Kids getting older Young
Kids getting older Young
According to studies conducted in the recent years, it is reported that kids are growing faster than ever before. Marketers agree that kids between the ages of three to five years old today behave like children aged eight and nine in the past decades. They are highly aware of brand influences and knowledge compared to the kids of their age in the past years. In this time and age, kids are more exposed to sexual activities, violence, drugs and technology. As a result of all these, kids are introduced to brands that are advertised through these means, at very tender ages. Children who are exposed to programming and televisions are more aware of the brands as a result of the commercials that are broadcast in different slots of the shows.
To some extent, it can be said that managers are to blame for kids getting older young, especially those from well accomplished companies. These big organizations tend to broadcast their adverts on strategic places that are easily accessible to teenagers like vending machines, and schools. Children are then forced to accept that in order to fit and look beautiful, they have to use the products that are being advertised. However, it can also be lack of responsibility on the part of kids that lead them towards acting older. Most of the programs that are aired on TV and online are mainly targeted at adults, but kids watch them too. As a result of this, children are exposed to things that are not appropriate for their ages.
Companies like Goodwin Design Group, are committed to the production of products that are suitable for both kids and their families. The company engages in user-centric and co-creation design since its inception. It is able to achieve this by involving kids and their families in the process of improving products that they need and also manufacturing.
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Clements, Rhonda L, and Leah Fiorentino. The Child’s Right to Play: A Global Approach. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2004. Print.
Protein biosynthesis can be simply defined as the process through which cells are able to build proteins for use by the body. Even though most people use this term in reference to protein translation, however, it should be noted that it is used to define a multi-process that starts with the synthesis of amino acids and transcription. Amino acids are the monomers that undergo polymerization in order to give forth, proteins. However, not all the amino acids can be synthesized by each organism.
In many occasions, proteins can be directly synthesized from genes through the process of MRNA translation. Whenever the body requires proteins on short notice or in large amounts, a precursor for protein is produced. This precursor is called a proprotein. It is basically a protein that is inactive and contains one or more peptides. These inhibitory peptides can undergo activation in a situation whereby the inhibitory sequence has been removed. Preproteins have both the inhibitory and signal sequences.
For protein to be synthesized there has to be a unification of tRNA molecules that are charged with the required amino acids, with an MRNA molecule. Besides, it also has to be matched up through base pairing. In order to extend the growing chain of proteins, the amino acids have to be joined together. The tRNAs on the other hand, have to be released. This entire process is conducted by a large multi-molecular tissue known as the ribosome.
When discussing protein synthesis, it is important to bear in mind that DNA plays a crucial role. However, it only carries genetic information and does not take part in the process whereby the information is being used. The first step involves transcribing the genetic information that is contained therein into a form that can be useful. Either way, the information contained in the DNA can also undergo translation to produce a sequence of amino acids.
Transcription and translation are the two main processes that are involved in protein synthesis. Transcription is the first step that takes place in three phases; initiation, elongation and termination. In order to ensure that gene transcription is done correctly, each of the three stages is controlled by co-activators and transcription factors. This process takes place in the cell nucleus.
Translation is the process through which proteins are synthesized from RNA. It takes place in the cytoplasm, the location for ribosomes. Translation is carried out in four phases; activation, initiation, elongation and termination. At this stage of protein synthesis, amino acids are fixed with tRNA molecules.
Biosynthesis is mainly followed by two events; post-translational modification and folding of proteins. In the process of synthesis and after it, polypeptide chains are often folded into structural units. It is this process that is referred to as protein folding. The task of protein synthesis in the cells begins at the N-terminal end of a polypeptide chain. Before the formation of an active protein, modifications have to be made to the polypeptide.
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Towards More Strategic and Self Directed Careers essay sample
Towards More Strategic and Self Directed Careers
Towards More Strategic and Self Directed Careers
The current economic context, highlighted by increase in competition has forced a large number of businesses to deploy HR activities which until recently, were neglected. The article “Towards More Strategic and Self Directed Careers” indicates that more organizations and companies have begun development and enhancement of career development systems and organized plans for employees. In human resource, career management aims at identifying the goals, prospects and needs of individuals in profession as well as executing the increasing human resource plans in order to support the vocations. Career planning has proven to be a continual discovery process where individuals are able to develop their occupational concepts as a result of abilities, aspirations, skills, motivations and needs of their individual value system. It is a systematic and comprehensive process that targets the implementation and development of career strategies, analysis of opportunities and self-assessment as such, evaluating the results (Joo & Park, 2010).
The process of developing and planning careers involves both organizational and personal responsibility. People are supposed to identify their ambitions, abilities and use therapy and appraisal for purpose of evaluating development and training requirements. Organizations, however are supposed to identify needs and opportunities and plan employees in order to ensure there is information available for development of career and training. While planning a career, there are a couple of issues one ought to consider. First, members of an organization should be recognized and treated as individuals with unique skills, desires and needs. Secondly, individuals are supposed to be motivated to work in organizations that have value for their aspirations. Additionally, people can also change, develop and discover some new courses of action if they are shown exact opportunities, guided and encouraged. Employees need more activities of career counselling which should be in the form of formal activity within the human resource department. Special career counseling services should consist of psychological specialists who have an understanding of both organizational and individual needs. This makes it easy for good alignment with individual needs that make it easy to fulfill organizational objectives.
This paper is well organized and it portrays the importance of individual career planning in goals establishment, self-assessment and activities exploration designed to assist people make choices that are informed and changes regarding their careers. It highlights a systematic action requiring critical thinking in objectives formulation. The article, however, explains different factors that fuel the perception of individual career choice like an individual’s family circumstances, financial expectations, age, life and desired lifestyle. On top of this, organizations that maintain competitive advantage equip employees with right positions and proper skills. The employee types and skills vary depending on economic sector, scope of the business, consumer characteristics and technology. I am in agreement with the argument peculiar organizations affect the employees’ type, job structure and development ways for the job. Reduced job opportunities within organizations and restrictive managerial levels lead to alterations I conventional route to the career development plan of a firm.
This article, is easily found in retail stores and online shops. The concepts are applicable to United Arab Emirates in several organizations to boost success. For example, it is of great use for both organizations and individuals to understand the rate of the current employees’ sideways promotion, multiple development of skills and job rotation. Additionally, systems of career planning increase the satisfaction of employees as it makes it possible for them to recognize and take a stand that is firm regarding their objectives and policies. Career planning systems tend to be multifaceted and emphasis on mechanisms like reality check, setting goals, self- assessment as well as planning activities. This will aid UAE organizations towards ensuring their companies are productive. Finally, an organization is supposed to provide necessary resources for employees to achieve success in their careers such as career centers, career planning guides, career workshops, career directions and counselling. This will ensure employee potential is fully harnessed for the benefit of the organization. Therefore, these concepts can be applicable to all organizations even those in UAE. Information in this paper is useful to the counselor as it aids in forming the basis on which they can offer efficient consultation. Thus, it is recommended for different organizations and professionals for purposes of maximizing on the HR potential.
Joo, B. K. B., & Park, S. (2010). Career satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention: the effects of goal orientation, organizational learning culture and developmental feedback. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(6), 482-500.
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The Samnite Wars refer to the three major armed conflicts between the Samnites or the Samnium tribes and the Romans. These wars were fought from 343 to 290 BC. The Roman Republic was fighting to take Italy’s control. These wars involved almost all Italy states and in the end, the Roman Republic dominated over the Samnites. Samnites controlled the Apennines towards the Latium’s southeast and they were among the earliest formidable rivals of Rome. Regardless of the many setbacks encountered, each of these wars ended in terms that increased the power of Rome and Rome took control of the entire central Italy by the time the third Samnite War ended.
Cause of the Samnite Wars
Rome survived Celtic Gauls’ invasion at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Therefore, it aimed at expanding its middle party further this century. Rome re-conquered Etruscan and Latin towns that were left during the occupation of Gallic and while absorbing others, its position was reconsolidated as a dominant force in Central Italy and Latium. Having a secured home turf, the Romans ventured southwards to Campania.
By this time, Samnites had already moved to Campania where there were fertile lands from their initial place in south central Apennines. Samnites were controlling Cumae and Capua towns in Southern Rome. They were also swaying to the east. In order to protect the flanks and still retake Etruria and Latium, Rome entered a joint alliance with Samnites in a wise move in 354 BC. This led to an inevitable conflict with the Samnium over the dominance of Campania. Eventually, this turned into several wars that lasted from 343 to 290 BC.
Events of the wars and how they were ended
- First Samnite war
The first Samnite war was fought between 343 and 338 B.C and it entailed a brief conflict after the Campania plain dwellers requested assistance of the Rome in fending off attacks by highland neighbors. This war ended with a revolt of the Latin allies of Rome and it was resolved with a Battle of Vesuvis. Campania and the Capua chief city became a protectorate of the Roman republic.
- Second Samnite War
This was the longest of the three wars and it was fiercely fought between 326 and 304 B.C. It lasted for more than 20 years during which the Roman army was captured by the Samnites for some years in what was called the Caudine Forks defile. Rather than killing the army, the Samnits released them so that Rome could give them favorable terms. The Romans were infuriated and humiliated and they resorted to hostilities that lasted for 5 years. The war continued, alternating between the samnite victories like the Lautulae victory and the Roman victories like the Ciuna victory. This was an attrition war though most suffering was felt by the Samnites. On failing to relieve the Bovianum siege, they sought peace.
- Third Samnite war
The peace that ended the second samnite war lasted for a few years. As of 298, the Samnite had formed an alliance with the Gauls and Etruscans in the Northern Italy in order to defeat the Romans. The fighting started disastrously because the Roman army routed at the Camerinum battle. Shortly, Rome established four legions in order to meet Samnites and their allies, the Gallic, in the colossal Sentinum battle. This ended in a decisive Roman victory with the Samnite side suffering heavy losses. Although this time the Samnite did not seek peace, they could make a feeble resistance. During the last battle of Apalonia, the camp of the Samnite was looted, their warriors killed and city taken. Finally, the persistent foes of Rome accepted peace when it was offered to them bringing the wars to an end. The third war was fought between 298 and 290 B.C.
Effects of the Samnite wars
Although the actual number of the casualties of these wars is not known, the wars were significant because they helped in the establishment of Rome as the Italy’s supreme power.
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After the conclusion of Samnite War , Pyrrhic war began when all of central Italy was put under Roman control. Roman territories were brought closer to Magna Graecia cities in Northern Italy, bringing about conflicting interests and subsequent fights.
An overview of Pyrrhic War
The pyrrhic war began shortly after the end of Samite wars with the Lucians and Brattain’s fighting in the early 3rd century BC. The continued attacks on Greek colonies did not deter them from appealing to Roman regional power for assistance. At that moment, the City of Magna Graecia, Tarentum was the most powerful.
The city of Magna Graecia and Tarentum signed a treaty with Rome clearly stating that it would not send any of her troops into the Gulf of Taranto. This situation led conflicts between Rome and Tarentum because the former started interfering with the affairs of Greek colonies in Southern Italy.
Soon, other states in Magna Graecia including Croton, Locris and Rhegum asked for Rome’s support in their struggles with their neighbors. Rome sent a troop to garrison town of Thurri in 282 BC since it had been attacked by Lucania. Tarentum saw this as a hostile act and responded by sinking the fleet and expelling roman troops from Thurii.
The city and states of Magna Graecia had sought help from mercenary kings during their struggles but now, Tarentum sought assistance from King Pyrrhus of Epirus, on the Greek Peninsula across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pyrrhus landed in Italy with 25, 000 men and twenty war elephants in 280 BC. His first move against the Romans took place at Heraclea, small coastal town.
Pyrrhic War first and second engagement
The first engagement of the war took place at Heraclea, a small coastal town. The romans had 50,000 thousand troops who drove to the Lucanian territory to prevent them from aligning with Pyrrhus. Romans technically lost at the battle at the small coastal town, Heraclea and Pyrrhus lost a large number of troops. The pattern became quite common during the fight between Pyrrhus and Romans. Despite winning main engagements, Pyrrhus could no longer keep up with the war without support.
After marching to northern parts of Latium, Pyrrhus was not happy with the domination of Romans. He hoped that many cities would join his cause. He misjudged the situation because Roman military alliances were more stable. Roman rule was evident as many states enjoyed roman protection. Leaders of the states also enjoyed their positions under the leadership of the romans. However, only a few Lucanians and Samnite’s sided with Pyrrhus.
This led to the second engagement took place at the battle of Ausculum. It took two days with massive fights between ancient armies. The Romans were led by Publious Dentius Mus and used the terrain of the area to their advantage thus, reducing the effect of the elephants and Epirote Calvary. The first day was a virtual draw and the second day of the fight was a stalemate. At the end of the battle, more than 6000 Romans and 3, 5OO Epirotes died. Pyrrhus was left in the command of the field. It was the results of this fight that was considered the Pyrrhic victory.
Pyrrhus upon receiving the congratulatory message said ‘’ that one other such victory, would utterly undo him’’. He acknowledged the costly victories and thought of signing peace treaties to Rome with no success and he remained in Italy. Appius Claudius who built the Appian Way refused the negotiations calling for the freedom of Tarentum and her allies.
Pyrrhus went to Sicily in 278 BC, aided the Greek city against Carthage and became quite victorious. Rome formed alliances with Carthage against Pyrrhus and later on, Rome’s interest became conflicts. Pyrrhus in 275 BC went back to Italy, faced the romans in Southern Italy, town of Malventum and was defeated. With the victory of him, Pyrrhus left Italy for good and went to Green mainland.
Results of the war
Pyrrhus lost in the war, more than a third of his army died in the fight and there was little to show for his efforts. Two years later, he died in a street battle in Argos.
Tarentum which was the third significant Greek city in the state of Italy finally accepted to sign an alliance with Rome in 272 BC. Rome became the mistress of the entire southern and central Italy.
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Battle of Bunker Hill
The battle of Bunker Hill occurred on June 17, 1775, after the American Revolutionary War. Thousands of American militia besieged Boston and the British were trying their best to control the city and its valuable sea ports. They also aimed at taking over the harbor in Boston, to keep it open to bring in their troops and supplies. Therefore, the British focused on two hills, the Breeds and the Bunker in order to achieve a tactical advantage. The American militia got the news and went ahead to defend the hills.
Location of Battle of the Bunker Hill
The British wanted to bombard the Americans from a distance and they thought of taking over two hills, the Bunker Hill and the Breed hill. Therefore, the battle took place on the Breeds hill, Charlestown, Massachusetts. The battle was followed by the battle of Chelsea Creek and an engagement during the 11 month of Siege of Boston in April 19, 1775 to March 17, 177. It ended with British victory.
An overview of the battle of Bunker Hill
The battle of Bunker Hill was one of the most significant battles of the American War of Independence. This followed the first Revolutionary War at the Battle of Lexington and The Battle of Concord, the militia which took over Boston. The Americans received intelligence reports that the British under General Thomas Gage were planning to control the hills, Dorchester Heights area and Charlestown to maintain Boston harbor and acted immediately.
With more than 1000 men, the colonial militia under the leadership of William Prescott constructed ramparts and fortifications on top of the Hills and Charlestown peninsula area. The British men of war opened fire and Colonel William Prescott walked over the ramparts while his men continued to dig.
General Thomas Gage sent three thousand men to attack the Americans across Charles River. They attacked and the first two assaults were repelled by the militia. More than 1000men were injured and killed. More British soldiers were sent to Boston and by the third assault, the militia had to retreat back to Cambridge due to lack of ammunition and powder.
Leaders during the war
The British army was led by General William Howe
The Americans were led by Colonel William Prescott
Major John Pitcairn was also one of the front leaders for the British army. He was in command of the troops that started the war or fight at Lexington and started the Revolutionary War.; Israel Putnam was the General in charge for the Americans. Leading the patriot was also Dr. Joseph Warren. He played an active role in the battle but died while fighting.
Results of the Battle of Bunker Hill war
Even though the British won during the war and took over the hill, they paid heavily. Many soldiers and officers lost their lives. The Americans on the other hand were filled with a lot of courage knowing that they could stand up to their enemies, the British in a fight. Many colonists also joined the army and the revolution grew in strength.
The American Revolutionary war which included the battle of Bunker Hill became strong as it was a culmination of the American Revolution. Many American colonists rejected the legitimacy of the British to govern the 13 colonies without representation. The other interesting facts about the war is that
- The Americans were low in ammunition and couldn’t fire until they could see the whites with their eyes
- Troops from America worked tirelessly especially at night to build up their defense. They build a redoubt which was nearly six feet high
- General William Howe from Britain was really astonished at the American defense and said ‘’The rebels have done more work in one night than my entire army and what it would have done in one month.’’
- The British also suffered the most with many casualties in a single fight during the American Revolutionary War.
- Inexperienced forces also build up their confidence and in their ability to fight the British in the war and more specifically, in the first war of the American War of Independence. This was the significance of the Battle of the Bunker Hill.
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Company Profile: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy is an American with its stocks trading on the New York Stock Exchange. It specializes in consumer electronics, accounting for about 20% of America’s domestic market in technology-based products. Best Buy has 24 stores across the United States. Besides its presence in America, it also operates in the United Kingdom, Mexico and Turkey. By the year 2010, Best Buy and its subsidiaries had more than 1,050 stores in local markets. Today, Best Buy is position 45, according to Fortune’s top 1000 companies. What are the factors that keep Best Buy outshining its competitors in the market? What are its weaknesses and opportunities? Read this SWOT analysis of Best Buy to find out more.
Strengths: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy enjoys dominating the market in retailing electronic products in America. For example, it is the leading retailer of electronic goods in the USA, accounting for about 20% of the market. As a result, the company has a unique market position, which favors its business operations, making it position 45 on global ranking.
Another reason why Best Buy excels is its enhanced presence across the United States, with outlets all over. With its strong network, Best Buy is able to maintain its economies of scale and strengthen its brand image. This network allows the company to reach more customers and penetrate the market effectively.
Best Buy has good practices in terms of growth, profitability and community involvement. This gives it a higher customer satisfaction index as compared to other players in the industry.
SWOT analysis of Best Buy further shows that it manages several stores in America, as a joint venture with various warehouses. This relationship helps consumer to buy and use its products with a lot of ease.
Weaknesses of Best Buy
Besides dominating the market in retailing electronic products and making good profits over the years, Best Buy has a range of weaknesses. Its main weakness is over dependence on a few suppliers. By the end of 2007, Best Buy maintained only 25 suppliers, who accounted for the company’s 60% of purchases.
Additionally, Best Buy does not maintain strong ties its suppliers. It does not favor long-term contracts. This approach exposes the Best Buy to risks of shortages especially in the event one of the suppliers turns its back on them.
Another weakness is the endless lawsuits against its operations. In one of the suits, Best Buy was accused of charging higher prices more than what is advertised. In 2000, Best Buy was also charged for concealing warrantees of products with the aim of selling their labeled merchandise. Lastly, its overdependence on the US domestic market could affect sales with low economic growth.
Opportunities: SWOT Analysis of Best Buy
From this SWOT Analysis of Best Buy, it is clear that the company has a bright future with a range of opportunities to expand and diversify its operations. First, Best Buy can make major acquisitions. From its recent acquisitions, the company was able to increase its customer base and strengthen brand image in the market. Such will allow Best Buy to enter new market and develop new products under the same brand name and increase sales.
Secondly, Best Buy plans to expand its business in other countries. By expanding its operations geographically, this will guarantee the company more opportunities and a higher market share.
Threats of Best Buy Inc
The first threat is cutthroat competition from three main players, Amazon, Apple and Wal-Mart. The competition is stiff as the leading giants increase inventory of products related to electronics. In addition, these retailers offer installation services and focus on increasing their market penetration. With increasing competition, this many exert pressure on the company’s margins and harm its operating results.
Another threat is the increase in prices of rental equipment in America. If this trend escalates, it may increase Best Buy’s operating cost, which is likely to affect its profitability. The company also faces a risk of low sales because of low desire for Americans to make purchases. This SWOT analysis of Best Buy has explained the business environment, which favors and threatens the company’s optimal operations.
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PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
The Home Depot is an American private listed company. It is one of the leading retailers in the United States, specializing in a wide range of products and services. The Home Depot’s main segments are home improvement products and construction equipment. Its product line are building materials and guarding equipment coupled with related products and services. The chain has more than 2,000 stores operating in the US and in other parts of the world. The firma embraces a range of practices to adjust to emerging market trends and cutthroat competition in the industry. This PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot shows how political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors affect the operations of the company and its future.
Politics in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
For The Home Depot to experience business growth and maintain good relationships with the political class, the firm takes part in a range of activities and initiatives. This safeguards its interests and those of its customers. This is necessary because the decisions by the local, federal or state governments can have far-reaching effects on the profitability of the company.
The Home Depot complies with government regulations and makes political contributions and interactions. In addition, the company allows its employees to participate in politics as long as they do not use it resources to pursue their ambitions. Through the Home Depot Political Action Committee, PAC, the firm offers financial support to politicians who back the retailer and its business line.
Economic environment at the Home Depot
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot affirms that the company thrives because of a stable economic environment. With the US economy showing signs of stability, the company remains optimistic to scale profitable heights in future. The fate of the Home Depot therefore depends on economic conditions in the United States.
Importantly, many Americans today have limited purchasing power because of economic down town. Potential customers therefore prioritize other products, which are more essential than Home Depot’s collection. This is causing the market to shrink and cause harm to its business associates too.
Social factors in PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot
Besides making profits and improving its annual revenues, the company also believes in improving the welfare of the communities within its neighborhood. For example, it runs societal programs to promote education, healthy work practices and assurance of job opportunities to people.
PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot further illustrates how the firm values CSR. Through its Home Depot foundation, the chain has invested huge amounts of its resources in improving the living standards of people by delivering affordable options to a better life. It also works towards having a safe and healthy working environment.
In alleviating the lives of communities within its reach, The Home Depot focuses on four different areas, including building and maintaining playgrounds for children, safeguarding community-gathering venues, constructing affordable transitional housing and emergency preparedness.
How Technology is changing The Home Depot Business
The Home Depot is on the forefront in keeping pace with emerging technological trends in the market. This is because of the enormous role of information technology in driving any business. In recent years, the company has invested in state of the art systems and equipment to facilitate its staff and enhance smooth business operations. This is expected to augment customer satisfaction.
The Hope Depot has acquired electronic devices at a cost of $60 million to counter competition from key players in the market like Lowe, which has used wireless technology in its stores since 1995.
Environmental Factors – From this PESTEL analysis of The Home Depot, the company is committed to having a safe environment by cutting down on carbon emissions into the atmosphere. To achieve this, the organization offer conservation minded and products that are environmentally friendly to its customers. In the end, the company seeks to offer green products to all its customers.
Legal Factors – The company complies with a range of rules imposed by local and international governments, governing food production, manufacturing, safety and packaging among others. The firm also observes laws that govern disposal of waste to the environment in order to mitigate environmental pollution. Lastly, it works towards addressing health and safety of its staff.
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PESTEL Analysis of Sears Canada
A PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada indicates the numerous external factors that affect the operations of this company. These factors constitute the external environment within which this company operates. PESTEL analysis can be defined as a marketing principles’ concept that companies use in tracking the environment within which they operate. PESTEL analysis is very important when it comes to planning the launch of a new service, product or project.
Sears Canada is a retailer with headquarters in Toronto, Ontario. This company, established in 1952, offers consumers in Canada a wide range of shopping options with specialty and department stores. The operations of this company are in all territories and provinces in Canada with 167 networked corporate stores, 197 Hometown stores, 85 Sears Travel offices, 38 Home-improvement showrooms and a countrywide home maintenance, installation and repair network.
Comprehensive PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada
The political expenditure policy of this company allows it to engage in the process of political campaigns in electing candidates for political parties that the company believes they support the entire retail industry as well as believe in a system of free enterprise. Using corporate funds, the company contributes for the candidates at state level and in the political actions of committees at state retail association level. Such political activities have an impact on the operations of the company.
Since the global economic crisis of 2008, the economy of Canada has been experiencing recession. The consumers’ purchasing power, unemployment rate and outstanding credit quality has been affected by this economic downturn. As such, consumers are more careful when spending and this has led to unsatisfactory performance of Sears Canada and a decrease in its revenue to $4300.7 million in 2012 from $4613.9 million recorded in 2011.
Due to the economic crisis and its impact on the Canadian economy, Canadians have become more averse to risk especially as it is seen from their attitudes towards environmental and financial concerns. Canadians are also concerned about living cost and assets’ safety. These social factors affect the operations and performance of Sears Canada.
The internet is one of the major technological factors that affect the performance of Sears Canada. Online shopping is gaining increasing popularity among countries all over the world. Retailers are working very hard on online stores in order to give shoppers the best online shopping experiences. However, online spending in Canada has not reached optimum levels. This means that online market in Canada has a potential that Sears can exploit.
Canadians are concerned about environmental issues like environmental degradation and climate change. Although these factors are faced by people across the world, Sears Canada needs to know these factors because they influence the consumption habits of Canadians. Canadians look for environmental friendly and ethically sourced products. Sears Canada must be aware of this while marketing its products to Canadians.
There is a comprehensive legal system in Canada which includes a Competition Act, Canadian Tax Law and Labor Law. These government regulations and documents protect employers and workers’ rights while facilitating efficiency in business operations within Canada. Although to abide by this system a business must incur costs, Sears Canada must follow them in order to avoid confrontations with Canadian legal authorities which can damage its reputation and ruin its operations.
Why PESTEL analysis of Sears Canada is important
A PESTEL analysis of this company gives the management a bird’s eye view or insights into the entire environment within which this company operates from different angles. It is important for the management to consider these external environment factors in order to plan properly or to implement certain ideas. After conducting a PESTEL analysis, Sears Canada can come up with a more comprehensive or detailed SWOT analysis version.
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Systemic risk is the vulnerability to unpredicted events including major catastrophes and earthquakes among others. These events affect the distribution of resources and the amount of resources in the market.
Systemic risk can also be defined as risk inherent to the entire market segment. It usually affects the overall market and not only the industry and stocks. Undiversifiable risk, market risk or volatility risk is caused by events that cannot be avoided completely. What’s more, it cannot be mitigated through diversification but only through the use of the right asset allocation strategy.
Putting assets in bonds and assets in stocks can easily mitigate a systemic risk. This is based on the fact that interest rates often shift and makes bonds less valuable to make stocks more valuable and vice versa. As a result, it limits the overall change in the portfolio value from systematic changes.
Interest rate changes, recessions, wars and inflation can also cause systemic risk. These factors affect the entire market. Systemic risk is one of the risks that underlie all other market and investment risks across the globe.
The Great Recession is one of the best examples of systemic risk. It is a risk that affected many businesses across the globe. Any person who had invested in the market in 2008 suffered a great loss. The value of many investments changed because of the Great Recession. It was a market wide economic event that affected investments regardless of the type of securities that one had held.
The Great Recession also affected different asset classes in different ways. Even so, investors with broader allocations were affected less than those with stocks only. To understand how much systemic risk a portfolio, fund or security has, it is always essential to take a closer look at its beta. This helps you to measure how volatile an investment is in the market compared to others.
A beta that is more than 1 means that a fund is more volatile in the overall market and less than one means that a fund has a less systemic risk. If a beta is equal to one, this means that a fund has the same systemic risk as the market itself.
The federal government often uses systemic risk as a clear justification for it to intervene in the economy. The main basis for intervention by Fed is to ensure the ripple effect from a company level in any event through targeted regulations is reduced. For instance, Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 was put in place with an enormous set of new laws aimed at preventing another event of the Great Recession from occurring. The laws regulate financial institutions and firms by limiting systemic risk.
According to researchers and economists, the size of Lehman Brother’s size and its integration in the US market or economy has made it a great source of systemic risk, when the firm collapsed; the US witnessed a lot of problems in the country’s economy as well as the financial system. Additionally, capital markets froze up, consumers could not access any loans and businesses could only get loans only if they were creditworthy. Those that posed minimal risks to the lender could also access loans.
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Multidrug Resistance Protein 3
Multidrug resistance protein 3 is a protein belonging to the ABC subfamily C [ABCC]3) and it plays a significant role in the protection of hepatocytes as well as other tissues through extreation of different toxic organic conjugates of anion including the bile salts. Expression of multidrug resistance protein 3 or ABCC3 increases in a liver of individuals who are cholestatic but this molecular mechanism of the up-regulation stays elusive.
Basically, multidrug resistance protein 3 is a member of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette, the ABC transporter super-family. It expresses itself in different tissues including kidney, liver, adrenal gland, bladder and intestine of rodents and humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is localized in the basolateral membrane of the cells and it excretes sulfated, taurine-conjugated bile salts, glycine and bilirubin glucuronides, leukorienes, 17 x- glucuronosyl, and several drugs.
Hepatic multidrug resistance protein 3 expression under normal physiological circumstances is low. However, this expression is up-regulated significantly as adaptive and protective response when an individual is suffering from cholestasis. The up-regulation is also observed in the liver of a patient during the advance stages of primary biliary cirrhosis. It is also the case for parient with the extrahepatic cholestasis that is caused by pancreatic malignancy. However, it is not the case with patients in their early stages of progressive familial intra-hepatic cholestasis or PBC.
According to these revelations, it has been concluded that the distribution of multidrug resistance protein 3 and the basolateral position that it occupies in polarized cells suggests that the protein play an important role in metabolism when it comes to intestinal uptake of the organic anions as well as removal of the organic acids from liver cells and bile under cholestasic conditions.
The study revealed that multidrug resistance protein 3 up-regulation is high in the liver of the rats that were made cholestatic through litigation of the bile duct. It is also the case in the cholestatic liver of humans. Multidrug resistance protein 3 is also present in adrenal cortex in high levels. This has increased the possibility of multidrug resistance protein 3 being responsible for the secretion of certain hydrophilic steroid home derivatives including the dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.
Despite being a member of the MRP subfamily that is involved in the development of multi-drug resistance, specific function of multidrug resistance protein 3 is yet to be determined. Nevertheless, it has been proven to play a significant role in the intestinal organic anions excretion and biliary transport.
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Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] or ATP-binding cassette sub-family C members 2 is a protein that in humans is programmed by the ABCC2 gene. The MRP2 is a known member of the ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporters. ABC transporters are members of protein superfamily that is one of the largest and oldest in the families with members from extant phyla from prokaryotes to human beings. The term multidrug resistance has been used to elaborate the mechanism of resistance that cells [Eukaryotic and prokaryotic] have in response to the many chemotherapeutic drugs.
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven unique subfamilies that include ABC1, MDR, TAP, MRP, GCN20, OABP and White. The ABC protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The protein is also exceptionally exhibited in the canalicular [apical] section of the hepatocyte and aids in biliary transport. The known substrate include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine. Thus, the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein was incorporated into the drug resistance scene in 1992 when Susan Cole and Rodger Deeley cloned the Multidrug resistance-associated protein gene, the MRP1. The Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] followed in 1996 and more MRP members followed. The MRP2 was characterized as the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter [cMOAT] from its cloning. Homology is also high in MRP2 as it is in the Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 [MRP1] 3 and 6. On top of this, these MRPs also share the characteristics of TMD0L0 segment. They are also seen in glutathione-drug conjugate [GS-X] and aid pump from eukaryotes like leishmania and yeast.
Within the ABC transporters in mammalians, the MRPs form a group that is clearly defined from the other known groups. MRP2 are able to transport methotrexate. MRP1,4 AND 5 RNAs are widely spread in the body while for MRP2, 3 and 6 mainly appear to function in kidney, liver and gut. While gathering more information on Multidrug resistance-associated proteins, there are a few problems encounter in the study. For instance;
- The MRPs are characterized and so they are organic anion transporters. Most of the substrates for these transporters are extremely charged and do not penetrate the cell membrane.
- Antibodies that work against MRP are often cross-react with another member of multidrug resistance-associated protein family. This issue can be solved by generating monoclonal antibodies against the non-conserved parts of the MRP family.
- The body cells chosen for drug resistance often overexpress multiple transporter genes. The use of certain inhibitors or transfected cells has helped solve this problem.
- It is challenging to get the multidrug resistance-associated protein transfectants giving high expression and products channeled to cell membrane. Most of the cells contain organic anion and this result to background transport activity.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is helpful in protection against exogenous toxic compounds. The presence of many ABC transporters available offer defense against toxic compounds. The discovery of MRP family has improved the study of MDR in tumor cells and led into interest in the functions of the MRP family members in normal metabolism.
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Le Chatelier’s Principle
Chemistry is one the widely pursued scientific field. There are thousands of principles or laws that are used to explain many chemistry laws or theorems. The Le Chatelier’s principle also known as the Chatelier’s principle or the equilibrium law is a principle used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. It is a reputed principle named after Henry Louis Le Chatelier and sometimes Karl Ferdinand Braun who discovered the law individually.
Le Chatelier’s principle is easy to comprehend. Interestingly, it states that; when a system at the equilibrium is subjected to change in concentration, volume, temperature or pressure, then the equilibrium readjusts itself to counteract the effect of the applied change and a new equilibrium is established. In 1884 the French chemist and engineer henry Louis Le Chatelier proposed one of the core concepts of chemical equilibrium which explains what takes place to a system when something briefly removes it from a state of equilibrium.
It is essential to comprehend that the Le Chatelier principle is only an important guide when identifying what happens when the conditions are altered in a reaction in a dynamic equilibrium and it does not give reasons for the changes at the molecular level. There are numerous areas to look at and comprehend how the Le Chatelier’s Principle works.
- Effect on change in concentration- Changing the concentration of a chemical will shift the equilibrium to the side that will lead to a reduction in the change in concentration. The chemical system of choice will tend to partially oppose the change affected to the original state of equilibrium. On top of this, the rate of reaction, magnitude and the yield of the chemical products will be changed in response to the impact on the system.
- Impact of the change in temperature- The effect of charging temperature in the equilibrium can be made apparent by, incorporating heat as either a product or a reactant or by assuming that an increase in temperature will increase the temperature the heat content of system. Whether increasing or decreasing the temperature would favor the forward or reverse reaction. Hence, all can be determined by applying Le Chatelier’s theorem.
- Effect of the change in pressure- Changes in pressure can lead to changes in volume. Notably, the equilibrium concentrations of the product and reactants do not directly depend on the pressure that is exposed to the system. Change in pressure due to change in volume will shift the chemical equilibrium.
- Effects of a catalyst- A catalyst has no influence on the equilibrium, but it spends upwards and backwards reactions and equally.
- Impact of adding an inert gas- an inert gas or noble gas like helium is one that does not react with other elements. Adding a noble gas into gas-phase equilibrium at constant volume does not result in a shift. An addition of a non-reactive gas does not impact partial pressures of the other gas in the container.
The Le Chatelier’s principle has unmatched influence not only in chemistry, but also in economics. A similar concept was also introduced in economics by U.S economist Paul Samuelson in 1947. The principle is generalized to apply in maximum condition of economic equilibrium. Factor-demand and commodity supply elasticity’s are theorized to be lower in short term but not on long term basis because of the fixed-cost constraint in the short run.
Hardy–Weinberg Principle or the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium model or law states that the allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of any other evolutionary factors. These influences or impacts include mutation, mate choice, selection, genetic drift, meiotic drive and gene flow. The Hardy–Weinberg equation is a unique mathematical calculation that can be used to evaluate the genetic variation of a population at the equilibrium.
In 1908, G. H. Hardy, an English mathematician and Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician independently described a basic principle effective in population genetics widely known as the Hardy-Weinberg principle. The principle is crucial concept in population genetics and it helps predict how gene frequencies will inherited from one generation to another within a given set of assumptions.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle is clear in the sense that, it clarifies that a large randomly breeding population allele frequencies will remain the same from generation to generation considering that there is no gene migration, mutation or genetic drift influences. This principle is imperative because it gives biologist a standard from which to measure changes in allele frequency in a population.
In order to make any helpful assumptions on the Hardy–Weinberg principle, it is wise to reorganize that it is a neutral equilibrium meaning that a population disturbed from its Hardy–Weinberg genotype frequencies will have to reach equilibrium after a single generation of random mating; however, it will be a new equilibrium if allele frequencies are altered. This characteristic helps distinguish a neutral equilibrium from a stable equilibrium in which a disrupted system returns to the same equilibrium state. There are certain occurrences when the Hardy–Weinberg principle or law fails to apply. This effect can be attributed to a number of factors and they include;
- Mutation- Here, the frequency of the gene B and its allele b will not remain in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium if the rate if mutation of B -> b changes.
- Gene flow- Many species are made up of local populations whose members breed within the group. Each of these local populations can develop a gene pool unique from that of the other local population. On the other hand, some members of one of the population may breed with occasional immigrants from adjacent population of the same species. This leads to a new flow of genes frequencies in the populations.
- Genetic drift- Interbreeding is usually limited to the members of the residents. If the population is small, Hardy–Weinberg principle may be disturbed. This may eliminate certain number of the populace. Then frequency of an allele may begin to drift towards higher or lower values. Genetic drift will lead to evolutionary change, but it is not adaptive.
- Other issues that will make the Hardy–Weinberg law fail are nonrandom mating and natural selection.
The above-mentioned factors affect changes in allele frequencies and when subjected to more forces, the population of choice will disrupt the Hardy–Weinberg assumptions and evolution will take place. The Hardy–Weinberg principle thus constitutes a null model for the field of population genetics and it is helpful to the study of evolution.
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The genotype is the genetic character of a cell, organism or an individual and it is referenced with certain characteristics being considered. The genotype of an organism is usually the inherited instructions that it carries within its genetic code. Genetic variation in populations can be analyzed and quantified by the frequency of alleles [same genes or same genetic locus]. Population genetics is determined by two great and imperative calculations and these are the genotype frequencies and allele frequencies. Genotype frequency in a population is the number of individuals with a given genotype that is divided by the total number of individuals in the population.
Genotype frequency is the proportion of the genotypes in a population. Although the allele and genotype proportions relate, there are differences to hold in your fingertips especially if conducting research on genetic variation in populations. Genotype frequency has also been effective and it guarantees a bright future when it comes to genomic profiling and making it easy to predict someone is having a disease or a birth disorder. Testing of different gene variants for prediction of diseases such as Type 2 diabetes or coronary heart disease will become easier. More so, genotype frequency can also aid in determining ethnic diversity.
Genotyping is the process of revealing the genotype an individual with a biological assay. The techniques involved include Polymerase chain reaction [PCR], DNA fragment analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide , DNA sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization and DNA microarrays or beads. DNA fragment analysis is a technique that can be used to ascertain certain disease causing genetic abnormalities such as microsatellite instability [MSI], aneuploidy, or loss of heterozygosity [LOH].
When determining genotype or allele frequency, keep in mind that the sum is always less than or equal to one [it is less than or equal to 100%]. The Hardy-Weinberg principle or law is useful in describing the relationship between genotype frequencies and allele frequencies especially when a population is not evolving. There are several factors that are known to affect genotype frequency and they include;
- Selective sexual selection- There are certain genotypes and phenotypes that get choose by mates. The alleles of the chosen mates increase in frequency while the alleles that are not chosen will decrease.
- Differential migration- Here if a certain phenotype moves out of an area, the frequency of those alleles will decrease while those that stay in a chosen area will increase.
- Assortative mating- This is a kind of mating that affects genotype frequencies expected under the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This is because when an individual mate favorably with other individuals that are phenotypically similar, this leads to an overabundance of homozygous individuals occurs since similar phenotypes are likely to share akin genotypes. When mating of similar phenotypes takes place more frequently than random mating, the possibility of offspring receiving two copies of an identical allele increase perturbing the Hardy-Weinberg outlooks.
- Natural selection- certain phenotypes survive and those alleles increase in frequency whereas the alleles of the unsuccessful ones decrease.
- Isolation [Founder effect] – This is a form of genetic drift that affects genotype frequency. Here, if a small group of individuals is separated from main group, they may have a different frequency of alleles in the gene group. As population grows, these frequencies may differ from the main group.
Genotype frequencies and gene frequency are related variables and thus affected by similar factors. Besides the aforementioned factors affecting genotype frequencies, mutation and random genetic drift are the other notable factors. Genotype frequencies are easy to measure and the simplest case is working on a case where you have one genetic locus with two alleles and three genotypes. To learn more on representations of the genotype frequencies, the De Finetti diagram can aid as it is useful in population genetics presentations.
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