Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain refers to several compounds that are responsible for transferring electrns from the electron donors to the electron acceptors through redox reactions while coupling the electron transfer process with protons (H+ ions) transfer across the membrane. This results in the creation of the electrochemical proton gradient responsible for driving synthesis of ATP or chemical energy generation in form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
The electron transport chain is used in energy extraction through redox reactions during photosynthesis from the sun or such as the case of sugars’ oxidation, cellular respiration. In inner mitochondrial membrane in the eukaryotes, there is a crucial electron transport chain that serves as the main oxidative phosphorylation site via the use of the adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast in the photosynthetic eukaryotes also has an electron transport chain. Electron transport chain is also found in the cell membrane of bacteria.
Light drives water conversion into NADP+ and oxygen to NADPH with H+ ions being transferred across the chloroplast membranes in the chloroplast. Oxygen conversion into water, NADH to the NAD+ and a succinate to fumerate required for the generation of proton gradient takes place in mitochondria. Electron transport chain is a major site where leakage of premature electron to oxygen and generation of superoxide with potential result of an increase in oxidative stress occurs.
Catabolic processes have FADH2 and NADH as their byproducts. These are in reduced forms. FADH2 and NADH are used by metabolic processes in transporting electrons in form of the hydride ions (H–). The electrons are then passed from FADH2 or NADH to electron carriers that are membrane bound which then passes on to the other carriers until when they are delivered to oxygen which result in water production.
During the process of passing electrons from one carrier to the other, hydrogen ions transfer also takes place in the inter-membrane spaces at the three points in electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions transportation results in greater hydrogen concentration in inter-membrane spaces than in matrix that can be used in driving ATP synthase and production of ATP which is a high energy molecule.
Energy that is obtained via electrons transfer is used in pumping protons from the matrix of the mitochondria into inter-membrane space which creates the electrochemical proton gradient found across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrochemical proton gradient enhances ATP synthase to use H+ flow via enzyme back to the matrix generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate and the inorganic phosphate.
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Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] or ATP-binding cassette sub-family C members 2 is a protein that in humans is programmed by the ABCC2 gene. The MRP2 is a known member of the ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporters. ABC transporters are members of protein superfamily that is one of the largest and oldest in the families with members from extant phyla from prokaryotes to human beings. The term multidrug resistance has been used to elaborate the mechanism of resistance that cells [Eukaryotic and prokaryotic] have in response to the many chemotherapeutic drugs.
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven unique subfamilies that include ABC1, MDR, TAP, MRP, GCN20, OABP and White. The ABC protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The protein is also exceptionally exhibited in the canalicular [apical] section of the hepatocyte and aids in biliary transport. The known substrate include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine. Thus, the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein was incorporated into the drug resistance scene in 1992 when Susan Cole and Rodger Deeley cloned the Multidrug resistance-associated protein gene, the MRP1. The Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] followed in 1996 and more MRP members followed. The MRP2 was characterized as the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter [cMOAT] from its cloning. Homology is also high in MRP2 as it is in the Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 [MRP1] 3 and 6. On top of this, these MRPs also share the characteristics of TMD0L0 segment. They are also seen in glutathione-drug conjugate [GS-X] and aid pump from eukaryotes like leishmania and yeast.
Within the ABC transporters in mammalians, the MRPs form a group that is clearly defined from the other known groups. MRP2 are able to transport methotrexate. MRP1,4 AND 5 RNAs are widely spread in the body while for MRP2, 3 and 6 mainly appear to function in kidney, liver and gut. While gathering more information on Multidrug resistance-associated proteins, there are a few problems encounter in the study. For instance;
- The MRPs are characterized and so they are organic anion transporters. Most of the substrates for these transporters are extremely charged and do not penetrate the cell membrane.
- Antibodies that work against MRP are often cross-react with another member of multidrug resistance-associated protein family. This issue can be solved by generating monoclonal antibodies against the non-conserved parts of the MRP family.
- The body cells chosen for drug resistance often overexpress multiple transporter genes. The use of certain inhibitors or transfected cells has helped solve this problem.
- It is challenging to get the multidrug resistance-associated protein transfectants giving high expression and products channeled to cell membrane. Most of the cells contain organic anion and this result to background transport activity.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is helpful in protection against exogenous toxic compounds. The presence of many ABC transporters available offer defense against toxic compounds. The discovery of MRP family has improved the study of MDR in tumor cells and led into interest in the functions of the MRP family members in normal metabolism.
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Le Chatelier’s Principle
Chemistry is one the widely pursued scientific field. There are thousands of principles or laws that are used to explain many chemistry laws or theorems. The Le Chatelier’s principle also known as the Chatelier’s principle or the equilibrium law is a principle used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. It is a reputed principle named after Henry Louis Le Chatelier and sometimes Karl Ferdinand Braun who discovered the law individually.
Le Chatelier’s principle is easy to comprehend. Interestingly, it states that; when a system at the equilibrium is subjected to change in concentration, volume, temperature or pressure, then the equilibrium readjusts itself to counteract the effect of the applied change and a new equilibrium is established. In 1884 the French chemist and engineer henry Louis Le Chatelier proposed one of the core concepts of chemical equilibrium which explains what takes place to a system when something briefly removes it from a state of equilibrium.
It is essential to comprehend that the Le Chatelier principle is only an important guide when identifying what happens when the conditions are altered in a reaction in a dynamic equilibrium and it does not give reasons for the changes at the molecular level. There are numerous areas to look at and comprehend how the Le Chatelier’s Principle works.
- Effect on change in concentration- Changing the concentration of a chemical will shift the equilibrium to the side that will lead to a reduction in the change in concentration. The chemical system of choice will tend to partially oppose the change affected to the original state of equilibrium. On top of this, the rate of reaction, magnitude and the yield of the chemical products will be changed in response to the impact on the system.
- Impact of the change in temperature- The effect of charging temperature in the equilibrium can be made apparent by, incorporating heat as either a product or a reactant or by assuming that an increase in temperature will increase the temperature the heat content of system. Whether increasing or decreasing the temperature would favor the forward or reverse reaction. Hence, all can be determined by applying Le Chatelier’s theorem.
- Effect of the change in pressure- Changes in pressure can lead to changes in volume. Notably, the equilibrium concentrations of the product and reactants do not directly depend on the pressure that is exposed to the system. Change in pressure due to change in volume will shift the chemical equilibrium.
- Effects of a catalyst- A catalyst has no influence on the equilibrium, but it spends upwards and backwards reactions and equally.
- Impact of adding an inert gas- an inert gas or noble gas like helium is one that does not react with other elements. Adding a noble gas into gas-phase equilibrium at constant volume does not result in a shift. An addition of a non-reactive gas does not impact partial pressures of the other gas in the container.
The Le Chatelier’s principle has unmatched influence not only in chemistry, but also in economics. A similar concept was also introduced in economics by U.S economist Paul Samuelson in 1947. The principle is generalized to apply in maximum condition of economic equilibrium. Factor-demand and commodity supply elasticity’s are theorized to be lower in short term but not on long term basis because of the fixed-cost constraint in the short run.
ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter
Transport of specific molecules across the lipid membranes is quite essential when it comes to living organisms. There are numerous transporters that have evolved to carry out most of these functions. ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC] is the largest transporter gene family that aids perform some of the crucial function in living organisms. ABC transporters are the core members of a protein superfamily made up of one of the largest and oldest families with representatives in extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC transporters] are transmembrane proteins that utilize the energy of the ATP [adenosine triphosphate] binding and hydrolysis to carry out biological processes. These processes include translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport-related process such as the translation of DNA and RNA repair. The proteins aid translocate a wide variety of substances that may include sugars, metal ions, amino acids, proteins and peptides and large amounts of hydrophobic compounds.
The ABC transporters genes are quite vital for many processes in the cell and mutation of these genes is harmful. Mutation of the responsible genes can cause or contribute to several human genetic complications that include cystic fibrosis, neurological disease cholesterol and bile transport defects, anemia and drug response. The ABC transporters make use of energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to transport numerous substrates across the cellular membranes.
These transporters are divided into three main functional categories. The prokaryotes, the importers mediate the uptake of nutrients into the cells while the substrates can be transported into amino acids, sugars, peptides and hydrophilic molecules. For the eukaryotes, they do not possess any importers. The exporters or effluxers which are both present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes aid as pumps that push out toxins and drugs available in the cells of living organisms. In the case of gram-negative bacteria, the exporters help transport lipids and polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm.
Understanding the mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporter makes it easy to comprehend how these active transporters can be aid the human cells. These active transporters require energy in the form of ATP to translocate substrates across the cell membranes. These proteins are able to harness the energy of ATP binding or for hydrolysis to drive conformational changes in the transmembrane domain and effectively transport molecules. Alternating-access model is the mechanism that described the conformational changes associated with binding of substrate.
The general mechanism for the transport cycle of the ABC transporters has been fully interpreted. However, the biochemical and structural data has accumulated to support a model through which ATP binding and hydrolysis has been made possible. ATP-binding cassette transporters also aid in the development of multidrug resistance [MDR]. In the MDR, patients who are on medication develop resistance not only to the drug that they are taking but also to several different types of drugs.
Excretion of the drug from the cell b ABC transporters is one of the factors that cause this resistance. Unfortunately, it is not clear how these proteins can translocate many drugs in the cell. ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they can easily facilitate the transport of numerous endogenous substances as well as substances remote to the body. ABC transporter interactions can be detected through assay types and they are membrane assays and whole based cells allays.
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Body Paragraph Examples
Professionally crafted body paragraph examples are among the best reference materials that are recommended for writing academic papers. In fact, all academic papers including essays, research papers, dissertations, reports among others require you to write strong body paragraphs for the best results. This implies you should know how to select the best body paragraph samples and also where to easily get well written ones. Read on for insights on how to accomplish all these.
Body paragraphs contribute the greatest percentage in an academic papers since they present the discussion of your main points. Therefore, it is very important that you know how to always deliver assignments as well as term papers with logical and compelling arguments. The best way to achieving this is by choosing the best body paragraph examples to refer to.
When you know where to find top notch body paragraph examples with ease, getting the right examples for reference will not be a problem. Besides, it will also save you time that would have been spent searching for samples to use when writing body paragraphs. In fact, you will also not spend a lot of time on research and other related processes since the examples contain several ideas on how to develop strong body paragraphs.
Tips for choosing body paragraph examples
Finding body paragraph examples to refer to when writing assignments and term papers may seem easy to many students. However, you should not just rush into using a particular sample for writing your paper without making sure that it is the right one. The following tips will assist you in choosing the best examples of body paragraphs to use when writing.
Consider the authenticity of the sources
When looking for sample body paragraphs to refer to, it is recommended that you always go for those that are offered by reliable sources. Obtaining sample papers from acknowledged sources is one the best ways of getting high quality examples.
Authentic sources are those with proper references such as website links, which you can easily provide when asked. Besides, it is also required that you provide your sources when writing academic papers, thus, always check the authenticity of the source before using any example.
Know the type of paper that you will be writing
There are various kinds of academic papers that you can be asked to write for example essays, research papers among others. Although there is a general writing format for all academic papers, there are slight differences based on the specific one that you are working on.
In order to have an easy time in writing, always go for examples of body paragraphs for a similar paper to yours. For example, if you are writing an essay paper, do not use research paper body paragraph samples, instead, go for sample of essay body paragraphs.
Narrow down to the subject of your paper
Examples of body paragraphs can offer you lots of ideas on how to craft this section of your paper. In order to acquire relevant ideas, find samples of body paragraphs for papers that are based on the same subject as yours. In this way, you will not be pressed with a lot of research for the body paragraphs of your paper.
Check the style of writing
There are various kinds of formats for writing academic papers including APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard among others. In the assignment sheet, you will be instructed on the particular style to use in writing the paper, which will apply to the body paragraphs and other sections. Therefore, you should always know the particular style for your paper and find an example that is written in the same format to use.
Look into punctuation, grammar, flow of ideas
Although many students ignore checking grammatical and punctuation mistakes, it is very important if you want to deliver a paper with flawless paragraphs. A good paragraph should be free from such mistakes and present a logical discussion with well explained points or ideas. Using examples with even simple mistakes like spelling errors can be misleading and badly taint your final paper, so be very keen when selecting the samples.
The organization of the body paragraphs is also another element that you should look into. An ideal body paragraph should be organized in a way such that, readers can easily identify the topic sentence or main point, evidence or example and also how the writer has presented his ideas.
When choosing examples of body paragraphs online, it is also important that you take time to read and understand the terms of using the samples.
Where to find top notch Body Paragraph Examples
Both online and offline sources can be used whenever you are looking for body paragraph examples. However, not all those sources can always offer the best samples of body paragraphs. The following are suggestions on some of the best sources that you can check out for high quality examples of body paragraphs for academic papers.
School Writing Centers
To help students write good assignments and term papers, many learning institutions including high schools, colleges and universities have writing centers. Quite a number of school writing centers provide their resources online, which means you can easily access them at any time and from wherever you are.
You do not have to only use examples from your school’s writing center but also others in order to get adequate information. Aims is one of the good online school writing centers you can visit for examples of body paragraphs to refer to. Besides, the site also offers tips on how to write body paragraphs as well as those for other sections of academic papers.
Academic paper writing services
Professional academic writing services are also among the best sources of body paragraph samples. The services are offered by experienced individuals with expertise in various areas and can always enable you to get the right examples to refer to. The best thing about academic writing service providers is that they can always create custom examples for you based on the given instructions.
There are various academic writers that you can obtain body paragraph samples from, but always go for one that is reliable and has a reputation of offering high quality papers and services. Custom Writing Service is one of the best service providers that you can contact for top notch examples and professional academic paper writing help.
There are also blogs and websites run by experts in various areas of academics that you can obtain examples of body paragraphs from. Since there are a number of them over the internet, choosing the best one to acquire samples from can be a bit tricky. However, you should always try to get samples from renowned academic blogs.
The Writing Café is an online platform that you can also visit for body paragraph samples and proper guidelines on how to develop good body paragraphs for academic papers.
Although both offline and online sources are recommended when looking for examples of body paragraphs, the internet is always the most idea considering its convenience and reliability. But this should not hinder you from visiting the library since it is also another good source of sample papers.
Examples of Body Paragraphs for Academic Papers
By reading well written body paragraph examples, you will be able to effectively know how a good sample should look. In this way, you can always easily choose the right example to use when writing a paper. The following are some examples of body paragraphs that you should read for illustrations on how body paragraphs should be developed.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’While there is little doubt that extracurricular opportunities at University of Texas are a positive and critical component of students’ overall development, providing students with time management skills is equally important. One only needs to look past alumni to see the validity of this claim. As famous alum George W. Bush states…’’ Continue reading the sample here.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’Students who learn how to write well will earn better grades in most classes. This is true because most instructors assign a variety of written assignments, and depending on the class, these written assignments often encompass a large percentage of a student’s final grade. For instance, all college students seeking a degree will be required to take a composition class…’’ Read the other parts of the sample on this link.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’Perhaps the cheapest and most efficient security method is a so-called Safe Traveler Card or national ID card. A Safe Traveler Card or national ID card would be about the size of a credit card, contain a computer chip, and cost little to produce. In some ways, these cards are like the E.Z Pass devices that enable people to drive on highways, bridges, and tunnels without having to stop and pay tolls (Dershowitz 590)…’’ Click here to read the rest of the sample body paragraph.
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Sympatric speciation refers to a process by which evolution of new species from one ancestral species occur while inhabiting a similar geographic region. In biogeography and evolutionary biology, sympatry and sympatric are the terms that are used in reference to organisms that have overlapping ranges or ones that are identical making them to occur together even once in certain species.
If the organisms are related closely for instance, sister species, the distribution might be due to sympatric speciation. In etymological terms, sympatry comes from the Greek word together with and fatherland or homeland. Poulton invented the term in 1904 and he explains his derivation.
Sympatric speciation refers to one of the three traditional and geographic categories of speciation phenomenon. Allopatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are isolated geographically into different species. As such, absence of the glow of genes facilitates divergence which tends to maintain similarity in the genetic of the populations.
Parapatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are geographically adjacent into different species. In such cases, divergence takes place despite the limited interbreeding in which contact is established between the diverging groups. No geographic constraint hinders interbreeding in sympatric speciation. These are special cases categories of the continuum from sympatric or zero to allopatric or complete spatial segregation of the diverging groups.
In the eukaryotic multi-cellular organisms, sympatric speciation is usually thought of as an uncommon though plausible process where genetic divergence via reproductive isolation of different populations from one parent species inhabiting a similar geographic location leads to the creation of another species.
However, in bacteria analogous process can be more common. This is because bacterial are not constrained by homogenizing effects that sexual reproduction has as well as prone to the comparatively rapid and dramatic genetic change via horizontal gene transfer. Analogous process in bacteria is defined as origin of the new species of bacteria that occupy the definable ecological niches.
In simple terms, sympatric speciation can occur in different instances including when individuals of different species reproduces forming an offspring that is viable such as extra chromosomes coming from different species due to allopolyploid. It can also occur when extra set of the chromosomes in polyploidy comes from the individual due to failure by the gamete to undergo cytokinesis upon the completion of meiosis.
Sympatric speciation may also occur when an individual develops abnormal chromosomes’ number with fewer or extra chromosomes. A species can have an abnormal chromosomes’ number and then interbreed with another member of a population with similar abnormal chromosomes number resulting in the development of a different species.
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Regulation of Gene Expression
Regulation of gene expression involves a range of mechanisms used by cells for purposes of increasing or decreasing production of specific gene products. In biology, there are sophisticated gene expression programs which are widely observed for instance to trigger developmental pathways, adapt to new sources of food or respond to environmental stimuli.
Any step of gene expression can be virtually modulated from RNA processing to post-translational modification of a protein and to transcriptional initiation. Regulation of genes is essential for eukaryotes, viruses and prokaryotes for the simple reason it increases the adaptability and versatility of organisms by allowing the cell to express protein when it is needed.
The most tightly controlled process in the body is that of gene regulation. When the process is not regulated strictly, the cells don’t produce the correct amount of proteins when they need them and this disruption can cause serious consequences which might include cancer.
Gene expression should be regulated according to the needs of cells. If cells are exposed to an environment where particular gene products are needed, expression of that product is increased. Cells can also produce precise gene products as a way of responding to cellular damage or external signals.
Examples of gene regulation include insulin expression in order to ensure the level of blood glucose is regulated and cyclin expression control in order to ensure normal cell cycle progression. In this manner, gene regulation determines the overall structure of the cell as well as its function governing cell morphology, differentiation and adaptability of the cell to its environment.
Regulation of gene expression can be carried out at varying stages. For instance, transcription step can be prevented in order to stop DNA from been converted to RNA or post translational modification of protein can be stopped.
In this case, regulation can be carried out in three major ways which include:
- Epigenetic-Where non sequence DNA structure changes affect transcription
- Genetic-Where there is a control factor that interests with a gene
- Modulation-Where the control factor interacts with transcription machinery
At this stage, control is carried out by exporting and importing proteins that influence RNA transport out and in the nucleus
Compared to other stages, regulation at this stage is less common and it is used by toxins and antibiotics for instance that inhibit protein translation for purposes of disrupting the usual gene expression f the cell and leading to cellular death and dysfunction.
In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives the process of morphogenesis and cellular differentiation leading to creation of different cell types that pose different kinds of gene expression profiles and produce different ultra structures that suit their functions though they possess the genotype that follows the same sequence genome.
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Also referred to as argument from design or design argument, teleological argument is an argument that tries to explain the existence of the deity or God based on the perceived evidence of deliberate design in the physical or natural world. The name teleological argument is borrowed from the Greek word, telos that means ‘end’ or purpose. This according to the argument tries to point out that the world is being ordered, meaning that it is ordered towards a certain end or purpose.
This argument suggests that the universe is the way it is because it was created by an intelligent being in order to accomplish that purpose than it is to suppose that it is this way by chance. The use of the teleological argument can be traced back to the times of St Thomas Aquinas. He used the argument as one of his Five Ways of knowing the existence of God. However, the most cited statement of the argument is that of William Paley who likened the universe to a watch, with many ordered parts that work harmoniously to further a certain purpose. In the same way that a watch’s intelligent design can be implied by its order, complexity and purpose, he suggested that it so occurs to the universe.
Today, teleological arguments have been described as quite different to that constructed by William Paley. The reason for this is because, as Paley was particularly impressed by the appearance of design in biological systems like the eye or animals, the teleological arguments that we have today often refer to physics for evidence of design. Modern teleological arguments tend to emphasize on the fact that the universe is exactly as should be or ‘fine-tuned’ to support life.
Apart from just demonstrating the existence of God, teleological argument also exposes shortcomings in the evolution theory. This gives an advantage to modern design arguments over Paley’s in that they are less vulnerable to attacks based on the theory of evolution. It objects the argument by Paley that evolution can explain the appearance of biological design that involves, evolutionary processes, however, do not apply to the laws of nature.
Over the years, there have been several criticisms of the different versions of teleological argument. Of great concern are the general logical arguments made by David Hume in publication of 1779 titled, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, and also the explanation of biological complexity given by Charles Darwin in his Origins of Species publication of 1859. Today, the teleological argument is crucial to the creationist religious concepts of intelligent design and creation science, which are presented with the allegation that they are alternative explanations in opposition to the evolution theory.
The teleological argument operates on the assumption that one can infer the existence of intelligent design through mere examination, and since life is reminiscent of something a human might design, it too must have been designed. However, the design claim can be challenged as an argument from analogy.
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Ship of Theseus
Also known as the Theseus’ paradox, Ship of Theseus is a philosophical puzzle about personal identity. The paradox is derived from a story in Plutarch and commonly used in giving illustrations of problems that revolve around the identity of composite objects. In the puzzle, a story is told about Theseus who had a ship, and in the way of things parts often require constant replacement. There reaches a point whereby all the original components have been replaced. The question is, can the ship still be the same? Besides, if someone went around collecting the discarded parts of the ship and used them to make another ship, which one would be the better candidate for being the original ship?
In order to understand this puzzle, it is important to note that the Ship of Theseus is not what it is by the individual parts that make it up. The ship ceased to be known as the Ship of Theseus the minute the first part was removed from it. Besides, the individual atoms in the parts are forever changing, therefore, the ship is never itself.
Another concept to this paradox is that the Ship of Theseus is what it is because of its structure. If the ship remains the same ship throughout the changes in parts, the result is contradictory because we will now have two ships. Thus, you will end up with the result that both of them are the Ship of Theseus. This means that two discrete things are one numerical thing.
The other side to the puzzle is that the Ship of Theseus is what it is because of its history. The ship remains similar due to its particular role in the world’s history. Parts are changed quite often but the actor remains the same. Each of the two ships shares a relevant history with the original ship.
Away from the ships, this paradox can be applied by individuals to be able to exactly evaluate themselves. We know that there are certain parts of us or things about us that keep changing from time to time, but we still think we are the same people. The ship has been used figuratively to represent us. Thus, there are quite a number of conclusions or lessons that can be driven from the paradox as indicated below:
- We are who we are because of our parts or the individual mater that makes us up
- We are us because of our structure for example, we lose a limb or even cut our hair, we are no longer the same.
- With regards to our history, if we were to be duplicated, we would either have a existential twin or even cease to be.
- If we lose any spiritual part like memories, we are no longer the same. Or if we even have a radical change of heart, the person we used to be is gone.
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Pension Obligation Bonds
Personal obligation bonds are financing maneuvers that make it possible for local governments and states to ‘wipe out’ pension liabilities that are unfunded by borrowing against future tax revenues. Once this is done, it is followed by investing proceeds in equities and other cases, high yield investments.
The reasoning behind this is that the investments will lead to higher returns than the interest rates on the bonds thus earning money for the pension fund. While it is a gamble, it is one that most governments are ready to take. Pension obligations bonds:
- Are debt securities that are used to fund ‘unfunded accrued actuarial liabilities’ in pension public plans
- Are always, almost issues as taxable debt
- Are issued as fixed term or fixed rate securities or as fixed term, variable securities.
- Typical security is in the form of the issuers general fund pledge.
Pension plans mostly face major losses and it is because of the local revenue and dearth of state that pension obligation plans are viewed as the most favorable tool for fixing pension woes. Some of the major issuers of pension obligation bonds include Illinois, New Jersey, Oregon, California and Connecticut.
In the recent past though, these bonds have taken on some form of notoriety when 2 California cities San Bernardino and San went bankrupt. Generous pensions that were propped awkwardly and with pension obligation bonds that were ill times contributed to the debacle. Also, over the years, the returns made on pension obligation plans often fall below the interest rate the locality or state paid in order to borrow the money as such, digging deep into the liability hole.
Despite this fact, these bonds still remain a favorite among many politicians in revenue pinch. It is easier to politically borrow money in order to pay the cost of pensions rather than squeeze a budget that is already stressed. Many policy holders and economists view pension obligation bonds as risky gimmicks and they even question the high market growth assumptions that make them appear viable.
However, defenders of these bonds believe that with proper timing, they can pay off. The first bond was launched in 1985 in Oakland, California and at that time, it appeared a reasonable strategy. This is because it qualified as a tax free bond and could be issued at low municipal bond rates.
A city or state could then pivot and invest the fund in securities that were safer but the strategy was ended by the 1986 Tax Reform Act that prohibited local governments and state from reinvesting for profits money from tax free bonds.
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Spasticity refers to a feature of an altered performance of a skeletal muscle in the muscle tone that involves hypertonia. Some people refer to this condition as unusual stiffness, pull of the muscles or tightness. The term spasm is derived from spasms which is a Greek word meaning pulling or drawing.
In clinical terms, spasticity is velocity-dependent resistance to a stretch which if not inhibited results in an excessive contraction of muscles and ultimately leads to hyperflexia which is an exaggerated and deep reflex of a tendon upon stimulation with reflex hammer. It can also be defined as spontaneous firing of the deep reflexes of the tendon as in the clonus.
Basically, spasticity is a disorder of muscle control that is characterized by stiff or tight muscles and the inability to control muscles. Additionally, reflexes can persist for long and they can be extremely strong causing hyperactive reflexes. For instance, when an infant has a hyperactive grasp reflect they can keep their hand held in tight fist.
Spasticity is in most cases caused by imbalanced signals from central nervous system which comprises of the spinal cord and the brain to muscles. The imbalance is commonly found in individuals who have cerebral palsy, stroke, and traumatic injury of the brain, spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis.
Among the symptoms of spasticity include increased tone of the muscle, overactive reflexes, involuntary movements that can include sustained or brisk involuntary contraction of the muscles and a series of quick involuntary contractions. Patients also experience pain, decrease in functional abilities, delay in motor development, abnormal posture, difficulty with hygiene and care, joint and bone deformities as well as permanent contractions of tendon and muscle as a result of persistent spasms and stiffness among others.
Medical history of a patient is often evaluated to diagnose the condition. The medical history will be considered to determine muscular or neurological disorder of the patient and the family. There are tests that will be done to confirm diagnosis. The tests help in evaluating the leg and arm movements, active and passive motion, muscular activity and the ability of the patient to perform self-care tasks.
Spasticity treatment can include medication such as baclofen, dantrolene, tizanidine, Clonazepam, Diazepam and therapy. Physical therapy that is offered to patients entails stretching muscles and motion exercises. Braces can be used sometimes to help the patient prevent shortening of the tendons. Severity of the symptoms can be stabilized or reduced by rehabilitation.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder refers to one of the common disorders that occurs in early childhood and may continue to adolescence and then adulthood. This disorder is the same as hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD-10. It is defined as a psychiatric disorder of neurodevelopment category. In this disorder, there are serious problems of hyperactivity, acting impulsively and attention that are inappropriate for the age of a person.
For an individual to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder they must depict the symptoms at the early age of 6 to 12 and they must also depict them for over 6 months. In the school going children, attention symptoms usually result in bad performance.
Despite being one of the most studied disorders that is diagnosed among adolescents and children, the cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown in most cases. It usually affects approximately 6 to 7 percent of children that are diagnosed through DSM-IV criteria and about 1 to 2 percent of the children diagnosed through ICD-10 criteria. The rates are the same between different countries and it depends mostly on the way the disorder is diagnosed. In boys, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed about three times more than in girls.
Studies indicate that about 30 to 50 percent of individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder in their childhood continue showing symptoms in their adulthood. About 2 to 5 percent of adults suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
This disorder has three main sub-types. These are:
- Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
- Predominantly inattentive
- Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
Among the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include difficulties in paying attention and staying focused, hyperactivity and difficulty in controlling behavior. Some scientists suggest that the disorder may be caused by genes. Just like some illnesses, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be caused by a combination of different factors. Apart from genetics, studies are being done to determine a possibility of environmental factors playing a role. There are studies that indicate that nutrition, social environment and brain injuries might be some of the other causes.
It is important to note that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be mistaken for other medical conditions. This is why it is important to consider the symptoms of the child carefully and seek professional medical help immediately. Treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that are currently available focus in symptoms reduction and improved functioning. Treatments include psychotherapy, medication, training or education and a combination of different treatments.
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How to Write an Essay Fast in an Exam
To use the limited essay exam time effectively, you should know how to write an essay fast in an exam. An essay is a writing piece that methodically evaluates and analyzes an issue or a topic. Essay writing exams are aimed at testing the ability of the students to synthesize information as well as to organize their thoughts in writing. Usually, an essay exam has a limited time within which you should write a concise and clear essay. The time constraint of these essays usually instills fear in most students. However, there are approaches that you can take to write an effective essay quickly during an essay exam.
What you need to know even before you know how to write an essay fast in an exam
Exam essays are as important as research papers because they will influence your final grades. They can also make a difference when it comes to getting your desired academic program. As such, you need to know how to write an effective essay in an exam situation.
Usually, a well written exam essay has the following attributes:
- It answers the exam question
Even if you will write your essay fast, make sure that it answers the asked question properly and in a focused manner. This implies that your essay should answer all aspects of the asked question without ranting and rambling because this would show that you do not know what you are required to write about. Therefore, read and understand the essay question before you start writing your essay during an exam.
- It is well organized
Just because you have limited time within which to write your essay does not mean that you have to write it in a haphazard manner. Take your time to plan so that you can determine what you will write and how to write it. Decide the points to make through the essay and how to proceed as well as how you will conclude your essay by summarizing the materials that you will cover while emphasizing on your main point or thesis.
- It is well supported
Rather than simply asserting the truth of something, provide prove for it. Use figures, examples, facts and tests as your prove. In most cases, an A-grade essay is differentiated from a B-grade essay by how effectively the supporting evidence is used or presented.
- It is properly packaged
If your essay fails to use the accepted language conventions, the examiner will consider you as less educated and less competent. Therefore, adhere to all language conventions while writing your essay to package it properly and to meet the expectations of the examiner.
How to write an essay fast in an exam step by step
Step 1: Plan how you will spend the given time writing your essay
The first thing you should do once you get the essay exam is to consider the time given for writing the essay and the length of the essay that you are required to write. If you waste time or procrastinate while writing the essay, you will score a poor grade in the essay because you will write it hurriedly in the last minutes. For instance, when writing a SAT essay in an exam which usually allows for 30 minutes, spend at least 3 minutes of that time planning and the rest writing and editing the essay. When you take time to plan your essay, you will save the time that you would spend rewriting and restructuring the essay after you start the writing process.
Step 2: Read and analyze the essay question
Take a few minutes to read and analyze the question so that you can understand what the examiner wants you to write about. Avoid rushing to grasp ideas that relate to the main subject or topic of the essay that you are required to write on because this might make you flustered, lose concentration or even become blank. Therefore, read the question carefully and analyze it so that you can understand what you are being directed to do. Think about what you already know about the topic or subject and what you do not know. Look out for active verbs that state what you should do. Such verbs include, “define,” “explain,” “illustrate,” and “summarize” among others.
Step 3: Outline your essay
Usually, some students ignore outlining but it is an important step of a guide on how to write an essay fast in an exam. Typically, your essay should have an introduction, the body and the conclusion. The introduction should introduce the topic of your essay and the thesis statement. The body should present your arguments and supporting evidence while the conclusion should wrap up the entire essay. While outlining, indicate the information that you will include in each section. Divide the body of your essay into paragraphs with each presenting an idea and supporting evidence. Think about the supporting examples to include in your essay for each point.
Step 4: Write the introduction
Write a strong introduction with a hook that draws the attention of the reader. For instance, you can use surprising or interesting facts about a historical figure, personal experience or a moment that you consider important in life. You can also use a provocative quotation, a vivid anecdote or a provoking question. Make sure that the hook that you use in your introduction keeps the readers interested in reading on.
Step 5: Write the body
In the body, present your main ideas and support them with at least a single example. Use a strong topic sentence or argumentative point for each paragraph. The body of your essay should have at least three paragraphs.
Step 6: End your essay with a strong conclusion
The conclusion should give a summary of your thoughts while wrapping up your essay. Do not introduce new arguments or ideas in the conclusion. Instead, restate the main points and thesis statement of your essay. Make the conclusion clear and straightforward.
Step 7: Revise your essay
Spare time to read your essay to ensure that it has a clear thesis statement and that the body and the conclusion are coherent. Correct all mistakes including spelling and sentence structure issues.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write an essay fast in an exam
- Familiarize yourself with and use the terminologies of the essay question
It is important that you familiarize yourself with the terminologies that are used in essay questions. Know what different terms mean and what they require you to do. Such words include trace, illustrate, compare and evaluate. These words convey different meanings. They also require you to answer the essay question with different types of essays. Therefore, look out for such words, understand their meanings and do what they require you to do.
- Provide your answer in the first sentence of your essay
The introduction should provide your answer to the essay question. Use the words or language that the essay question uses to answer the question.
If the essay question reads, “What is the difference between the goals of socialist feminism and liberal feminism” you can start your essay with a sentence like, “There are three major differences in the goals of socialist feminism and liberal feminism…”
Such an approach indicates that you are going to answer the essay question directly. It also makes marking the essay easier for the examiner.
- Structure your essay properly
A good exam essay should have the structure of a basic essay. Therefore, make sure that your essay has an introduction that states your thesis statement or answer explicitly and if possible, states the organization of your essay. It should also have a body in which you present your main arguments and supporting material. The final section of your essay should be a conclusion which re-answers the essay question while referring to the points discussed in the body in a brief manner.
- Always have time to plan and check your essay
Depending on the time given for the essay and the length of the essay that you are required to write, give yourself time to plan your essay and time to check the essay. Although the limited time requires you to write your essay quickly, divide the duration into time for planning the essay, writing the essay and checking the essay. Give writing the essay more time. For instance, when writing an essay within 45 minutes, take 10 minutes planning the essay, 30 minutes writing and 5 minutes checking your essay for errors.
- Use sample essays to practice writing essays in an exam
You will know how to write an essay fast in an exam if you practice using good sample essays as part of your writing guide. Click here for a sample essay that was written during an exam that you can use as your guide during your essay writing practice.
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Top secrets of how to write an argumentative essay outline
Writing a good, argument begins with good planning. As you plan for your argument, you are able to organize your thoughts to allow ideas flow logically from the introduction to the end. One way of preparing for an argument is by having an outline. An argument outline acts as a roadmap to follow as you develop your case step by step. Once you have mastered how to write an argumentative essay outline, the rest of your assignment becomes a walkover because it will serve you as a compass. Most tutors will ask you to submit your argument outline before you start writing your essay. This allows him or her to guide you on what to add or leave out in your paper. Read on and enhance your writing today…
Tips and tricks of how to write an argumentative essay outline
Preparing an argumentative outline is sometimes a daunting task. However, this step is what will make your case standout. A good plan ensures that you stick to the instructions of your paper and present your ideas coherently.
As you work on your argument outline, it is necessary to be flexible and adjust it once you are through with your paper. Revising your outline ensures that you harmonize it with the rest of paper since your argument may change along the way or take a different angle.
A standard argument has four major parts, which you must remember to have an understanding of how to write an argumentative essay outline. These include the following:
Major parts of an argumentative essay outline
- Your introduction – This is where you lay the foundation of your argument. Give basic information, which will help the reader follow your case without getting lost.
- Argument developing – In this section, you delve into research and give evidence, which support your argument. This part forms the backbone of your case.
- Negating counterargument – Here, you give rebuttal for the opposing views of your case. To excel in argumentative writing, learn to give both sides of the case, i.e. your position and the stance of your opponents. This makes your argument balanced.
- Conclusion – This is the last section of your argument. Here, you wrap up the case, restate your thesis, challenge your readers to take action and affirm the significance of the issue at hand.
With this in mind, you should be able to handle any argumentative assignment. The four parts will help you break your thoughts into manageable and expandable portions. In fact, you do not have to panic when you have these guidelines of how to write an argumentative essay outline.
Let us look at an example as you reflect on what we have so far discussed.
Example #1: Sample Argument Essay Outline
1-2 paragraphs tops
PURPOSE: Clearly state your argument
- Catch your readers’ attention by making your introduction interesting
- Give background information of your argument
- For published works, give bibliographical information
- For film, state title, director and year of release
- Your claim should be at the end of introduction (THESIS)
1-2 paragraphs tops;
Purpose: Lays foundation for your case
Give the following:
- Summary of the work under discussion
- Definition of terms
- Explain theories
SUPPORTING EVIDENCE PARAGRAPH #1
- Purpose: To prove your argument..
- Topic Sentence: State your main idea
- Give evidence: State and explain your evidence, supporting your argument
- Concluding Sentence: End your paragraph by saying how the idea supports your thesis
SUPPORTING EVIDENCE PARAGRAPH #2, 3, 4 etc.
- Purpose: To anticipate your reader’s opposing side
- Optional; usually 1-2 paragraphs tops
- Purpose: Remind our reader about the argument and evidence
- Restate your thesis
As you can see from the example above, the outline shows different parts of your argument. You can view it as a skeleton of your work. The following section will give you more hints on how to write an argumentative essay outline.
The principles of how to write an argumentative essay outline
Your introduction is the face of your work. The person reading your argument will get an impression of yourself from the manner in which you introduce your work. Take time and make sure you develop a compelling paragraph to pique the attention of everyone who comes across your essay.
In this section, we shall focus on how to outline your introduction. Keep reading.
Outlining your intro for an argumentative essay
Try the following when drafting your introduction:
Step 1: Start with a hook: Your first sentence on that blank paper should have a hook. A hook is a statement or sentence that grabs the attention of the reader.
A hook is what makes the difference between an interesting argumentative essay and a boring piece, which no one wants to look at.
Step 2: Give background information – At this stage, give relevant details that will aid the reader to understand your argument. In your explanation, bring out the issue at hand. Tell the reader the significance of the issue. Why should people care? How prevalent is the issue?
Do not give excess background information. Remember that you still have body paragraphs to develop.
Step 3: Craft your thesis Statement – As you think of how to write an argumentative essay outline, have your main idea or claim in mind. This is what you intend to prove throughout your essay. Besides stating your position, your thesis should also tell the reader a reason that supports your position on the issue.
Consider another example and see how to integrate these elements in your argumentative essay:
Example #2: Sample Argument Essay Outline
TITLE (Main Idea): _________________________________________
PARAGRAPH 1- “THE HOOK”
INTRODUCTION: Introduce your topic
SIDE 1: _________________________________________________
SIDE 2: _________________________________________________
THESIS STATEMENT (What is your opinion?): ____________________________________________________________
REASON #1 why you support your argument ___________________________
REASON #2 why you support your argument _______________________________
REASON #3 why you support your argument _______________________________
CONCLUSION (Summarize your thoughts):
RESTATE SIDE 1: ________________________________________________________
RESTATE SIDE 2: __________________________________________________________
Restate your evidence_________________________________________________________
Wrap up the issue: ____________________________________________________
This is an excellent example showing how to write an argumentative essay outline. It is as simple as that. What you should have in mind is your claim and evidence.
More thoughts on how to write an argumentative essay outline
Once you have a sketch of your introduction paragraph, you need think of how you will develop the body of your argument. Have in mind body paragraphs determine the weight of the issue you are discussing. You can have a catchy introduction but lose your audience when you move to the body.
Body paragraphs give specific information. Unlike in your intro where you move from unknown to the known, here, your focus is on the things that you know.
In the following segment, you will learn more on developing an excellent body for your essay.
Elements of a good paragraph
The main elements of a good paragraph include transition, topic sentence, evidence, and brief summary. Here is a breakdown of these elements:
Transition – This refers to movement from one idea to another. Ensure that you have a smooth transition between ideas for your audience to follow.
Topic sentence – Start every paragraph with a topic sentence, stating the main idea of the paragraph.
Specific evidence – This includes facts that support your opinion. Provide specific evidence without being vague.
Brief wrap up – This tells your readers how your evidence backs your thesis and helps in advancing your argument.
Another element that will help you have a grip on how to write an argumentative essay outline is the counterargument. Take a look at ways of organizing your rebuttals.
How to draft your counterargument in an essay outline
Good argumentative essays are objectives and balanced. Do not present a biased argument to your audience.
Research and anticipate a negative opinion that challenges your position. To handle this, you must present the counterargument before you negate it using evidential support from your research findings.
As you present your argument, your focus should be on people who are yet to make up their mind on the issue. Those who agree with your position will need less information as compared to fence sitters.
The following examples will help you understand how to outline your arguments.
Example #3: Sample Argument Essay Outline
Make this guide your toolkit and you will surely excel. Fare Thee Well
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Toys R US Marketing Plan
General Motors Company is a global vehicle manufacturing based in Detroit, USA. It boasts of its operations in more than 150 countries and more than 10 vehicle brand models in 35 countries across the globe. These features make the company rich in income and in asset. Currently, General Motors employs 212,000 people in its operations in its branches across the globe.
Besides motor vehicle manufacturing, the company offers consumer banking and vehicle financing services as well as housing mortgages. These services helps he company to supplement a great deal on its revenue in its effort to complete in international business arena. General Motors has also been growing since the year 2010 and it has registered high revenue returns based on high vehicle brand sales and more specifically the Chevrolet vehicle brand.
The success rate of the company is attributed to its mission to produce high quality products. It also has competent professionals and high profitability to the company’s stakeholders. The General Motors 2010 annual report says
‘‘The new General Motors has one clear vision: to design, build and sell the world’s best vehicles. Our new business model revolves around this vision, focusing on fewer brands, compelling vehicle design, innovative technology, and improved manufacturing productivity and streamlined, more efficient inventory processes. The end result is products that delight customers and generate higher volumes and margins- and ultimately deliver more cash to invest in our future vehicles.’’ (General Motors, 2010 Annual Report, 2010).
General Motors focuses on technology as a way of satisfying tastes and preferences of its clients to become a leading motor vehicle company with high brand visibility or coverage in the global market based on its annual income of $9.2 billion annually.
General Motors has three major competitors in the market and they are Honda, Nissan and Ford motor companies. These are companies with a wide range of motor brands selling greatly across the global market.
Nissan Company is a major automobile manufacturing company based in Japan and it competes globally with General Motors. The main goal of the company is to produce automobiles that are environmentally friendly for example its latest Nissan leaf electric car. It has more than 156,000 staff members in its branches across the globe.
It is also a global company that generates revenue of $116.16 billion per year and profit of $4.13 billion (Nissan, 2012). The company’s mission statement indicates a clear determination to enrich the lives of its clients through innovative and valuable products. This is in connection with a price strategy that is not under estimated for their global automobile brands.
The company also has high market share and it aims at increasing it to 8 percent across the glove as well as its global profits. The company’s global strategy is also diverse with that of its competitor General Motors because Nissan is more focused on customer service and is also sensitive on environmental impact of its products. General Motors however engages in other financial businesses including housing mortgages unlike Nissan which is into automotive (Nissan, 2012).
Ford Company is located in Michigan, USA and has more than 171, 000 staff. Besides automobiles, the company deals with automotive financing. Over the years it has been in the industry, profits and income of the company had been declining but still high at $5.664 billion income. It operates on a one team; one goal and one plan that generally give raise to ‘one Ford built for the road ahead’, a slogan that drives the company to generate high revenues.
Through the company’s one strategy, Ford has continued to leverage its stock globally as its key springboard to compete efficiently in the global market. It focuses more on team work and not so much into other forms of investment outside automotive business as it is with the General Motors. Ford also boasts of high market shares in USA (19.5%) and in Europe (7.5%). The company’s strategy is to expand its Asian market and other parts of the world (Ford, 2013).
Honda is a Japanese company automotive company that also manufactures motorbikes. Motorbikes has earned the company great sales in the market compared to other motor companies. It has a wide coverage in automobiles including power generators, garden machines and water engines. This is one of the factors that make the company highly competitive in the global market because of wide range of products.
More than 180,000 employees work in the company that has a global market share of 6.7% and generates $5.00billion (Honda, 2012).
From the analysis above, it is clear that Nissan commands a high global market share in automobiles then Honda followed by the General Motors. General Motors ranks low in market share because of financial crisis the company suffered in 2009, as the other companies remained strong in the market.
Comparison of financial ratios
- EPS- earnings per share
- ROA-return on assets
- ROE-return on equity
- Profit margin and
- Current ratio
Companies’ quarterly financial ratios
|Financial Ratios||General Motors||Honda||Nissan Ford|
|Profit Margin||3.62%||4.32%||3.673% 3.24 %|
When it comes to the global, Honda Company is a major threat. This is because it is the largest motorcycle manufacturing company and it offers a wide range of automobiles compared to the General Motors, who focuses more on motor vehicles. The other companies make the most of high financial returns from their strategies and diverse production.
Ford Company for example has a one team, one goal and one company strategy that drive it to perform even better in the global market (Ford, 2013). The company also needs to venture in a wide range of automobiles and diversify its products alongside a market strategy that will give it a competitive edge.
Barofsky, Neil. Factors Affecting the Decisions of General Motors. Darby, PA: Diane publishing company, 2010.
“Ford Motor Company U.S. Sales Up 6 Percent, Outpacing Industry for … – Press Release.” Ford Motor Company – Official Global Ford Corporate Information . Ford, 1 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://corporate.ford.com/news-center/press-releases-detail/september-2013-sales>.
- General Motors. 2010. “2010 Annual Report.” Retrieved October 2, 2013.
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (HMC) | Common Stock Valuation Ratios (Price Multiples). (2012) Retrieved from http://www.stock-analysis-on.net/NYSE/Company/Honda-Motor-Co-Ltd/Valuation/Ratios>
Nissan motor company. News releases. Nissan Production, Sales and Export Results for December and Calendar Year 2012. Retrieved from http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/NEWS/2013/_STORY/130128-01-e.html.