell growth. This gene protects the cell from been cancerous and when it mutates causing reduction or loss of function, the cells then progress to cancer. This occurs when other genetic changes are present as well. Loss of the tumor suppressor gene is more important than oncogene/proto-oncogene activation in the formation of different kinds of human cancerous cells. There are different kinds of tumor suppressor genes and they include the following:
- Gatekeeper genes
- Caretaker genes
- Landscaper genes
As medicine continues to evolve, classification genes also evolve and adapt from fields such as genetics, epigenetic and molecular biology.
Unlike the case of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes follow “two-hit hypothesis”. This implies both alleles coding for a certain protein must first be affected before any effect is noted. This is attributed to the fact that just one allele for that gene gets damaged while the second still produces the appropriate protein. In other terms, this means distorted tumor suppressor alleles are recessive while mutant oncogene alleles are dominant.
A.G Knudson was the first one to make the proposal of two-hit analysis. He made the observation that onset of retinoblastoma follows the second order kinetics which implied that 2 self-determining genetic events were a necessity. He also made the recognition that it was consistent with recessive mutation which involved one gene but required biallelic mutation. In contrast though, oncogene mutations involve single allele since they are the gain of mutation functions.
There however exist exceptions to the rule of “two-hit’ for tumor suppressors like particular mutations in p53 gene product. Such mutations are known to function as “dominant negative” which means if there is a p53 mutated protein, it prevents the functioning of normal protein from an allele that is un-mutated. Other suppressor genes that are also an exception to the “two hit” rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as:
- NF1 in neurofibroma and
- PTCH in medulloblastoma.
A good example in this case is p27Kip 1 cell inhibitor cycle in which a single allele mutation leads to an increase in the susceptibility of carcinogen. Tumor suppressor genes functions fall into different categories some of which include:
- Gene suppression which is important for continuation of cell cycle. When the genes aren’t expressed, then there is no continuation of the cell cycle hence cell division is inhibited
- Coupling of cell cycle to damage of DNA. If there isn’t damaged DNA then the cell shouldn’t divide. In cases where the damage is repairable, the cycle of the cell continues
- When the damage isn’t repairable, the cell initiates apoptosis and gets rid of the threat posed for the organisms good.
- Proteins involved in division of cells prevents tumor cells from dispersing, block contact inhibition loss and also inhibit metastasis
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of a Poem
When you know how to write a critical analysis of a poem, you can enable the readers of your critical analysis to understand the language and symbols that the author of the poem uses better. A critical analysis is a form of subjective writing in which the writer expresses his/her evaluation or opinion of a text. A poem on the other hand is a form of writing that takes the nature of a song and a speech and it is almost rhythmical in most cases and usually metaphorical exhibiting different formal elements which include a stanzaic structure, rhyme and meter. A critical analysis of a poem therefore should break down a poem and study its parts to give the evaluation or opinion of the entire piece.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of a poem
While writing poems, authors are very deliberate with their choice of words as well as the format that they use to convey meaning. Most poets hope that their poems will be read aloud. This is why they strive to maintain high lyrical quality. Others strive to maintain interesting rhythms in punctuating the elements of their poems. As you write a critical analysis of a poem, depict an intimate appreciation of it.
Step 1: Read the poem
To critique a poem, you should read it severally to understand what the speaker is saying or what the main message of the poem is. If there are unusual or difficult words, find their meaning. In most cases, the title will give you the summary or general meaning of the main idea or thought that is being presented.
Step 2: Know who the speaker is
The speaker in a poem can be an elderly person, a child, a shepherd, a student, a swordsman, a sailor, a milkmaid, an animal or an object such as a chair, a place or a mountain. Speakers in poems speak differently.
Step 3: Identify the main theme of the poem
Start your critical analysis by identifying the major or specific theme in the poem that gives it a larger meaning. To identify this theme, you need to consider or study the entire poem including its title. Maybe the poem that you are analyzing is about losing innocence, growing old, or importance of preserving the environment. The overarching or major theme of a poem can come out clearly or it can be hidden in its presentation and words.
Step 4: Establish the context
The context gives the location and time of a poem. This is usually what prompts the creation of a poem. A poem can be prompted by a political event which has a great importance in the history of a country.
Step 5: Identify inter-textuality
This implies that a poem looks back to another poem. This is also called reference. If a poem has this aspect, include it in your analysis and show how it enhances the message or its delivery.
Step 6: Identify the genre of the poem
Genre is simply the category. There are characteristics and rules of each genre. For instance, a poem that comprises of a long narrative dealing with demi-gods or divine figures and describing incredible journeys or terrible wars that determine humanity fate is called an epic poem. A sonnet on the other had is a short poem with 14 lines in which intimate emotions are expressed. Other poem genres include mock-epic, lyric, ballad, parody and ode among others.
Step 7: Create a checklist for your critical analysis
You should come up with a checklist that will guide you as you review or analyze the poem. A checklist will enable you to analyze or dissect the poem into separate pieces in order to understand it as a complete piece better. For instance, you can come up with a checklist that includes the title, genre, viewpoint, setting, meter, rhyme scheme, context or conflict. Make the elements in your checklist your guide while writing the critical analysis of the poem.
Step 8: Review the poem’s plot
While reviewing the plot, answer the following questions after reading the poem:
- What is going on in the poem?
- Who is affected by what is going on?
Your answers to these questions will enable you to understand what exactly the poem is describing. This will enable you to apply the meaning of the poem in the analysis.
Step 9: Analyze the poem’s rhyme scheme
Note that, not every poem has a rhyme. Nevertheless, most poems are written with the hope that they will be read aloud and therefore they have a rhyme scheme. Perhaps, this is one of the most important steps of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of a poem because you must read and analyze the poem carefully to notice its rhyme scheme. Before you conclude that the poem under analysis does not have a rhyme scheme, read it aloud with a friend or alone. Listen to its sound instead of simply looking at its words. This will enable you to identify its rhyme scheme and analyze it.
Step 10: Analyze the format
A poem can be a free form. This means that it does not have an identifiable pattern. It can also have a unique writing scheme. The format of a poem is usually a deliberate choice of style or act by the writer. Describe the format chosen by the author in your critical analysis and what it could mean as well as how it hinders or help in communicating the message.
Step 11: Analyze the used figurative language
Poetry uses a wide range of literary devices which include personification, metaphor, simile, metonymy and irony. Apart from constituting the body, these devices also demonstrate the control of language by the author. Therefore, it is highly important that you evaluate and analyze the use of figurative language in the poem.
Step 12: Create a thesis statement
On the basis of your comprehension of the meaning of the poem, create a thesis statement for your critical analysis. Note that while writing any academic piece, you should have a strong, clear thesis statement.
Step 13: Gather evidence from the poem to support the controlling idea or thesis statement
In the body of your critical analysis, cite actual lines of the poem to support your thesis. This will make your critical analysis credible and strong. Readers will get clues of where your thesis statement came from because it will have adequate supporting evidence from the poem.
Step 14: Write the analysis
At this step, you already know how to write a critical analysis of a poem and you have all the information required to write a critical analysis of a poem. Use your checklist to write your critical analysis.
Your critical analysis should include the following:
The introduction should include:
- Title of the poem under analysis
- Author of the poem
- Publication information
- Purpose or topic statement
- Thesis statement that indicates your reaction to the poem
- Description or summary of the poem
Provide a summary or brief description of the poem that you are analyzing critically.
- Evaluation or/and interpretation of the poem
Use your checklist to analyze or evaluate or discuss different aspects of the poem as described in the steps of this guide.
Draw conclusions from your analysis. Tell readers what was the goal or theme of the poem that you were analyzing, tools that were used in conveying the main idea or theme of the poem, how they were used and whether they were effective.
Bonus tips on how to write a critical analysis of a poem
- Add value
While writing a critical analysis of a poem, try to help the writer and the reader know how the poem would have been made better. Provide suggestions on how the writer can improve the work. However, point out instances where the author is inconsistent or not clear and then provide concrete advice to the writer.
- Be positive
When critiquing the work of another person, be constructive. Do not say unnecessarily harmful things about the poem. If you must say something negative about the poem, provide supporting evidence.
- Review the content of the poem
In your critical analysis, say whether the author was redundant in terms of the used imagery or chosen words. For instance, did the author use varying syllables, meters and vowel rhymes? How did the author choose the words to use in the poem? Did the author use irony, similes, metaphors or symbolism properly? Were they used consistently?
- Use a sample of a critical analysis of a poem
To easily know how to write a critical analysis of a poem, use a critical analysis sample as your writing guide. A good sample will enable you to know where and how to present different elements of your analysis. You can find an example of a critical analysis of a poem here.
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How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab
Knowing how to write a conclusion for a lab report is very important because the conclusion is an important section where you state what you learned from the lab experiment while justifying how you learned it. The conclusion is the last paragraph and a working part of a paper. In this section, you should push readers into thinking about the global implications of the findings that you present in the report.
In the conclusion, you should sum up the procedures that you used and the results of the lab project for the reader. Also restate the goals of the lab project and include final notes or data on whether the experiment answered the posed question successfully. Readers should get all the vital points of the lab report by simply reading the conclusion while noting the unforeseen results of the experiment.
How to write a conclusion for a lab report step by step
The conclusion of a lab report ought to be written in the format of an essay. It should have proper spelling as well as correct punctuation.
Here are steps that you should follow when writing this section of a lab report:
- Restate the purpose or the problem
Start by restating the purpose or the problem and whether the experiment supported the purpose of conducting the lab experiment. This is very important because it ensures that your conclusion relates to the purpose or problem that you stated at the introduction of the report. Remember that the purpose or problem is what necessitated the experiment.
The purpose of carrying out this experiment was to establish the comparison between acid pH after adding bases to it. Data from this experiment supports the notion that acid pH increases with base addition to it.
- Discuss how you reached the conclusion with the help of the gathered data
To show how the data that you collected during the experiment relates, refer to the graphs that you used to present the findings in the body section. Your explanation in the conclusion should be based on the relationship of the information presented in the graphs. If you included an equation while presenting the findings, use the equation to explain the relationship of your data in the conclusion.
- Discuss possible errors in data collection or procedures
In any experiment, there are possible causes of errors. Therefore, discuss possible reasons why your conclusion or data may be inaccurate because of certain errors.
- End the conclusion
Close your conclusion by restating the conclusion and the problem. You can also suggest changes that should be made while carrying out future experiments and how they are likely to affect the collected data.
Various bases were used to indicate their neutralization effect on acid pH in this lab experiment. It might be helpful to add base into acid using a dropper rather than a beaker to prevent base spilling into acid. The other part of the process is safe and following it is easy.
Checklist for a conclusion of a lab report
Once you have known how to write a conclusion for a lab report, find out how you can evaluate your conclusion to determine if it serves its purpose.
To do this, you need to ask yourself the following questions:
- Have you restated the goal of your experiment?
The conclusion should start with a restatement of the goal of the lab experiment. Restate the goal that you stated in the introductory paragraph though using different words. Ask yourself, what question were you trying to answer with the experiment? It is also important that your conclusion include a summary of the predictions that you had made for the results of the experiment.
- Have your described the used methods or procedure?
Your lab report should briefly summarize the methods or procedures that you used in the experiment. Note that a comprehensive list of the items that you used in your experiment should be in the section where you discuss the methods in the body of the report. The conclusion should provide just a summary of the procedures or methods and the reason for choosing them to obtain data.
- Does the conclusion include an analysis of the final data?
The focus of a lab report is on the data that you collected from the experiment. This includes all the data that you obtained from experiment and its analysis. In the conclusion, restate the data that you gathered from the experiment. Include the final data acquired from the analysis only. Additionally, provide an explanation of the final data and what it means in a brief manner. Explain data trends while noting whether there were irregularities indicated by the results raising further questions. Additionally, make sure that your conclusion indicates possible causes of errors.
- Have you stated whether your experiment answered the question successfully?
In the conclusion, you should examine data from the experiment on the basis of your predictions and goals of the experiment. Tell readers whether the experiment answered the question that you stated in the introduction. If it answered the question successfully, tell readers so. If it did not, explain the possible reasons or explanation for this while suggesting methods that can be used in future experiments. However, whether the experiment answered the question successfully or not, tell readers what you learned from it while stating the experiment’s results predictions that turned out to be true.
Your answers to these questions will enable you to determine if the conclusion of your lab report serves its purpose effectively.
Additional tips on how to write a conclusion for a lab report
- Maintain the accurate length for your conclusion for a lab report
The conclusion of a lab report can be long or short depending on the nature of the lab experiment and what you learned or deduced from it. Its length can also be determined by the prompt or what you were required or wanted to accomplish during the experiment. Thus, it can be a one sentence conclusion or a paragraph conclusion. There are also cases where it can be longer than one paragraph. Therefore, make sure that your conclusion has an accurate length that includes relevant information only.
- Identify the most important aspect of the result from the experiment
The main interpretation of the results should be based on the single most vital result of the experiment. Make sure that your conclusion presents the analysis of this result as well as its implication.
- How data was obtained
Remember that your conclusion is based on the data that you obtained while conducting the experiment and its analysis. It is therefore important that you tell readers how you obtained data so that they can determine if your data is reliable and whether your interpretation, analysis and conclusions are based on solid evidence.
The conclusion is the last part of the lab report where you should tell readers what the results of the experiment mean and their implications to the real world. Therefore, make sure that your conclusion leaves readers with something to think about. Stating the implications of the findings of your lab experiment also shows that the experiment was necessary.
- Edit the conclusion of your lab report
After writing the conclusion for your lab report, ask a friend that you trust to edit it for you or enlist our editing service. You may have a good conclusion for a lab report but spelling and grammatical errors ruin it.
- Double-check results
It is important that you take time to double-check all results from the mathematical equations that you presented in the body. This will enable you to avoid the embarrassment which may arise from misplacing decimal points.
- Use a conclusion sample to easily know how to write a conclusion for a lab
You should also use a conclusion sample while mastering the steps of writing a lab conclusion.
Here is a lab report conclusion sample that you can use:
The purpose of this experiment was to find out how the concentration of nitrogen fertilizer affects com plants’ growth by comparing com plants’ growth when subjected to nitrogen fertilizer with different concentrations. The hypothesis was that the concentration of nitrogenous fertilizer does not affect the height of plant but the experiment did not support it. There was a significant variation in the height of the non-fertilized plants and fertilized plants with the average height increasing more in fertilized plants. The experiment was done in a classroom in which there was no constant temperature. Perhaps, this may have caused some errors in the results. Future experiments can be improved by conducting the experiment in a place with constant temperature.
With such a sample, knowing how to write a conclusion for a lab report is easy. This is because it enables you to know how and where to place different elements of a conclusion for a lab report.
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If you face difficulties while writing a conclusion for a lab report, read these guidelines on how to write a conclusion for a lab report and then write your conclusion. Once done, contact us for professional editing help. Alternatively, visit our homepage for more details about our writing services and information on how we may help you. You can also keep reading for more academic writing guidelines and sample papers on our blog.
Rhetorical Analysis Outline
Rhetorical analysis essay is a paper that analyzes an argument in specific text. The task of writing such an essay is not easy but with an outline, organizing your paper becomes easy. Rhetorical analysis outline is a structure that guides you on how to put your thoughts, ideas and points in the final essay and develop a compelling argument. In this article, you will find useful tips on how to structure an outline for your paper, how to use and examples of good outlines for different essays. Read on.
Composing an ideal rhetorical analysis outline
Before you write a rhetorical analysis essay, you got to work on a good structure and stick to it. This is because
It can be quite challenging to organize your thoughts and ideas structurally
It is also easy to get mixed up and get swept when discussing or analyzing the work of another writer
Note that despite the fact that you are discussing the work of another writer, you are still expected to keep the structure of basic essay which includes an introduction, thesis, body and conclusion
For the introduction, you should try to grab the attention of target audience and in a few sentences
Develop a narrow and strong thesis statement
In the body of your rhetorical analysis, you would want to enhance your thesis. You have to concisely analyze your essay by taking one paragraph to analyze each aspect of the writer’s argument. It is however very important that you do not agree with the author’s text or the speaker you are analyzing. In some cases, you may feel that the argument of an author actually crumbles
Therefore, take another perspective and analyze the text by criticizing lack of proof of the thesis statement and point out areas where the argument starts to break down.
In the conclusion, you would want something solid and a wrap up that is conclusive or ultimate in general. Consider discussing how you see the argument from a positive or negative larger view.
Structuring your outline as above is imperative when writing your essay because you will have a better and clear understanding of particular text sections and more specifically, those that serve the general goal of the writer. It will help you answer the questions
What’s your general objective for analyzing the text?
What do you have to do to achieve your analysis goals?
What kind of rhetorical moves do you wish to make or could you possibly make
What to include in a rhetorical analysis outline
Introduction: background information and thesis
The introduction of a rhetorical analysis essay should include background information about the topic you are analyzing. This information should help target audience to understand the nature of your analysis. For this reason, offer details on the title of your work, author and details of publication. It is also imperative to include a statement of the speaker’s argument and topic.
Create a solid thesis statement offering an evaluation of the writer’s main argument. Go ahead to offer specific examples and analytical reasons or appeals.Body: Analysis, Interpretation, and Evaluation
Main argument 1: focus on the use of logos in source and
Draft the first supporting paragraph giving logical examples of the type of logical appeal. State whether the appeal is based on deductive reasoning, cause and effect or inductive reasoning. In either case, give supporting evidence, statistics and illustrations.
Supporting paragraph 2: give an explanation as to why the example you have given is effective for the argument the author is making.
Main argument 2: pathos in source
Focus on the way the author used pathos in source. Give concrete examples of the pathetic appeals and target audience from trace. This means that you should write this paragraph giving examples of what appeals to the values of audience’s and their motivation.
You should also write the second supporting statement evaluating the effectiveness of this appeal on the argument. It is an essential part of rhetorical analysis outline and gives more credibility to your essay.
Main argument 3: Ethos
Give solid examples of ethical appeals employed by the author. State the appeals while using text, author and constraints from trace to gain more authority, achieve more credibility. Note that ethos can be invented or situated ethos.
For the second paragraph, it is essential that you evaluate carefully the effectiveness of the argument.
Conclusion: Final thoughts and re-highlight evaluation
A rhetorical analysis essay also includes a conclusion and it is usually a summary of your assessment, final thoughts and it should be a re-emphasize of your analysis. Therefore, make the final statement about the nature of the argument in regards to the topic. For instance, you can state whether the topic is highly emotional, is it a new topic that should be used to motivate other people or a subject that is unlikely to be addressed in the future.
Rhetorical analysis outline examples
With the above information on what a rhetorical analysis outline entails, you should be able to organize your paper. However, you can effectively write your analysis by reviewing a few examples of rhetorical analysis outline.
Good examples help you to extend your understanding of what a topic or text is all about and how it works rhetorically. Note that many students are used to summarizing what the text is all about instead of analyzing the content. In a rhetorical analysis outline, you ought to examine and evaluate why the text says something about particular things.
You ought to state clearly what the general purpose of the author is. This should also be in the most natural way. Therefore, reviewing different examples will enable you to sum up how specific text operates or functions within the entire essay.
Rhetorical analysis outline examples will also help you to clearly see how the text you need to analyze operates at a micro level, sentence by sentence, paragraph by paragraph and section by section. This kind of analysis is specifically useful based on the fact that it helps you to write a good summary, focus on an analysis and critique of the speaker’s rhetorical methods.
- Introduce your subject or analysis topic
- Make your statement clear
- Engage readers
- Focus on objective analysis
Summarize rhetorical situation
- Determine the issue
- What is the context?
- Who is making the argument?
- Who is the target audience?
- What is the thesis or main point?
- What kind of argument is being presented in the text?
Summary of the argument’s appeals
- Give a summary of ethos, describe the character of the author, credentials, and state his or her good will and likeability
- Summarize logos and describe in detail the work of logos for instance, is the author’s argument logical or not? Give evidence for the same
- Pathos- what are some of the specific emotions that the argument evoke
Give a summary of the claim negotiates opposing statements
- Does the work acknowledge opposing evidence and claims? Does it do so fairly and thoroughly?
- Does the text refute the opposing views or claims? If so, how?
Summary of weaknesses and strengths
Can you find any errors, any problems with the arguments? State them
Write the conclusion, briefly and concisely
Find the above rhetorical analysis outline example here.
Pick attention grabber text, something shocking or startling
Write a brief summary of the essay with the author’s info
Draft a thesis statement, choose what to start with, for instance is the statement effective or not effective
- Reason 1
- Reason 2
- Reason 3
- Reason 4
When giving reasons supporting your thesis statement, you should be very careful, do not go crazy, but be natural and honest. This will help you to keep your analysis on focus.
- Supporting point one
- Supporting point two
- Supporting point three
- Supporting point four
Write how your supporting statements or points work together enhance your thesis
State what the author might have done to make his or her effective (if you argue that the statement was effective, do you think that it could have been better? If so, give reasons.
Download this outline and get more details of how you can structure your paper.
Talk about the speaker, occasion and subject of your analysis
Write about the purpose of the author and what the author does in the topic of analysis
Focus on audience; does the author employ the right tone to keep the audience? For example, the author creates a highly dramatic tone to convey to target audience that the winds have inescapable effects and are sinister
This is the rhetorical analysis outline part and you should include a clear explanation of strategies employed by the author. Most importantly, work chronologically through the text; discuss each idea in each paragraph, one at ago.
The conclusion of a rhetorical analysis is often the easiest part. In one or two sentences, remind your readers of what you said in the introduction and briefly.
This link leads you to the above rhetorical analysis structure and offers more information on ow you organize your paper.
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Intrinsic vs. Instrumental Value
A comparison of intrinsic value vs. instrumental value brings out the differences and similarities of these ideas. These values have been seen as contrasting ideas since the start of philosophical debates among philosophers.
Intrinsic value refers to a philosophic and ethical property. An intrinsic value is a philosophic and ethical value that is found in an object or for its sake. An object that has an intrinsic value can be considered as an end-in-itself or an end.
On the other hand, an instrumental value is an extrinsic value or a contributory value. It is a value that an object has both abstract object and physical object and it is not an end or end-in-itself but a means that it can use to achieve something else. Instrumental value is studied in value theory.
An intrinsic value is usually contrasted with instrumental value. In this regard, instrumental value is considered as the value that depends on the amount of intrinsic value that it generates. Happiness comprises of an intrinsic value for eudaemonists. On the other hand, a family might not comprise of an intrinsic value but it can be an instrumental value because it brings happiness.
In axiology, intrinsic value is employed in studying value or quality. Ethic good that has instrumental value can be considered as an ethic means without necessarily being the end itself. Thus, the major difference between instrumental value and intrinsic value is that an instrumental value is a means of achieving ethical decision while an intrinsic value is seen as a human nature.
These two makes a philosophic argument on whether a value is a means to an end or an end in itself. However, when put together the ideas fit well.
Theory of an instrumental value originates from the notion of an idea or object leading to another value indirectly or directly. For instance, if a person enjoys reading, the action of reading gives them pleasure. Thus, reading as an action leads to a value which is happiness.
Theory of an intrinsic value however, is based on the idea that certain values or beliefs are just what they are. For instance, happiness is intrinsic because it is a feeling or emotion. It is difficult to control what makes an individual happy but everybody agrees that it is a good emotion or feeling. Thus, an emotional value, happiness is the end. As such, an intrinsic value is a belief that leads a person into making a judgment about a situation.
While an instrumental value is easy to define and easy to identify, an intrinsic value is tricky in most cases. The notion that an intrinsic value is not explainable apart from agreeing that it is a value itself makes it difficult to define and identify.
Contrary to this, an instrumental value is simply an indirect or direct means via which intrinsic value can be observed. This is because an instrumental value is simply a means to the end and the intrinsic value is the end.
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Instrumental variable is used in estimating casual relationships when a treatment is not delivered to all units successfully or a controlled experiment is not feasible in a randomized experiment in statistics, epidemiology, econometrics and other related disciplines.
Philip G. Wright derived the instrumental variable theory for the first time in a book entitled; The Tariff on Animal and Vegetable Oils. Instrumental variables are traditionally defined as variable Z with a correlation with an independent variable X without a correlation with the error term U in an equation.
The equation is as follows:
Y= βX +U
However, this definition has concept ambiguities that include independent variable and error term. This has caused confusion regarding the meaning that this equation has and it has been labeled as “regression” wrongly.
The method of instrumental variable allows for consistent estimation in the experiments with correlated explanatory variables with error terms of regression relationships. This correlation can occur when one of the explanatory variables is caused by a dependent variable, when the explanatory variables are subjected to measurement errors or when relevant covariates or explanatory variables are omitted in the model.
In any of these situations, inconsistent and biased estimates are generally produced by linear regression. Nevertheless, if there is an instrument variable, it is still possible to obtain consistent estimates. An instrument variable refers to a variable that is not part of the explanatory equation. It is correlated to endogenous covariates that are condition to the other explanatory variables.
In a linear model, using instrumental variable has two major requirements. First, the instrument has to be correlated to the endogenous covariates that are conditional to other explanatory variables. Second, the instrument should not be correlated to the error term in covariates equation. This implies that the instrument should not suffer from a similar problem with an original, predicting variable.
The method of instrumental variable has been used in estimating policy variable of the effects of a treatment in an experimental design that is not feasible and it has been successful. Estimating the casual impacts has several difficulties. Even randomized experiments are not perfect in some parts because researchers can seldom, if possible, perform true experiments.
Instrumental variable analysis is one of the most compelling quasi-experimental methods that are used in estimating impacts since the assumptions required to provide justification for the instrumental method are more plausible that the ones required in justifying other experimental methods.
Researchers have proposed the instrumental variable method as one of the potential approaches in solving common problems of the uncontrolled confounding in the comparative studies in medical interventions. Over the years, several reviews have been done on the instrumental variable methods in biomedical and statistical literature at different technical levels and substantive emphases have been made. However, many researchers are still unfamiliar with instrumental variable and its application.
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Example of a Conclusion
It is always advisable that you know how to determine the best example of a conclusion online to refer to when writing academic papers. Besides, you should also know where to get the right example of an academic paper conclusion for successful results. However, there is no reason to worry because you will find herein, the best advice on how to easily get the right example for use in writing a good conclusion for an essay or any other academic paper.
A strong example of a conclusion is the best reference material that you should rely on when writing an academic paper. An example is basically a sample drawn from a typical paper that is written by other students or professionals. A professionally written one can vividly show you how an outstanding conclusion should be crafted.
A good conclusion sample highlights the recommended structure for writing the final section of an academic paper. With the framework, you will always find an easy time writing the conclusion for your paper. Besides, a well written example can also provide you with ideas on how to write conclusions for other papers in future.
In order to get the best results with an example of a conclusion, it is always important that you use a properly written sample. In fact, the quality of the example that you use greatly determines the way your conclusion will be written. Therefore, you have to be very keen on where you obtain the sample from and also the example that you use.
Tips on how to choose a good example of a conclusion
Choosing the best quality example of a conclusion can sometimes seem challenging to most students. However, there are only a few things that you should take note of in order to always make the right choices.
When looking for a conclusion example to use, it is always advisable that you go for one that is written by professionals or experts on that particular subject. That is best sample that can offer you an ideal structure for a good academic paper conclusion. Professionals are people with expertise on the subject or coursework.
It is also advisable that you look for an example that is based on the subject of your paper. Using a sample conclusion for a different subject to write your own can be misleading and even confusing. However, it should be noted that an example is only to guide you in writing. Therefore, you should not copy it word to word or directly as it is.
The aim of an example is to enable you get ideas on how a good conclusion should be written. Lifting statements or content from the sample and copying onto yours is not allowed and may amount to plagiarism. In the event that you use part of the statements in the sample, it should be properly referenced in your conclusion according to the recommended style.
In academic writing, conclusions should be strong and brief. Therefore, it would also be important that you carefully read through a couple of examples in order to gauge them based on these elements. Conclusions that are too long and dotted with vague statements are not usually good to use, so try to avoid them.
Since you will need to refer to examples of conclusions often when writing assignments and term papers, it is also important that you find a source that can offer you the required sample at your own convenience. The internet is the most convenient place where you should obtain sample conclusions.
By choosing to acquire sample conclusions from a reliable source, you will never be caught up in the last minute rush to complete assignments or term papers since you will always get the sample at the right time.
When obtaining sample conclusions online, it should also be noted that the sources have different terms and conditions regarding the use of those samples. Some sources offer conclusion examples at a fee while others free of charge. Therefore, ensure that you carefully know the terms of using the example beforehand.
Where to get the best example of a conclusion online
There are several places where you can find an example of a conclusion over the internet. However, not all can offer you the best quality samples. Besides, other sources are not reliable enough to offer you the required examples at your time of need.
The following as some of the best sources to acquire a sample conclusion from.
Your school’s writing center
Today, almost all academic institutions ranging from high schools to universities have writing centers that are dedicate to helping students in academic writing. The one for your school can be a good place to acquire an example of an essay or research paper conclusion online. In case your school does not have one, you can still find help from writing centers of other institutions that offer similar courses as yours.
The University of Maryland Writing Center is one of the school writing centers that you can visit for examples of academic paper conclusions. Almost all school writing centers can be accessible online, so you can always get the samples at your own convenience.
Academic writing services
There are websites dedicated to offering paper writing help to students and could also be ideal sources for sample conclusions. The benefit of such sites is that they will only offer you sample conclusions but also custom written pieces on request. However, some of the services are offered at a fee, based on your needs.
Academic writing service providers can also offer you professional advice on how to write good conclusions for your papers. CustomWritingService is one of the best service providers that you can contact online for sample essay, research paper and dissertation conclusions. The site also has a blog from where you can easily acquire the examples that you need at any time.
Although many students today avoid visiting the library, it still remains a great place to obtain reference materials for writing academic papers. The library contains a collection of materials that can assist you in writing good conclusions for academic papers.
Considering the development of technology, you can now access a wide range of learning materials from various libraries online from the comfort of your seat. The University of Guelph Library is one of the places that you can check out online for examples of paper conclusions. Besides, the library also offers more insights on how to write conclusions and others parts of an academic paper.
There are websites that offer academic help to students and could also assist you whenever you need a sample conclusion. However, you must be very keen to find one that is ruin by professionals. A good academic blog will not only offer you an example but also more information on how an ideal conclusion should be structured.
Literacy Education Online is one of the blogs from where you can obtain examples of conclusions. The site offers a wide range of sample conclusions and also comprehensive guidelines on how to write unique and outstanding conclusions for essays and other academic papers.
Examples of well written Conclusions
The following samples will help you in determining the best quality example of a conclusion online.
Sample Conclusion for an essay
‘’…As previously stated, what differentiates university-standard writing from other forms are the expectations held by the academics who will assess the writing. These include the expectation that essays will be thoroughly planned, and clearly structured, making the arguments and ideas they provide easy to follow. There is also a very high expectation of the style of writing that will be used; it must meet academic standards…’’ Read the other parts of the sample here.
Sample conclusion that ends with a question
‘’Campaign advertisements should help us in understanding the candidate’s qualifications and positions on the issues. Instead, most tell us what a boob or knave the opposing candidate is, or they present general images of the candidates as a family person or God-fearing American. Do such advertisements contribute to the creation of an informed electorate or a people who choose political leaders the same way they choose soft drinks and soap?’’Read the sample and more insights about conclusions for academic papers on this link,
Sample essay Conclusion
‘’I thought I would spend a few hours at Disneyland, but here I was at 1:00 AM, closing time, leaving the front gates with the now dark towers of the Magic Kingdom behind me. I could see tired children, toddling along and struggling to keep their eyes open as best they could. Others slept in their parent’s arms as we waited for the parking lot tram that would take us to our cars. My forty-year-old feet ached, and I felt a bit sad to think that in a couple of days I would be leaving California, my vacation over, to go back to my desk…’’Find the rest of the sample conclusion here.
In case you may need a professionally crafted example of a conclusion, do not hesitate to talk to us. Alternatively, you can also visit our blog to continue reading more about conclusions for academic papers.
How to Write an Analysis Paper
Knowing how to write an analysis paper is very important because your instructor will most likely tell you to write an analysis of a specific work at some point during your academic career. The purpose of an analysis paper or essay is to examine a work and sometimes evaluate it. See more at by following this link. Doing this entails breaking down the work into components and examining how they contribute towards ensuring the effectiveness of the work. When you know how to analyze any work, you can easily examine how different elements of that work function and appreciate them better.
For instance, you can analyze a poem in which you deal with different images and how they relate to each other enabling the poet to convey the main message in a more vivid manner. When writing an analysis paper of a play, you can examine how subplots relate to the main plot. You can also analyze a tragic hero’s character flaw and how it is revealed in different acts of the entire play. When analyzing a short story, your paper can include the identification of themes and how they are suggested by the writer through his or her viewpoint. You can also explain the attitude of the main characters in the play towards women and how it is revealed via actions or dialogue.
A four steps guide on how to write an analysis paper
Write the introduction
The introduction of an analysis paper should capture the interest of the readers. It should bring their focus to the subject of your analysis immediately. The introduction should also provide important background details of the work under analysis while preparing readers for the major thesis- follow the link here for more information. Come up with an introduction that includes the work’s title, the author’s name and main theme’s explanation. You can also include details of the main characters and the setting. The main thesis of your analysis paper should come at the end of the introductory paragraph.
Write a strong thesis statement
Come up with a thesis statement for your analysis paper that tells readers what they should expect from your paper. Your thesis statement should be precise and restricted in its wording. It should be a declarative sentence stating the purpose of your analysis paper. If you do not craft a good thesis, your paper will have minimal success chances.
Therefore, come up with a thesis statement that:
- Suggests how the author reveals the theme while showing how the paper is organized.
- Relates the paper to the main theme of the work under analysis.
A thesis statement can be too large to fit in a single sentence. In such a case, use two sentences to express it.
Write the body paragraphs
The body of your analysis paper is where you support your thesis statement. You cannot claim to know how to write an analysis paper if you do not know how to write body paragraphs of an analysis since the body of an analysis paper is where the supporting details are presented. For instance, the body paragraphs can have concrete explanation, analysis or details of the topic sentence which are basically the main points of the analysis paper. Every paragraph in the body should basically have a topic sentence, textual evidence from the work under analysis, commentary, and a concluding sentence.
- Topic sentence
This is the first sentence in a body paragraph. Note that a body paragraph is also called a support paragraph because it supports the thesis statement. This sentence identifies an aspect of the thesis statement and supports it with an aim of showing why the thesis statement is true.
- Textual evidence
This is an example that is drawn from the work under analysis and it provides evidence for the stated topic sentence. Textual evidence may comprise of combined paraphrases or direct quotes from the subject or work under analysis.
This is simply your interpretation and explanation of the stated textual evidence. Your commentary should tell readers the meaning of the text and/or how this proves the stated topic sentence. The commentary can include an analysis, interpretation, insight, reflection and/or argument.
- Concluding sentence
This is the last sentence in a body paragraph. It should conclude the body paragraph by properly tying the evidence to the stated thesis statement.
While writing the body paragraphs, remember that an analysis paper should focus on the text under analysis closely. It should not introduce your original reaction, discussion, thought lines or opinions about the ideas of the author- follow the link for more information. If you quote anything from the work under analysis, use clear quotation marks.
Write the conclusion
Your analysis paper should have a properly-written conclusion. This is the last paragraph of the paper and it should start by echoing the main thesis of the paper though it should not do so using the exact words. Broaden your conclusion from the stated thesis to show how your paper has answered the “so what?” question.
Among the things that the conclusion of your analysis paper should accomplish include:
- Reflect on the way the topic of your analysis paper relates to the work under analysis.
- Evaluate the success of the creator of the work in accomplishing his/her goal.
- Provide your personal statement towards the work or the topic.
- Connect the work to your creative opening
- Make predictions
- Give an opinion of the work or its significance.
While writing your analysis paper, consider your subject as a varied, vast terrain where each square foot differs from the next with the differences having subtle meaning. As such, you have to go past simple gut reaction and do something that is more nuanced and be attentive to finer details of the work under analysis. Knowing these steps on how to write an analysis paper alone is not enough because your knowledge of the work or subject that you are required to analyze is also important when it comes to writing an excellent analysis paper. You also need to look at the work under analysis severally to understand it properly before you analyze it-follow the link here for more information.
Bonus hints and tips for writing an analysis paper
To write a good analysis paper, you need time, critical thinking and effort. You have to evaluate the work carefully considering more details below the surface. Writing a good analysis paper also requires you to read the work and understand its facets.
Here are tips that will enable you to come up with an excellent analysis paper:
- Select a topic for your analysis paper wisely
You need to select a straightforward topic for your paper especially if you are allowed the freedom of selecting an angle or topic for your paper. Conduct some research of the material under analysis then choose a topic that will fit your analysis paper or subject better.
- Start your analysis early
You need time to read and understand the work before you analyze it. Read the work severally taking notes so that you can understand its aspects or elements and how they work together to accomplish the goal of the creator of the work. After reading and taking notes, review the notes while being more detailed. Make sure that the final paper that you come up with is not vague or general but specific and detailed. Assess the materials once your ideas start taking shape to determine if the angle that you have taken is the right one.
- Write a strong, effective thesis statement
The kind of a thesis statement that you write will tell readers whether you know how to write an analysis paper from the introduction and whether they should read your paper. A thesis statement usually comes at the introductory paragraph where it provides a preview of the analysis paper. It also grabs the attention of the reader. As such, your thesis should be straight to the point, narrow and specific. Its structure should enable it to present exactly what will be discussed in the paper. Therefore, take time to draft a strong, effective thesis statement for your analysis paper.
- Back up your argument
Thesis statement will basically present your argument. However, the body should support your argument as presented by your thesis statement. Therefore, cite examples from the work under analysis directly to support your argument- follow the link for more information.
- Write a precise conclusion
An analysis paper should not be wordy. Make sure that the paper and the conclusion provide a detailed account of the analysis of the work or situation. Sum the analysis with a precise conclusion.
- Use a good example of an analysis paper
Using a good analysis paper sample and the guidelines highlighted in this section is a surefire way that will enable you to grasp the steps on how to write an analysis paper. You can find a good analysis paper example online. Here are links to sample analysis papers that you can easily find online; McDonald’s competition analysis 2013 and Renaissance Paintings’ details analysis by Andy Warhol- ualr.edu.
Get help with your analysis paper
If you face difficulties while writing your analysis paper, talk to us for instant assistance. Visit our homepage for additional information regarding our professional writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines on how to write an analysis paper on our blog.
How to Write an Analysis of an Article
Knowing how to write an analysis of an article is an important academic paper writing skill that you should have for better grades. Writing an article analysis involves proper understanding, arguing out of ideas expressed in the given piece of work, and presenting them in a way that your audience can get and relate to. Continue reading for greater insights on how to write an analysis of an article.
Writing an article analysis is a better way of enhancing your analytical and writing skills. Basically, such a paper requires you to carefully read or study the given article in order to determine the aims of the author and how they have been brought out therein. Finally, you will have to discuss what you have come up with from the article to readers.
An article analysis can take the form of a typical essay paper, thus, the writing process should not scare you. By mastering the skills on how to write an analysis of an article, you will be able to easily craft various kinds of academic papers since the formats are more or less similar.
In fact, knowing how to write analysis essays can be a greater way of developing your oral and written communication skills. These will be used even long after school in your area of work.
Guidelines on how to write an analysis of an article
An analytical essay or article analysis is just like any other academic paper with an introduction, body and conclusion. However, there are certain aspects that you should highlight in the analysis in order to ensure that it serves the intended purpose.
The following tips will give you more pointers on how to write an analysis of an article.
Read the article properly
Many students are always not very keen when reading articles for analysis and this can negatively impact the quality of your work. Take time to carefully read the article from beginning to end in order to get all the facts right.
When studying the article, remember to take notes, highlighting key phrases or statements that stand out in the text. The marked phrases will be useful in brainstorming and even formulating the thesis.
In simple terms, you should highlight the following key elements while reading the article:
- The thesis of the author
- Main ideas of the piece of work
In case there is some part of information in the article that you are not conversant with, it should also be marked and well researched on before writing.
You can read the article as many times as you wish to ensure that you get the context for proper analysis.
Do more research
Although much research is not always needed in writing an analytical essay, you should go ahead to investigate other pieces of work related to it. This will help you in getting a broader view of the subject of analysis.
Try to find various responses to the argument expressed in the article to be to get a better understanding of the work. Information from alternative sources can also offer you more ideas for writing the analysis.
When researching ensure that you only focus on specific material that is related to the subject of your analysis. Besides, do remember to list the sources that you have obtained information from for easy reference.
Organize your ideas
Based on what you have read from the article and ideas obtained from various sources about the subject, it is important to narrow down your points. When doing this, you should take note of the main elements of an analytical paper.
A good analysis of an article should show readers that you have read, understood and logically argued out the arguments of the author. The best approach to take in organizing an analytical paper is chronological order.
First choose a stance on the subject of the article in order to have a clearly defined thesis to be addressed in the essay. Using the thesis, you can now select the key points and evidence that will be used to prove it in the paper.
It is also advisable that you identify the appeals used in the article, if any. The most commonly used ones include pathos, ethos and logos. These should be identified, with evidence or examples from the article to support each.
Take time to carefully read through the outlined points, identifying strengths and weaknesses from different angles in order to deliver a good analysis paper.
Steps on how to write an analysis of an article
After making an outline for the analysis, you can proceed to presenting a detailed discussion in the paper. The following procedures will direct you on how to write an analysis of an article with so much ease.
The first part of your analysis should open with an attractive statement that can compel readers to read on. Besides, it should also precisely tell readers about the article to be analyzed, its author, date of publication and other basic information about it.
The opening paragraph should also point out some interesting facts about the topic so your readers can see the importance of reading your analysis. The thesis or your main argument should come towards the end of the introduction paragraph.
The introduction can simply identify the topic of analysis, give your stand and reason to support it, and express a contrary opinion. However, your key argument should be vividly stated in the intro. Besides, you can also tell readers how you plan to present the analysis.
In this section, you should give a comprehensive and logical analysis of the given piece of work. Formulate a short discussion, indicating the main points used by the author in delivering the message contained in the article.
It is advisable that you give examples to support your argument from the article. For every paragraph, you can include two or three examples. However, the number will depend on the point being addressed and article.
In writing the body, you can also simply write a short description of the article’s organization.
Always dedicate a new paragraph for an idea in order to enhance proper flow of the analysis and also make your work more appealing.
Wind up the analysis by giving your final judgment on the subject of the essay. The conclusion should also restate your thesis statement to remind readers of the purpose of the analysis. Besides, you can also give a short recommendation on the analyzed article for further improvements or research.
Examples of Article Analysis Papers
In order for you to know how to write an analysis of an article, it is also advisable that you read sample article analysis papers. The following are samples are written by professionals and will offer you more ideas on how to go about writing an article analysis.
Sample Analysis of an article; ‘’The Case against the Death Penalty’’
‘’In the article, ‘’The Case against the Death Penalty,’’ which appears in Crime and Criminals: Opposing Viewpoints, Eric Freedman argues that the death penalty not only does not deter violent crime but also works against reducing the crime rate. Freedman says, ‘’The death penalty not only is useless in itself, but counterproductive…’’ (140). This paper will analyze Freedman’s article from the viewpoints of a middle-aged working man, a poor person, and a politician…’’
To read the rest of this sample analysis paper, simply click here.
Analysis of ‘’The Paralyzing Principle,’’ by Cass Sunstein
‘’In the article, ‘’The Paralyzing Principle,’’ Cass Sunstein argues that, as a normative guideline to creating and implementing policy, the strong version of the Precautionary Principle is inept. The author claims that the Precautionary Principle cannot be an adequate guide towards determining a regulatory course of action because the principle will warn against any action, and even against non-action, in almost every given case. Sunstein then argues that the strong Precautionary Principle is a commonly referenced justification for implementing regulation because of human biases that have the tendency of masking the logical implications of the principle itself…’’
Click here to read the entire sample analysis.
Sample Literary Critical Analysis of, ‘’The Road Not Taken.’’
In the genre of poetry, there are many well-known works that society have come to love. Among them, ‘’The Road Not Taken,’’ by Robert Frost, is one of the most famous. As a deep and eloquent allegory for the struggle of choice in everyday life, Frost is stating that choices about one’s future are challenging to make, and predictions toward an outcome are often mysterious.
Frost introduces two roads diverging in the woods, alluding to the point in life when a choice of many must be made…’’
Read the rest of this sample analysis on this link.
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Neoliberalism is a phrase that is used in reference to a set of economic policies that have been widely popularized in the past 25 years. Through these policies, a situation is created whereby the rich grow richer while the poor continue to languish in abject poverty. This mainly occurs because through neoliberalism, the control of economic factors is moved from the public to the private sector. Thus, only handful individuals who already have some sort of power are able to make their way up in terms of economic gains.
Neoliberalism offers a suggestion that governments should cut down deficit spending, exercise limitation on subsidies, limit protectionism, privatize businesses that are run by the state, back deregulation and give and give way for private property developments. When looking at the concept of liberalism, it is also of great importance to bear in mind that it can as well be used in reference to religious and political ideas. However, the phrase neo suggests a new form of liberalism that gives capitalists the opportunity to make as much profits as they can even if it is at the expense of the majority of the population.
There are main points that one should always base their arguments when defining neoliberalism. One of them is the rule of the market. Neoliberalism seeks to excuse private enterprises from any bonds that may have been imposed on them by the state irrespective of the social impacts that it is deemed to cause. Besides, it also aims at reducing wages through de-unionization of workers and elimination of their rights. Besides, it also looks towards removing price controls, and ensuring free movement of goods, services and capital.
Another basic aspect of neoliberalism is that it significantly reduces the public spending on vital services like education and healthcare. In fact, it ensures that the government’s role in providing almost all kinds of essential services like road maintenance, water supply is withdrawn. With this, the safety nets for the poor are completely removed so that they are open to oppression. Neoliberalism is aimed at reducing government regulation of anything that has the potential of diminishing profits so that capitalists can make as much as they wish.
Neoliberalism also proposes that the state should sell a greater part of its assets like industries, banks, toll highways, hospitals, schools among others to private investors. In order to avoid public suspicion, all these are conducted under the banner of enhancing greater efficiency. However, the result is that it concentrates more wealth in just a few hands such that the public is pushed to paying more in order to meet its needs.
When all the issues highlighted above are brought together and successfully executed, the concept of community or public good is completely eliminated. Neoliberalism imposes a concept of individual responsibility whereby each and every person is entitled to use their own means to survive. Apart from just being used by governments, neoliberalism has also been imposed by many powerful institutions around the globe like the IMF, Inter American Development Bank, World Bank among others.
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Visual merchandising refers to the manipulation and use of attractive sales merchandise or displays and floor plans in engaging customers as well as boosting the sales activity. It entails displaying the products that are being sold in ways that attract customers or capture their attention to the benefits and best features of the products.
Both services and goods can be sold using this strategy. A marketer needs to highlight the benefits and features of the service or product that they are marketing in the best way possible. The main aim of visual merchandising is to capture the attention of customers, attract, engage and motive them so that they can make a purchase.
Although visual merchandising is common in retail spaces that include trade shows and retail stores, it dates back to the 19th century. For instance, the giants of the 19th century such as the Marshall Field & Co. adopted visual merchandising as a way of attracting customers after shifting to retail business.
This company used the windows of their stores to display merchandise attractively. Eventually, the design beauty that was used in the window displays was moved indoors. This later became a part of the design of the interior stores and it reduced display windows in most suburban malls.
Visual merchandising is established on or used to augment the store’s retail design. In most cases, it is used as a way of setting a store in a manner that makes it appealing and attractive to customers. Visual merchandisers use different elements in creating the displays. These include lighting, color, product information, technologies like interactive installations and digital displays as well as sensory inputs that entail appeals to sound, touch and smell.
Methods of visual merchandising include the use of style and color, rhythm and symmetry, side and face presentation among others. Tools of visual merchandising include a floor map that helps a visual merchandiser in finding the best location for colorful stories of the footwear, clothes or garments in their shop. A floor map is like a floor plan.
There are different forms of visual merchandising. These include shelving, point of sale display, food merchandising and window displays among others. In an already saturated market, grocery stores, restaurants and convenience stores employ visual merchandising as a way of differentiating themselves from competitors. Window displays are used to communicate content, price and style to potential buyers.
The main goal of visual merchandising is to help in making sales. Visual merchandising gives a presentation of an image of what or who a shopper will be while or after using the displayed merchandise. When done properly, visual merchandising helps in converting walk-by shoppers into walk-in customers.
Nevertheless, visual merchandising requires artistic knowledge, creativity and understanding of the store design to be effective. Color plays a crucial role in attracting and converting potential shoppers into buyers or customers. This strategy makes a retail space the most efficient and most productive salesperson.
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Visual merchandising has been used by many retail stores as a strategy of maximizing their use of the aesthetic value of their products in marketing them. To write a good essay on this marketing strategy, you must conduct an extensive study first. However, you can simply buy this essay at Essays Experts.
The medieval period spans a period of over seven hundred years starting from the year 800. During this period, key advances were made in government, religion as well as society. The term “medieval” is derived from Latin and means “middle age”. The term was first introduced during the nineteenth century into English. This was during season of increased interest in history and art.
To date though, there is disagreement on when actually the medieval period begun with some historians arguing it was during the third century while others argue it was during the 4th century. Still there are those who argue this period was during the 5th century. The period is mostly associated with Roman Empire collapse which begun in 410 AD by most scholars. Similarly, scholars also disagree on when the period came to an end with some placing it towards the beginning of fifteenth century (Renaissance Period rise) while others place it in 1453 (when Constantinople was captured by Turkish forces,
William the Conqueror in 1066 led Norman Conquest of England and it caused feudalism and castles building. Feudalism developed continuously from that point till it reached its height. At that time, there weren’t much regional boundaries or unity outside large cities and as such, feudal system was form giving the societal climate a governmental structure basis.
Under this system, individuals had no option but that of serving under a superior. At the top, there was the king with knights, lords, nobles and the barons serving below him. Individuals were given protection in return for their services. Constitutional government basis can be traced to this period as well with signing of the Great Charter in 1215.
Following Charlemagne rule, Christianity spread quickly throughout Europe and service as the unifying force. This was greatly as a result of the 1054 Great Schism in which 2 religious competing authorities, Patriarch Michael I of Eastern Orthodox Church and Pope Leo IX of Roman Catholic Church excommunicated one another on the basis of authority dispute.
The crusades were a central part of this period as well. After the church split and Christianity expanded, crusades were launched with the aim of defending Christianity from the Islamic religion. Europeans amounting to the thousands found their way to Jerusalem where they waged war with the forces of Islam. They also settled in that area with the intention of regaining control over the Holy Land. For some time, the quest was a successful one and the crusades came to an effective end with the 1291 fall of Acre. Thousands died during these crusades however, the Europeans were enlightened with new technologies and they also discovered new trade routes.
Men, during medieval ages were supposed to be knowledgeable about fighting so they could serve the king upon demand. During this time, the soldiers were Archers, Foot Soldiers and Medieval Knights while some of the weapons used included crossbows, battle axes, spears, swords and flails etc.
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Emissions trading which is also known as cap and trade is an approach that is market based used for purposes of controlling pollution through provision of economic incentives for reduction in emission of pollutants. A central power (often government body) is mandated with the task of setting the limit or cap on the pollutant amount that should be emitted.
This limit is sold or in some cases allocated to firms usually in form of emission permits that represent the appropriate discharge or emit. Firms are supposed to have a couple of permits that are equivalent to the level of emissions they make. The permits number should be more than the set limit or cap that limits average emissions to the stated level. Firms interested in increasing their emissions volume must be willing to buy the permits from those in need of few permits.
Permit transfer is known as trade and in effect, buyers pay a polluting charge while sellers are rewarded for their reduced emission. Consequently, those in a position to reduce emissions do so cheaply and they are able to achieve reduction of pollution at the lowest possible cost to the society.
Emissions’ trading is preferable because:
- It is an economically efficient strategy for attaining the desired emission target or reduction cap
- It is designed specifically to deliver an environmental objective.
- It delivers a price signal that is clear and against which abatement investments are measured.
There are various air pollutant programs that are active. For instance in the case of greenhouse gases, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme is the largest and its purpose is that of avoiding climate change that is dangerous. In the US, a national market is available for the purpose of reducing acid rain and numerous regional nitrogen oxides markets. Other pollutant markets however are often small and far localized.
The major goal of any emissions trading is minimization of costs associated with meeting set emissions cap or target. Usually, the cap is a limit that is enforceable and it is lowered over certain duration with the aim of reaching reduction target at a national level. In some of the systems, the proportion of traded permits should be periodically retired leading to net emissions reduction over time.
In most of the emissions trading systems, organizations that don’t pollute and with no obligations can also take part in trading. Therefore, environmental groups have the right to buy and retire emission permits driving the price of those permits remaining high in accordance to demand law. Corporations might retire allowances prematurely as well by donating such to non-profit entities and hence be eligible for tax reductions.
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Commercial revolution refers to the era of European colonialism, mercantilism and economic expansion. This period lasted from the thirteenth century till the start of the eighteenth century and was succeeded by industrial revolution in the middle eighteenth century. Europeans made the rediscovery of silks, spices as well as other commodities which were rare in Europe. Because of this development, the longing for trade was created and in during the second middle Ages half, trade expanded.
Through discovery voyages, European states were searching for new trading routes during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowing European powers the opportunity to build new and vast networks for international trade. Additionally, nations also sought after wealth sources. New economic practices and theories were also created for the purpose of dealing with the new found wealth.
As a result of the contending national interest, Europeans were driven by the desire to increase the power they had over the world through colonial empires. In essence, commercial revolution was marked by increases in general commerce as well as the expansion of financial services like insurance, investing as well as banking.
There are two circumstances that led to commercial revolution. Overseas trade preceded commercial revolution and it had many consequences which included Britain’s fleet expansion. This was an English phenomenon however the Scotts became highly engaged later on. Trade went through 3 long growth periods. In 1475-1550, existing English broadcloths markets and that of other woollens expanded rapidly due to the fact that import regions had become prosperous and they even enjoyed great purchasing power. Secondly, there was rise of new trades due to cheaper English sugar re-exports, calicoes and tobacco which created new markets.
The term commercial revolution was coined during the mid twentieth century by Roberto Sabatino Lopez, an economic historian for the purpose of shifting attention from English Industrial Revolution. In one of his best books “The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages” (1971 available in various reprints) the author argues the key contributor to medieval period was creation of commercial economy by the Europeans which was centered on Italo-Byzantine eastern Mediterranean. Eventually though, this extended to Italian city states as well as other areas of Europe.
The revolution lasted from the thirteenth century through to the eighteenth century. Historians such as Robert S. Lopez, Irving W. Raymond and Peter Spufford indicate the revolution begun in the 13th century and not later. There were several factors that contributed to this period and they include technological, monetary as well as geopolitical factors. During this period the center of European economy shifted from one that was Islamic Mediterranean to Western Europe. This change was a result of successful Africa circumnavigation which opened sea trading with the east.
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Also referred to as the Scopes Monkey trial or the Scopes Evolution trial, Scopes Trial is a trial that started on July 10th, 1925. In the trail, John Thomas Scopes who was a high school coach and substitute teacher was charged with having violated the Butler Act by giving lessons on the theory of evolution to his students. According to the act, it was regarded as offensive to teach about any theory that was against the biblical theory of creation. Thus, Thomas Scopes was charged with going against the law by teaching his students that man had descended from apes.
The trial of Thomas Scopes occurred in Dayton, Tennessee. However, it is indicated that the trial was a move that had earlier on been planned together with other events in order to raise public attention. Those who orchestrated the events were local businessmen whose main intentions were that from the publicity stunt, they would be able to get more money trickling into the town. One thing about the entire trial is that the defendant was not even sure of whether he had at one point in time, taught his pupils about the evolution theory.
Just as expected by the businessmen who orchestrated the Scopes Trial, the events attracted many reports from the region. In fact, the trial became the first one to be broadcast on radio. Thomas James accepted to incriminate himself and undergo trial in the hope that the Butler Act would be challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union. Many students were encouraged to testify against Scopes during the trial. At the conclusion of the trial, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. However, the verdict was later on thrown out after an appeal. The impact was that for the next five years, all textbooks in Tennessee were not to bear any mention of the phrase, evolution.
The ruling of Scopes case was a victorious signal for anti-evolutionists. As a result of the ruling, the law would remain in place for the next 42 years. However, it was repealed in 1967. The ruling came as a scare to many teachers such that teaching evolution in class was forgotten. It was only after the act was repealed that evolution began appearing in textbooks and being mentioned in classrooms.
As expected by the orchestrators, the Scopes trial drew a lot of publicity that eventually was good for business in town. The streets that led to the local courthouse were filled with hawkers, vendors and people doing various kinds of businesses. In fact, even booksellers made a killing from the trial since many people were flocking the courts to get a piece of the story. Evangelists too were not left out, most created open-air tabernacles where they encouraged the faithful to read their bibles.
The Scopes trial brought into the light, a trial as well as a theological contest on whether it is right to teach modern science with regards to the creation theory in schools.