Benefits of Outsourcing
What is outsourcing?
Outsourcing is the contracting out of a business process to a third party. It sometimes involves transferring employees and assets from one firm to another, but not always. Outsourcing is also used to describe the practice of handing over control of public services to for- profit organizations. Outsourcing includes both foreign and domestic contracting and sometimes includes off shoring or relocating a business function to another country. Financial savings from lower international labour rates is a major motivation for outsourcing.
The benefits of outsourcing
There are many benefits of outsourcing that companies need to understand in order for them to take most advantage of the practice.
- Reduced costs of infrastructure and labour are a major benefit. Hiring and training staff, investing in infrastructure is quite expensive but with outsourcing you save your company all the burdens of manpower and infrastructure. A company does not have to pay additional benefits to their employees hence a lot of money is saved
- Outsourcing saves you a lot in terms of time, effort and costs.
- There is the benefit of cost advantage. The same services are provided by another company at the same quality but lower costs hence a company gets increased savings form outsourcing.
- Access to specialized services since outsourcing allows you to hire experts and experienced people who specialize in the particular business process. This encourages provision of better services than you and your existing manpower could have provided.
- Faster deliveries and improved customer satisfaction hence saves a lot of time and promotes customer trust and loyalty.
- Outsourcing allows you to focus on the core of the business without compromising other processes hence there is increased productivity and efficiency. Companies that handle everything in house spend more on research, marketing and other development processes.
- Continuity and risk management is a major benefit of outsourcing. High employee turnover will add uncertainty and inconsistency to the company operations hence outsourcing provides a level of continuity to the company.
- Competitive edge for your business since it enables even small companies to enjoy the same efficiency and expertise that large companies enjoy.
Precautionary measures for outsourcing
Despite the many benefits of outsourcing in a firm, there are also different demerits that companies have to be aware of. It is very risky to outsource certain services because a company can expose itself to security risks. Confidential data can be leaked especially if the company outsources human resources services which deal with payroll and recruitment procedures.
Companies can also hire substandard services and laborers and still spend so much money. This will not be cost effective for the companies involved. It is necessary for companies to take appropriate measures to precautionary measures in order to avoid all these issues. These may include taking the following measures:
- Carrying out thorough research on the firms to be hired.
- Being vigilant on services being offered
- Signing a foolproof contract that protects the company information and employees from exposure.
By taking these measures, a company will be better off as it will choose the best outsourcing services hence benefit fully from outsourcing.
Capital Gains Tax
Capital gains tax refers to a type of tax that is levied on capital gains that are made by individuals or organizations. Capital gains are profits that an investor is able to make when he or she sells the capital asset under his or her ownership for a price that is more than the price at which it was purchased. To most investors, the tax levied on capital gains is viewed as a control measure to regulate the profits made by them.
Taxes that are levied on capital gains are not levied when an investor holds an asset but only when it is realized. For instance, an investor can have shares that increase in value each year but will not incur any capital gain tax on them until when they are sold. As a result of this, investors are able to hold on to their shares and only sell when they have made enough money from them. To most investors, this is an advantage since it gives them an opportunity to prepare and sell the shares only when they are sure that taxes will not affect their trading activities.
In most countries, the tax laws require investors to remit capital gain taxes. However, the laws on capital gains taxes vary from one state to another. The variations can be on when the tax should be remitted, the rates among other aspects. For instance, in the United States, individuals and business organizations are only required to remit capital gain taxes on the capital gains that they make annually. This gives investors the whole year to be able to trade with their shares and only pay taxes on capital gains at the end of the financial year.
When looking at capital gains tax, it is very important to note that only the net capital gains that are subject to tax levies. The reason for this is because, if a particular investor sells two stocks in the course of the year, one at a profit and another at a loss, the amount of capital loss that is made from the losing share or investment will counteract the capital gains realized from the profitable investment. The most common capital gains today are incurred from the sale of bonds, stocks, property and precious metals.
It is always in the interest of every investor to make profit from every investment. However, it should be noted that declaration of capital losses on tax returns can be an effective consolation prize in most occasions. Capital losses have very mild effects on earned income in the subsequent tax years, but can be wholly applied against capital gains in the future. It is always important that investors should first familiarize themselves with the prevailing tax laws before making any investments. This will help in strategizing on how to best do business without working just to pay taxes. With better knowledge on tax laws, you can be able to determine the best investment venture that can be profitable.
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Freedom of Religion in Malaysia
Freedom of Religion is one of the fundamental human rights that are embodied in the Malaysian constitution. According to Article 11 of the Federal Constitution, ‘’every person has the right to profess and practice his own religion.’ Each person is accorded the right to propagate the religion that they choose; however, federal law may exercise control or restriction on the propagation of any religious doctrine or belief among Muslims.
The same constitution that allows freedom of religion in Malaysia points out that Islam is the religion of the nation but other religions may also be practiced in a peaceful and harmonious manner. Despite this, the subject of freedom of religion in Malaysia is one that has been dodged with lots of controversies over the years. The issue of Malaysia being an Islamic or secular state remains unresolved. This issue has brought contentions and even tried to tear apart the relationship that exists between the various races present in Malaysia.
The Malaysian government generally supports Islam and religious establishments that conform to the Islamic faith. However, Sunday that is considered as the traditional Christian holiday is officially the weekend holiday in ten of the thirteen federal states. This is contrary to what happens in the Muslim countries especially in the Middle East. Having Sunday as a weekend holiday is a deviation from the traditional practices of Islam that were existent in the colonial era before non-Muslim immigrants started coming into the country.
Muslims exercise protection over their freedom of religion through Sharia law and Islamic courts. This makes it challenging and almost next to impossible for adherents to denounce the religion. However, there are no restrictions when it comes to converting Christians or people of other religions to Islam. In public schools, religious studies are mandatory for all Muslim children according to a curriculum that is approved by the government. Homeschooling is allowed in Malaysia but primary school is compulsory to all children who have attained the recommended age.
Despite the confusion that exists in freedom of religion in Malaysia, there are various religious holidays that are officially recognized like Hari Raya Haji (Muslim), Hari Raya Puasa (Muslim), Wesak Day (Buddhist), Thaipusam (Hindu), Deepavali (Hindu), Good Friday (Christian), Christmas (Christian) among others. With all these, one can be easily convinced that there is freedom of religion in Malaysia. However, there are more underlying issues that also need close scrutiny before that declaration is made.
Based on some of the events and revelations that have transpired in Malaysia, it cannot be justified that there is freedom of religion. Take a look at some below:
- The High Court in Malaysia in 1999 ruled that only the Islamic courts have the jurisdiction to decode on the religious conversion of Muslims.
- In April 2000, a sharia law subjecting those who defy the Islamic faith to one year of ‘rehabilitation’ was passed by the State of Perlis.
- Many Muslims who have opted from the faith to Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism among other religions are currently leading ‘double lives’ for fear of segregation and neglect from family and friends.
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Freedom of Worship
Freedom of worship gives an individual the right to choose how to showcase his or her belief regarding religious maters. Today, there are quite a number of religious organizations that one can always choose from based on their faith. Each of these religious organizations has got its own beliefs and ideologies that adherents must conform to. When it is said that one has freedom of worship, it means that he or she can choose how to express these beliefs and ideologies since it is the activities that contribute to worship. Worship can be done in a variety of ways, for instance, the Muslims’ belief in praying five times a day is their way of worship.
In most countries across the world, freedom of worship is a constitutional right that every citizen is given. However, there are also certain nations that do not recognize this and have restrictions on what citizens should believe in as far as religion is concerned. Freedom of worship gives people the right to choose to either be part of a religious group or not. It gives one a choice of being a believer or a non-believer depending on what suits them. This also means that you can either decide to change your religion at will.
In most countries, Freedom of worship is viewed as one of the fundamental human rights that every person needs to possess. This is because it gives every individual the opportunity to possess the faith that he or she feels is right and comfortable with them. With freedom of worship, one is free to manifest his or her faith in public or private. However, it must be noted that this freedom does not advocate for interference with others. This means that even if you are free to worship, it must not be manifested in a way that prejudices the peace and comfort of others who do not possess the same faith as you.
Freedom of worship, as liberal as it may sound also has limits. There are instances when a person’s freedom of worship can be breached. The freedom should only be manifested in the context of worship; it should only apply to the believers or particular people who possess the same faith. Freedom of worship can be breached when it is deemed to pose threats to others who do not possess the same faith. For instance, a government or concerned authorities may breach a person’s freedom of worship if by so engaging in the activities outlined in that particular religion, other people’s lives are put in danger.
An example is the case where a particular religion for instance requires believers to make human sacrifices. In such a case, the authorities have the right to deny the believers the freedom of worship on grounds that it is aimed at hindering other people’s right to life. As much as freedom of worship gives people the right to engage in religious practices that they deem fit, the consequences of such activities must not have an impact on others who are not of the same faith.
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Causes of Hurricanes
Hurricanes are areas of extreme low pressure that normally appear over warm water. Mostly these areas appear during specified seasons of, early fall and summer. Water vapour fuels hurricanes by releasing the latent heat of condensation. This normally occurs when the water vapour condenses and warms the area around and also forms clouds and the rain. The two most important things that bring about the occurrence of hurricanes are moist warm air and warm water. This is majorly the reason why hurricanes begin in the tropics.
The lay man will notice a hurricane when a whole process has already occurred. Hurricanes start to form when warm air that is moist begins to rise from the surface of the ocean. The rising of this warm air happens very rapidly. The warm air gets in contact with cool air and that causes condensation to take place. The condensed warm water vapour forms clouds that turn into rain drops.
The condensation process also brings about latent heat. The latent heat heats up the air above making it to rise and hence allows room for the warm humid air from the ocean to rise. The cycle is now picking up moment as the hurricane is now taking form.
More and more of the moist is now attracted to the atmosphere. As the heat increases and is transferred from the ocean’s surface, the great storm starts developing. The water in this area starts spiralling form one central point. This central part where the swirling storm starts from is referred to as the eye of the hurricane. This rhythmic exchange of heat brings about a pattern in which the hurricane swirls.
The speed of the hurricane gets faster as the speed of wind gets faster and faster. This happens due to the high pressure being drawn into the low pressure areas. The high pressure area by this time is at high altitudes 30,000 feet. The storm is now building in strength and size and it will soon become a massive hurricane.
First, the tropical depression forms. These are winds that are at a speed of over 61.15 kilometres per hour. The tropical storm then forms. At this point winds are blowing at a high rate of up to 117.48 kilometres per hour. Finally at this very high speed the hurricane is formed.
Scientist are still carrying out research and debating on the exact causes of hurricanes. Different experts in the field have diverse views regarding the causes of hurricanes. Some suggests that human activities that negatively affect the environment are the cause of global warming that cause hurricanes. The occurrence of hurricanes have been on the increase in the recent past and the scientists claim that this is a true indicator that hurricanes are caused by the negative human activities.The occurrence of hurricanes has also been attributed to temperature changes and an increase in the salinity of waters in the oceans.
Definition of activation function
An activation function in computational networks as a node that defines an output depending on its set of inputs. Generally, an activation function is said to be one of the most essential parameters in neural networks. When selecting specific nodes of an activation function it is necessary to be careful. It is also important to ensure proper training is done with a neural network because this determines how an activation function works with the network.
The roles and types of activation function
However in biological neural networks it is an abstract representation of the actual potential of the firing in a cell. The activation function in this case can be binary in the sense that it is not firing any cell.
There are several types of activation functions and they each play a unique role:
- Identity function. This is usually used with input unit. In some instances the net input can be multiplied with a constant in order to form a linear function. It is illustrated using the equation below:
g(x) = x
- Binary step function. This is usually used with single layer networks and is sometimes referred to as the Heaviside function or Threshold function. The output of this function is limited to two values, 1 or 0. If x is greater or equal to theta (θ) then the output value will be one. However, where x is less than theta then the output value will be equal to 0. It is illustrated using the equation below:
g(x) = 1 if x ≥ θ
g(x) = 0 if x < θ
- Sigmoid function. This function is best used with the neural networks especially when they are trained using backward propagation method. It is mainly preferred because it can dramatically reduce the burden of computing during training and is also very easy to identify. This function is used with the outputs which lie between 0 and 1. It is illustrated using the equation below:
- Binary sigmoid function. This function bears similar characteristics with those of the sigmoid function. However, these functions are usually used with the outputs whose values lie between -1 and 1. They can be illustrated using the following equation:
Choosing activation functions
Generally, sigmoid functions are more popular than any other types of activation functions. Where there is need to
introduce the element of non-linearity into a network, activation functions are used together with hidden units. Even though linear functions are important, the non-linearity or capability to characterize a non-linear function is the element that makes multilayer networks more powerful in training. Non-linear functions can therefore facilitate training over any network.
Nevertheless, it is important to consider the methods used in the training. For instance, in back propagation method, the non-linear function must be differentiable. It might also be necessary to bind the values. Activation functions should also be chosen carefully so as to suit the distribution of target values especially when used with output units. When used with sigmoid functions, the outputs should be scaled so that they are in the same range as the output of the activation function.
Where a target value has no bounded range, then it is better to use the unbounded activation functions. In most cases, the identity function is preferred under such circumstances. An exponential output activation function is also used in instances where the target values are positive yet have no known upper limit.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Large Business
Cloud computing is an internet based facility that offers long term benefits to a business. In this age and era, businesses are looking for ways to cut down on the cost of production and ways to enhance productivity. Cloud computing is also a solution that has enabled many large businesses to expand their brand visibility online and offline.
Large corporations including Coca Cola, Nike, Avon and Monster.com are some of the best examples of large businesses that have reaped from cloud computing. With the cloud based software, large businesses are in a better position to deliver quality products and services. Despite large workforce, big business can easily ensure that each employee delivers without close monitoring.
Cloud is safe and beneficial in many ways to large businesses including
It is green and allows for more profits
Cloud is considered green in terms of the profits it generates for large businesses. With cloud, large business does not have to use in-house storage system. Instead, it explores the cheaper monthly storage option from a service provider. With the storage option, business cut down on energy and production costs by a large margin.
Cloud also offers room for giant multi power server units or rooms. This means that large businesses get to save billions of dollars on their energy consumption.
With cloud, large businesses are also able to explore internal messaging. This is done via highly functional software that enables these corporations to pay less on workflow tools and email.
Large businesses also enjoy open communication and collaboration through cloud computing. Cloud allows for more scalability and sharing of messages and data can be done within the shortest time possible. Cloud enables employees to work from anywhere. Therefore, companies save a great deal on time.
Cloud computing also enables large business to concentrate on more urgent business issues as opposed to management of IT systems and related issues. Cloud service provider ensure smooth running of operations because it updates IT systems regularly. What’s more, whenever there are new upgrades that can benefit a business, a service provider will let you know of the updates for enhanced productivity.
As such, large business reduces a great deal on downtime. It gets time to capitalize on its resources and make huge profits. With continued use of cloud, large businesses are also able to achieve a competitive edge against relevant competitors.
Greener cloud storage
Cloud computing is also beneficial to large businesses because of green cloud storage. Businesses are known to produce carbon emissions due to their storage systems. These emissions are harmful to the environment. However, by using cloud, businesses are able to reduce the amount of carbon emissions. The bigger the business, the greener cloud computing storage unit it can explore.
Additionally, with greener cloud storage, large businesses are able to create a safe working environment for its employees.
Other benefits that cloud offers to large businesses include
- Enhanced security for its data
- More flexibility and scalability
- Reduced cost of operation and cost of production
- Reduced downtime
- More room for productivity and profitability
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Deductive argument refers to a type of reasoning in which the conclusion necessarily follows from premises. If for example, the premises in deductive argument is true in the sense it strongly supports the conclusion, then it can be said the conclusion must necessarily be true. Deductive arguments have 3 parts which include; major premise, minor premise and a conclusion. Major premise is a deductive argument that has both major and middle terms. The middle term is found in the premises of the argument and not the conclusion. The major term is found in both major premise and the conclusion. It is very important to note major term forms predicate of the assumption. Minor premise follows major premise in deductive argument as the second premise. It has both minor and middle terms. Minor terms for the subject of inference.
Example of deductive argument
P1: All reptiles are coldblooded animals
P2: A snake is a reptile
C: Therefore a snake is a cold blooded animal
In the statement above, the major premise is that All reptiles are cold blooded animals. In the argument, the term Reptiles is the middle term while terms coldblooded animals form the major term. Therefore, the minor remise is a snake is a reptile. Within it, the minor term is snake. In the conclusion, a snake is a cold blooded animal; the term snake is subject term while a cold blooded animal is predicate term. The conclusion necessarily follows from premises.
Deductive argument qualifies as sound if the premises is true and the argument must be valid. An argument is valid if its supposition follows from the premise.
Pyhrronian Comprehensive Doctrine of Scepticism
The doctrine contents arguments in differing ways have basis on idea of dispute. This is due to the fact philosopher’s arguments revolve around what humans cannot and can know. The arguments never seem to come to an end because upon conclusion of one argument, another comes up and the debate goes on. With this in mind, phyrronism argues no claim can be made to any kind of knowledge since such claims can be overturned and no such thing like indefeasible knowledge exists (Sinnott-Armstrong 71). As such, there is completely nothing that humans can claim they have certainty over. Therefore, ordinary epistemology is useless and a waste of time. The only solution that exists to the problem according to pyhrrorism is to live free of examination of claims to knowledge. This kind of life entails accepting things as they seem and living.
According to pyhrronism, the main difficulty philosophers experience in the attempt at developing knowledge seems to arise from the fact knowledge is dependent on the technique whose intention is the justification of our beliefs. The circularity of the argument, for example, contends certain arguments presented arrive at conclusions by making the assumption the truth of that which they are set out to prove. For example, if the argument made by an individual supports A on basis of B, then it turns out so as to accept the truth B, the individual needs to accept the truth A, then such argument becomes circular and does not arrive to any concrete truth because of the claim that a given argument can be true if only it is supported by another truth which relies on the truth of another argument (Sinnott-Armstrong 73).
Descartes Dream Argument
Descartes, in the first meditation presents his dream argument where he claims when he sleeps, there are times when he thinks he is awake since he feels the presence of real things while in truth, he is asleep and dreaming. Further, Descartes contends in some instances, while in a dream, he sits by a fire in his room and he is able to feel the warmth generated by the fire. The truth is that he is asleep on his bed. According to Descartes, the feeling is synonymous to what he feels while he is awake. The fact he feels the fire does not provide basis of differentiating whether he is dreaming or awake.
His dreaming argument attempts to show one cannot trust their senses as they convey a feeling of fire while none exists. It is as well difficult to accept the fact the fire exists when he feel it while awake as one cannot be certain whether they are dreaming or awake.
Descartes Meditations aim at construction of a rigorous and systematic system of knowledge. This is through employment of scientific approach that enables him to construct a body of knowledge free of doubt. The argument of dreams helps discard all sense based and purported knowledge so as to reconstruct it upon a foundation that s more secure. To attain this new knowledge body, Descartes begins to assess all he knows to be true. He starts by doubting everything so as to clear the slate and develop indubitable and certain beliefs. When this is attained, he then constructs a strong foundation for edifice knowledge.
Descartes on God’s existence
Descartes makes the argument that God is a tremendous perfect being, he must exist because of being in perfection. According to Descartes, God is an all-powerful and independent being who is powerful and a perfect being that can be fathomed. He states since being contains more reality rather than nothingness, and goes is a perfect being, God must exist. According to Descartes, for God not to exist, he would not be a supreme perfect being.
Criterion is clearness and distinctness plays an important role in attachment to existence of God. According to Descartes, the knowledge of existence of God is not just present and available to the mind, but it is clear and sharply detached from other discernments, distinct. It is just that God can be perceived as the supreme perfect being that exists.
The Cartesian Circle refutes the argument made by Descartes regarding existence of God on the claims Descartes’ perspective is circular. This is due to the fact Descartes infers presence of God from distinct and clear insights that construe dependability of distinct and clear insights from existence of God (Rose 77). When Descartes makes the argument that one can be certain of God’s existence only when they perceive the notion in a distinct and clear manner, the argument has circular reasoning. This is especially true when both arguments are believed to be true. Appearance of circularity therefore arises from deficiency in precision of his statements rather than error of reasoning (Rose 80).
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Rose, E., L. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. International Phenomenological
Society, Vol. 26, No.1, pp. 77- 80, 1965.
Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter. Pyrrhonian Skepticism. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.
71-73, 2004. Print
Methodological Process of Ethnographic Observation
Ethnographic observation is a research that is conducted through open-resource questions to collect data on the perception of participants. This kind of research entails questioning the way in which people perceive their environment and exemplify or make sense of the significant events in their lives. This ethnographic design researched on the natural, cultural learning process and used children as an ethnographic model. This type of study abides by a methodological process that entails various steps. Ethnographic observation is completed by different kinds of interviews. These types of interviews included open-handed interview, interview guide approach and informal conversation interview. This is an implication that for the interviews to be efficient in collecting the information, they have to follow the steps that have been outlines in the methodological process. The ethnographic observation that I conducted was done in the steps outlined below.
The first step is access to the ethnographical observation setting. This means that for the observation to be a success, one must be in a position to gain access to the target population in the environment that is under investigation by the researcher. This involved accessing the environment where the children learn. This is followed by making sure that one fully understands the culture and language of the respondents. If this is lacking, it is not possible for the ethnographic observation to be efficiently completed. The researcher should also be competent in making a decision on how to present himself or herself as a researcher. This is important in ensuring that the researcher is accepted by the target interviewees for cooperation. In undertaking this study, I was able to present myself in a friendly manner that the children could easily identify with in their day-to-day routine and also in the learning environment.
It is also crucial for the researcher to make sure that he or she identifies a cooperative informant. This is important in ensuring that the acquired information is relevant and that other informants will find it conducive and comfortable to work with the researcher. The other step entails field testing, refining the questions, probing and intensity of pause. This will ensure that the process of the study is efficient in collection of the right information that is relevant to the research. I had to refine the questions to make it easier for children to comprehend and also make sure that they could not experience any challenges in understanding and giving their responses. The other step is defining the statement of the focus and purpose of the study. This will be critical in making sure that the study abides by the right guidelines that will ensure the success of the whole process. Having noted that the study was focused on identification of how the child process was influenced by the people they interact with. The questions of the research were refined so that the response to the questions showed how the learning process and behavior of children is influenced by the people they interact with.
After the steps outlined above, the final step entails the creation of a rapport and development of good trust between the person doing the research and the respondents. This is also imperative in ascertaining that the process of the study is efficient and conducted according to the right procedures. After this, the questions are appropriately ordered to ensure that the researcher acquire relevant information and is not distracted by impromptu questions. This is followed by audio tapping and maintenance of interview records that will be used for gathering data. Failure to pay do this may impact unprecedented problems, like distortion of information and collection of irrelevant data. The final step involves collecting relevant materials. This is crucial in ensuring that only the right information is gathered according to the guidelines of ethnographical observation research.
This ethnographical design researched into the natural, cultural learning process and used children as an ethnographic model. I chose to use a young child as an ethnographic model to an audience with no background in either ethnography or anthropology. However, it should be noted that children learn things through observation and taking in the actions and things that their parents, siblings and other people that they come into contact with behave. My study revealed that young children will copy what old people do and this influences the way they behave from a tender age. I had to create a rapport without influencing the behavior of children. The observation found out that a significant number of children were heavily influenced by the reactions of their mothers. However, another percentage that interacted with their fathers also showed that they liked to copy their fathers. There were also a significant number of respondents who said that they imitated their older siblings. The research also revealed that some of their behaviors were also heavily influenced by their colleagues in schools and their teachers. This is an indication that the learning process of children is greatly influenced by the people that they interact with.
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Commercialization of Organ Transplant
Most parts of the world are experiencing donated organs’ shortage (Cherry, 2005). The explanation of this is the gap that is widening between the required organs and the donated organs. As such, this has increased the black markets in which the sale of human tissues and organs occurs. It is also due to this that fact the question about the use of tissues that are acquired after a post-mortem and their use in transplant arises. This also raised questions regarding human organs’ commercialization (Kanniyakonil, 2005). Different views regarding commercialization of organ’s transplant are presented in this paper. The paper also presents the view of the right actions regarding this practice.
Argument for the Commercialization
Proponents argue that humans are born in families and this makes them community resources. As such, human bodies ought to be seen as the resources of the community. Legalizing this practice will diffuse tension that family members hold about relatives after donating organs (Cherry, 2005). Therefore, people will be able to donate their organs without the feeling of being obliged to the demands of their relatives.
Additionally, proponents observe that this practice ought to be legalized but there should be strict restrictions. They claim that this differs from an illegal market for organs since the safety of the donor will be improved. There will also be an even distribution of organs (Kanniyakonil, 2005). This implies that in such arrangements, organs’ prices would be at the level of the annual salary on average. This way, donors will not just be the poor individuals but the rich as well.
Arguments against the Commercialization of Organ Sale
The argument of the opponents is that organs commercialization will motivate the poor to donate organs so that they can raise their standards of living (Kanniyakonil, 2005). This is against ethical standards since people should offer help to the needy as a kindness act. It can also cause exploitation where the rich entice poor people using their money and eventually the poor will donate organs to them.
According to the opponents of organs commercialization, children are highly vulnerable since they would be easily coerced into donating organs. There are parents who would have more children so that they can use them for commercial purposes. The argument of opponents is that this would be abusing moral standards that exist currently. These stipulate that incentives should not be offered to people so that they can sell organs (Cherry, 2005). There are cases when the sale would cause poor health or death of the donor. This would also degrade the values of the community. It would not be ethical and children’s rights would be abused. The conclusion of opponents is that donating organs ought to be a charitable act.
On the basis of these arguments, there are disadvantages and advantages of each side. However, ethical standards provide the most ideal solutions in regards to this subject. Commercializing this practice will make money the main incentive. People will abandon moral values that include good will and charity and they will offer organs for monetary value only (Kanniyakonil, 2005). The people who are less privileged in the society such as the mentally ill and children will also be abused for financial gains. This will be against ethical standards and exploitative.
The totality’s normative principle states that transplants can be justified only when the donor’s functional integrity is maintained (Kanniyakonil, 2005). The implication of virtue ethics is that the basis of the donor’s decision ought to be their character rather than general opinion. The implication of this is that selling an organ for economic position or value is moral (Kanniyakonil, 2005). It is also important to avoid exploitation by making sure that an informed donor’s consent exists. If there is no self-determined donor’s decision, then the benefactor is not respected by the decision makers. Children and mentally challenged individuals ought not to be used in such donations since they are incapable of making decisions on their own (Cherry, 2005). Charity virtue should be maintained and they should donate organs freely. There should be no obligation for people to do this.
In conclusion, organ commercialization ought not to be practiced since human organs ought not to be sold. People should not treat them they way they do with commodities since this is not acceptable on moral basis (Kanniyakonil, 2005). This violates human dignity. It also spoils altruism spirit. It is important for everybody to learn to help others as a value. Only the willing individuals should donate organs. This donation should also be done in a charitable manner of assisting the suffering individual (Cherry, 2005). The donor should make sure that they will not be at risk while healing. The implication of this is that they should be checked thoroughly to ensure that they are in good health.
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Cherry, M. J. (2005). Kidney for sale by owner: Human organs, transplantation, and the market. Washington, D.C: Georgetown University Press.
Kanniyakonil, S. (2005). Living organ donation and transplantation: A medical, legal, and moral theological appraisal. Kottayam: Oriental Institute of Religious Studies India.
Factors Affecting Indian Economic Growth
India is one of the fastest growing economies. Since introducing the concept of free market in 1991, the Asian country has experienced rapid growth and is predicted to grow even further. As at 2011, India was ranked 11th in terms of nominal GDP and fourth in terms of GDP purchasing power parity (PPP). India has one of the highest populations in the world and a bustling manufacturing sector. In addition to this the country has changed its economic policies since independence in order to propel economic growth further. It is also known to save a lot and this has helped it to stabilize and grow.
All in all there are several factors that currently affect the Indian economic growth and these include:
- Capital flows and Stock Exchange Market. India has had a very steady flow of capital from both foreign and local investors. In addition to this, the country also has a thriving stock market and this has helped it gain capital. With this amount of capital, India has less to worry about in case the GDP rates fall. This is because its currency can still get overvalued given its steady flow of capital.
- The RBI ranks. The currency of India largely depends on the rankings by RBI. The RBI is in charge of managing the balance of payments for India. Slight changes in the RBI assessments can have a huge impact on the currency of India and lead to either over assessment or under rankings of the country’s economy.
- Global currency trends of economically powerful countries. India like many other countries has economic and currency links with powerful countries such as US, UK, Japan, Canada and others. When the currencies of these countries are undervalued, India’s currency is also likely to depreciate. On the other hand an appreciation of these currencies has similar effects on India’s currency. These global currency trends therefore influence India’s economic growth.
- Political changes. Political setup in India also influences its economic growth. A change in the country governance often leads to changes in economic policies especially with regard to importation and exportation of goods and services. Political changes also impact on the tax rates and may affect the investment climate which ultimately influences the economic growth rate of the country.
- Energy and oil. India imports oil in large quantities. This is an essential commodity and it affects India’s economic growth rate. When crude oil prices in the world market fluctuate, India’s currency cannot remain stable. High oil prices result in high inflation rates hence overvaluing of India’s currency.
- Demographics and poverty rates. India is one of the most populous countries in the world and economists predict that its population will rise by over 300 million by 2030. In as much as this population growth may be good in terms of larger markets, it is costly to maintain and can only be fruitful if India puts in place measures to provide its citizens with social, educational and economic needs. Otherwise poverty rates which are already high will increase with this population and drag the economic growth rate of the country.
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Causes and Effects of Battle of Plassey
There many battles that have been fought and won or lost since time age-old. The battle of Plassey was one of the greatest battles ever written in the ancient texts. It was a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the ruler of Bengal and his French partners on the 23rd June 1757. The battle took place at Plassey on the banks of Bhagirathi River which was approximately 150 kilometers north of Calcutta and south of Murshidabad capital of Bengal.4
The British had come up with a great strategy of befriending themselves with various princes and rulers of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to triumph. They would promise security against the rebels and usurpers. In return the Nawabs would promise them concessions for security. A lot took place during this era, but here are notable causes of the battle of Plassey, and they include;
- The British wanted to establishment themselves administratively, politically and economically in India and over Bengal and make it easy to wage war against the Nawabs.
- The British wanted to dethrone Sirajuddaula [The last sovereign Nawab of Bengal] after he began to follow their every move and wanted them to stop their activities, but failed and support Shaukat Jang. Siraj relatives later opposed his undertakings against decided to get rid of him.
- The British had no respect for the Nawab although he wanted to strike a compromise, but hatred has already settled between the parties.
- The British knew that there were traitors within the Sirajuddaulua army despite the power and efficiency he possessed. Hence, they considered a secret treaty with Mir Jafar on 4th June1757. The army was too strong to defeat but their friend Mir Jafar disclosed Sirajuddaula.
- Sirajuddaula believed in the French and thought they were more trustworthy than the Englishmen. He was also devastated by the loss of Chandernagar and his defeat by the British. The war became more imminent as Sirajuddaula was pressurized by the British not to allow the French from India to continue with trade in the nation. Some of the Frenchmen were serving the Nawab and so he could not forbid them from trading India.
- Robert Clive, the colonel in-charge of the British army had overpowered the Indian army twice and felt that it was weak and scared. He felts safe and victories because he had two traitors close to Sirajuddaula; Mir Jar [the commander of the India army] and Durlabh Rai and other military personnel. Hence, he had all the Sirajuddaula move or strategy watched.
With strong desire and confidence to win the war, Clive searched for an opportunity to attack the Indians. He accused Sirajuddaula of violating the term of the treaty of Alinagar and he sent an army through. The battle began! Mir Jar two-timed his leader and sent a message to Clive of a pending attack anytime of the day. On the other hand, Durlab Rai floated a rumor that the English are winning and the soldiers of Nawab are fleeing for their lives. Nawab was defeated and retreated and Mir Jafar took over after Sirajuddaula was killed by his confidants.
As a result of the battle of Plassey, the French were no longer a force to reckon in Bengal as they were later defeated by the British and the Northern Circars was secured by Clive. Things went bad for Mir Jafar and he spurred the Dutch to attack the British and banish them from Bengal. However, Robert Clive used is mastery and artillery and defeated the Dutch. Mir Jafar was unseated and Mir Qasim to lead Bengal. About 18 British men were lost and estimated 500 Nawabs were known to have dead. The British also got a lot of wealth and valuables from after securing every station.
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An Analysis of the Economic Importance of the Amazon River
The Amazon River is the second largest in the world. Found in South America, the river is 4,200 km long and holds a fifth of the whole world’s fresh water. Experts state that the Amazon flows at more than ten times the speed of the Mississippi river and every minute 12 billion liters of water flow in this river.
There are many benefits that the Amazon River offers the people who live around it. Amongst the key economic gains from this river include:
- Fishing activities. The Amazon River has over 1,500 species of fish and some of these are harvested for trade purposes. These include the cat fish, turtles and other rare species of fish which are found in this fresh water river. These fish species are usually traded within the Amazon basin or outside to hotels and other traders in search of rare fish species.
- Trade channels. The governments of countries such as Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia have constructed transport systems especially roads around the Amazon River area to facilitate development projects and trade within these areas.
- The Amazon River has thousands of species of flora and fauna, most of which are exotic and rare. This has attracted several tourists to the area who come in search of adventure as well as research. These tourists come to see fish, animals, plants, flowers, insects and different species of living organisms. This has generated revenue for countries which are visited with Brazil reaping the most benefits.
- Mining and energy. Since the discovery of gold along the Amazon River in the 1980s, there have been several miners migrating into the area surrounding the river. Apart from gold, among the major minerals being mined includes bauxite. Research shows that 15% of bauxite in the world originates from the Amazon River basin. Other minerals include iron, steel, tin, nickel, manganese and copper. Additionally, the Amazon River is also known for hydro energy. Many companies are settling within the area in order to exploit the high potential of hydroelectric power supply.
- The Amazon River is surrounded by tropical rainforests which have a huge variety of trees. Some of the trees that have attracted several developers are the mahoganies which are usually harvested for their popularity in building furniture. The rubber trees in the rain forest are also very popular because of their high quality rubber products. There are also rose woods, Tonka bean woods and other scented trees that are used in making perfumes and other scented products. Lumbering is thus a popular economic activity along the Amazon River.
- A lot of land along the Amazon River has been turned to commercial farming purposes. This is because there are parts of the river basin which are highly fertile. Some of the crops that are grown on large scale are soybeans and corn. These are actually sold locally and exported. Farming of rice, manioc and other crops is also very popular.
Unfortunately, there have also been illegal economic activities within the Amazon River basin. For instance, illegal extraction of cocaine from the coca trees is one of the most lucrative economic activities that go on along the banks of river Amazon.
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The Laramie Project
Ethnic and cultural value forms a major theme in the play by Moises Kaufman, The Laramie Project. Members of the tectonic Theatre team acted this play. The play is about the murder of Matthew Shepherd, the main character who was killed while 21 years old. He was murdered because he was a gay, a culture that was viewed at as a crime.
The play depicts Matthew as a student at the university. He was a representative of a culture that was considered unethical and illegal by most residents of Laramie, Wyoming. This was a culture of the gays. As such, most people under the leadership of Russell Henderson and Aaron McKinney decided to frustrate this minority group. They planned to kidnap Matthew and then tie him up so that he can be beaten thoroughly. They did this and Matthew was critically injured. He died five days later after being put in a coma for those five days after the beating. This murder angered the Laramie city’s citizens especially because of the fact that lesbians and gays’ rights have been supported strongly by America.
In this play, Kaufman appears to highlight challenges that lesbians and gays face in the contemporary society. They are discriminated against by the other members of the society because they consider them as promoters of a contrary culture. Due to the death of Matthew, several protests were staged in the entire country with lesbians and gays as well as their supporters sending a clear message that they demand respect for their rights. Kaufman uses this play to highlight the major issues using the words of the characters. He uses their voices to represent the voices of gays as well as those of the minority groups in the society that are treated with contempt just because they are different.
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Florida Forever Act
Funding by the state under Florida Forever Act ought to be used in obtaining isolated, small habitant remnants that lack connection to the larger conservation area land. The program is very important because it offers protection to the environment as well as the habitats. The aim of this program is to eliminate land fragmentation while protecting the endangered animal.
The wildlife is given refuge by the Florida Forever Act which allocates lands for them so that they can move more freely. This act aims at ensuring that biological diversity, integrity and refuge system of a healthy environment are maintained (Chapin et al. 34). The state should acquire small lands since the wildlife relies on such environments.
According to a study done in the peninsular state, Florida, where geographical connectivity was discretely limited, every increasing sprawling and population led to a high rate at which open space, wildlife territory and landscapes disappeared (Chapin et al. 38). The areas that naturally are undisturbed are increasingly becoming fragmented. More and more species are being endangered. In solving this problem, researchers in Florida use ecological Greenways.
Funding by the state under Florida Forever Act is important for the conservation of habitats and land. However, this task is not just challenging but costly as well. Other organizations must support it. How small lands are acquired is another problem. It cannot be proven that justice is administered in the acquisition of these lands. No assurance to show that the owners of these lands are paid when they offer to sell them.
In a nutshell, the small lands that are acquired promote land and habitats conservation. Their management eliminates the problem of land fragmentation. This has created recreational centers which are very attractive.
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