Intrinsic Value Vs instrumental Value
Intrinsic value and Instrumental value have been a case of seemingly contrasting ideas in ethics, since philosophers began debating the subject of philosophy. Instrumental values are those values that are merely meant to achieve an ethical decision. Intrinsic on the other hand, are values that are understood as human nature. The two make up the philosophic argument of whether or not a particular value refers to means-to-an-end, or an end itself.
When making comparison between intrinsic value and instrumental value, it is important to note that intrinsic value simply refers to something worthwhile not because it leads to something else, but due to its own sake alone. This can be simply expressed as Good-in-itself. Instrumental value on the other hand, is something considered as a means to some other good, i.e. it a lead to something else that is good. For instance, money can be termed as instrumental good since it can lead to pleasure.
In terms of instrumental value, every idea or concept is an action that leads to value. For instance, reading is an action and it leads to the value of happiness. The next question would be where happiness leads or is it a value that is good in itself. The debate over that is from the belief that on one hand, happiness could be an instrument to make us feel content. However, to some, it simply could just be the end. Thus, it can be said that the classification of certain values as either intrinsic or instrumental vary.
Instrumental values can be direct and indirect means of observing intrinsic values. This is plausible suggestion since instrumental values are basically a means to an end while intrinsic values are the end. Thus, it can be said that the two can as well fit in together. An example would b of a man being happy while spending the day with his family. Spending time with family is the instrumental value that leads to the intrinsic value of being happy. The fact that the two fit well together calls to question whether or not there is an agreement between the two values at all.
Instrumental value is quite easier to spot and define. However, an intrinsic value can be very challenging. The idea that an intrinsic value is something that a person cannot explain why it is a value, apart from merely being a value, is an issue of debate. It is hard to explain or even accept that something can be good in and of itself, and that there is no any other reason for its good. However, if people only consider their core beliefs as intrinsic and everything else as instrumental, intrinsic values begin to clear up.
While the two ideas appear to be in contrast, they fit together almost quite well and can be termed as mutually exclusive. From their arguments, it can be concluded that instrumental values can lead to intrinsic values.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder refers to one of the common disorders that occurs in early childhood and may continue to adolescence and then adulthood. This disorder is the same as hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD-10. It is defined as a psychiatric disorder of neurodevelopment category. In this disorder, there are serious problems of hyperactivity, acting impulsively and attention that are inappropriate for the age of a person.
For an individual to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder they must depict the symptoms at the early age of 6 to 12 and they must also depict them for over 6 months. In the school going children, attention symptoms usually result in bad performance.
Despite being one of the most studied disorders that is diagnosed among adolescents and children, the cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown in most cases. It usually affects approximately 6 to 7 percent of children that are diagnosed through DSM-IV criteria and about 1 to 2 percent of the children diagnosed through ICD-10 criteria. The rates are the same between different countries and it depends mostly on the way the disorder is diagnosed. In boys, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed about three times more than in girls.
Studies indicate that about 30 to 50 percent of individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder in their childhood continue showing symptoms in their adulthood. About 2 to 5 percent of adults suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
This disorder has three main sub-types. These are:
- Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
- Predominantly inattentive
- Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
Among the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include difficulties in paying attention and staying focused, hyperactivity and difficulty in controlling behavior. Some scientists suggest that the disorder may be caused by genes. Just like some illnesses, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be caused by a combination of different factors. Apart from genetics, studies are being done to determine a possibility of environmental factors playing a role. There are studies that indicate that nutrition, social environment and brain injuries might be some of the other causes.
It is important to note that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be mistaken for other medical conditions. This is why it is important to consider the symptoms of the child carefully and seek professional medical help immediately. Treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that are currently available focus in symptoms reduction and improved functioning. Treatments include psychotherapy, medication, training or education and a combination of different treatments.
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Global Wine Wars 2009: Old versus New World
The wine industry experienced significance growth in the Christian era because competition for luxury and dynastical stature. Earlier, Europeans had plantations of vines to manufacture various grades of wine. With the establishment of a wine processing firm in France, production of wine grew tremendously. Because of favorable conditions in the country, France became a major producer of wine all over the world. France dominated the industry for centuries before other countries could match her production capacity. Notably, the thriving wine industry in France became the epicenter of economic, social and political issues in the country. One of the leading factors, which led to France’s successful wine production, was its proper climatic conditions and geographical features. Located at the heart of Europe, the country experienced as reliable rains and good weather conditions for the growth of grapes. Moreover, France had the right soils, which had matching nutrient requirements of grapes (Bartlett, 2009, p. 78). With naturally fertile soils, France got bumper harvest of grapes, which provided sufficient raw materials for wine production. This was its strength over potential competitors regionally and worldwide. Due to these conditions, France got experience in wine production, and supplied the finest wine brands in Europe and all over the world.
Its excellent and promising quality of produced wine further propelled France to dominate the industry. It heavily invested in quality wine production as compared to its competitors, making it an experienced player in the market. Additionally pioneers of wine production and promoters embraced the country’s passion for high quality wine. Thus, the industry not only gained dominance but also global recognition. Adoption of technology in wine production further contributed to France’s dominance in the industry. During this time, plants adopted new technology in mass production of bottles, manufacture of crock stoppers and pasteurization of crude wine. With new technology, it was possible to store processed wine for a longer time and meet the demand for wine in different markets. France also supplied wine to distant markets, creating a lucrative global market of which it was the main player. With innovation and relevant technology at hand, wine became stable as it could stay longer without going bad (Bartlett, 2009, p. 82).
France further thrived in wine production because of the government’s goodwill and support. The government of the day formulated and implemented policies, which ensured disciplined practices and high quality production. The government was in full control, making it easy to monitor wine production directly. Some of the measures, which the government implemented, were VDQS and AOS, which regulated wine production from setting up the vineyard to processing. In terms of wine processing, France rose to dominate the market because it had more competitive advantages than its competitors did. Some of these advantages included government support, new production technology, and suitable climatic conditions. By dominating the global market, French wine industry grew not only in Europe but also in the world.
It is worth noting that France faced a range of threats even though it had numerous competitive advantages in the market, as it was exposed to vulnerable conditions. For instance, there was disharmony between vineyards and production, which led to the disintegration of the entire process. Furthermore, unprecedented poor weather conditions, diseases and the high cost of the vineyard dented sales and French distribution system. High taxes and poor roads for transport further catalyzed the vulnerability of the sector. Consequently, the wine industry in France began experiencing logistical and operational challenges in the production process.
Because of the escalating challenges, France and other traditional wine producers started losing their dominance in the industry worldwide. For example, French system of production changed, resulting into high cost of vineyards in the country. Moreover, the continuous production of wine led to the depletion of vineyards. While this was the case, new world had begun using new land, which was more affordable than traditional French vineyards. The entry of New World Countries in the wine industry affected the performance of France and other traditional wine producers. These new countries gained momentum in the industry, with their lower prices, stemming from low operational costs. Which cheap land in these countries, it was also easier to acquire vineyards (Bartlett, 2009, p. 84). Appoint to note, most New World Countries adopted grape farming and applied new technology in processing. Growing grapes remained an extensive exercise because of irrigation techniques. With the introduction of mechanical harvesters, farmers adopted mechanized harvesting. There was high production because of the introduction of fertilizers and adoption of pruning methods. New World Countries also adopted on-site lab technology, which was key in carrying out analysis on proper grape farming and harvesting practices. As a result, they experienced low cost of production, causing a shift in the global wine market. With these developments, France and its affiliates lost their traditional global market share to the New World Countries, which capitalized on their already existing advantages to dominate the world market. This had negative impact on economies of former wine-producing giants.
The most appropriate advice for the head of French Wine Industry concerns regulatory measures and policy framework in processing and manufacturing. For example, AOC regulations are hurting the industry by offering non-competitive opportunities with the emergence of New World Countries, even though they allow production of finest wine in the global market. Thus, the head of French Wine Association must work towards lessening the application of AOC rules together with meticulous research and use of technology in wine production. The head of French Wine Association should further discourage total control of the industry by the government. Some of the government policies ought to be annulled because they undermine wine production process (Bartlett, 2009, p. 87).
In addition, the proprietor of Bordeaux Vineyard, which is a renowned producer of premium and super premium wines, must implement operational measures in order to take advantage of the situation. A good example is developing technology in production to allow new brands thus retaining customers. Bordeaux Vineyard must put into practice responsive attributes regarding new technology and production of new brands. They must however put weight on lucrative markets, which have more opportunities for better returns.
Notably, The Australian Wine industry is successful in implementing its operational measures. With its mission and vision, it is ahead of other competitors in the market. For instance, it has an achievable mission of being the world’s best producer of wine brands by 2015 through innovation and pricing. Nonetheless, it continues to struggle with issues of promotion, price and image design. To handle this, the association should invest in global marketing campaigns to enhance their public image and awareness of the Australian wine quality (Bartlett, 2009, p. 89). If it implements these measures, the association will overcome current threats and thrive in wine production and marketing.
On the other hand, Vineyard in Barossa should carry out intensive research on high quality wine production at a lower cost. They also consider other markets like Asia and China and not relying on US and British markets.
For the US wine industry, the head should focus on streamlining the production cost through mechanization like the Australian wine industry does. Moreover, the US should do away with its three-tier distribution system, as it is a threat to export products, while handing over cost advantage to other players. USA wine producers should also include middle segment in the whole production process. American wine agencies must develop brands and promotional strategies to reach the global markets.
Strategic Leadership in the Hospitality Industry
Khakssar Ghahroodi, H., bin Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali, M., & Seyed Ghorban, Z. (2013). Examining Ethical Leadership and Its Impacts on the Followers’ Behavioral Outcomes. Asian Social Science, 9(3), 91-96. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n3p91
In this article, authors investigated ethical leadership and its role in the entire hospitality sector. The aim of the researchers was specifically to determine the relationship that exists between employees’ retention and role modeling in any hospitality firm. The study had four guiding hypothesis.
First, job satisfaction of junior managers is influenced positively by the commitment of the high ranking leaders to an ethical leadership. Second, a feeling of belonging to an organization is enhanced among the middle managers by the commitment of the top leaders to an ethical leadership. Third, job satisfaction and the possibility of leaving an organization among junior managers have a negative correlation. Finally, a negative correlation exists between the intention of junior leaders to leave an organization and the feeling of belonging to the organization.
Information was gathered by the researchers with an aim of examining the hypothesis. 117 junior managers in Malaysian travel and tour companies provided the information. According to the findings of these researchers, a positive relationship existed between job satisfaction and a feeling of belonging. Additionally, there was evidence to link a feeling of belonging and job satisfaction to the intention or lower rates of leaving an organization. Ethical leadership, according to the researchers was relatively new in this industry. However, it was becoming increasingly recognized by researchers. Nevertheless, these authors observed that ethical leadership’s role in this industry which includes influencing job satisfaction, feeling of belonging to the organization and the likelihood of leaving has not gotten much attention.
These findings are used by the authors in supporting the belief that a model of ethical leadership can benefit the entire hospitality industry. Job satisfaction and ethical leadership have a positive correlation which means that the employees’ behavior can be influenced by executive leaders via role modeling. The managers of the organization can realize this goal by developing and maintaining a good ethical code that describe employees’ behaviors and proper procedures of making decisions.
The researchers established that ethical codes are not imposed on employees by ethical leaders. Instead, they exemplify the behaviors that they would like to see among their employees to influence their behavior. The emphasis of the researchers is that a practical approach that can motivate employees while increasing productivity is leading by example.
The conclusion of the authors shows that the entire hospitality industry can be affected in various ways by ethical leadership apart from increasing job satisfaction and commitment. Thus, this subject should be investigated further. Additionally, the belief of the researchers is that other hospitality industry’s sectors apart from travel and tour agencies can benefit from ethical leadership.
This is a relevant study in the entire hospitality industry in regards to leadership development since it shows the potential benefits of ethical leadership when employed as a leadership model. Modern leaders have to familiarize themselves with ethical issues that affect the entire hospitality industry. This is very important because ethics are now a crucial research and debate topic in almost all sectors of business. Thus, this article highlights the importance of training leaders on ethical leadership’s principles as well as role modeling.
Lamelas, J., & Filipe, J. (2011). Co-leadership in the tourism sector companies: increasing effectiveness and efficiency. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(4), 475-480.
This article analyzes the shared leadership concept in the contemporary hospitality firms while highlighting certain factors that make co-leadership effective in the management of the tourism and hotels industry.
These researchers start by giving an overview of the history of co-leadership which depicts the evolution of human leadership from the patriarchal system where an organization’s leadership was entrusted to one leader who was considered to possess a divine leadership gift to the approach where team leadership is valued. The traditional leadership training model is challenged by the authors.
This leadership training model had views of different thinkers such as Aristotle whose belief was that a single person had the leadership ability in a society or organization as its basis. According to these authors, the appreciation of team leadership has increased significantly after the Second World War. However, many models that are used in training leaders still depict leadership as one leader’s responsibility such as the CEO, chairman or president.
The article presents factors that make co-leadership successful when used as a model of managing organizations. The researchers acknowledge that co-leadership is not usually effective than sole leadership. A business’ context determines the leadership model that it chooses. Thus, it is important to be careful when choosing a leadership model. Among the factors that influence shared leadership’s results include the first selection criteria, stability and capabilities of an individual, nature of the roles of a shared leadership, the essence of complementing skills, as well as the chosen role-sharing strategy.
These researchers also discuss factors that necessitate using shared leadership within the contemporary business environment. Factors that have been identified by these researchers include the essence of merging organizations with similar business operations as a way of maximizing benefits that come with co-ownership and globalization of organizations as well as the essence of trying a modern approach in leadership of organizations in which other approaches have failed. The essence of rapid changes in an organization in order to deal with complex business and organizational environment more so in the hospitality sector is another factor.
The other co-leadership approach discussed by the researchers is participative management where owners and employees participate in the leadership through risk management, responding to different issues, participating in improving programs continuously and taking extra steps towards the achievement of the set organizational goals.
The essence of shared leadership within the tourism sector is also discussed by the researchers. They describe this sector as complex and in need of large investments, elastic demand, stiff competition, high seasonality and labor intensive. According to these researchers, the major problem that the entire hotel industry is facing is the need for a more flexible model of leadership that is capable of responding to business environment’s changes via experimentation, continuous modification and taking risk.
The conclusion of these researchers is that there is a need to consider every variable that can influence the organizational success within the entire hospitality industry so as to effectively apply co-leadership. The main argument of these researchers is that although it is commonly believed that co-leadership is ineffective, the demand of the tourism sector is that more competencies and leadership skills that a single individual cannot possess should be applied. This makes shared leadership the most preferable leadership model in the industry.
This is a relevant article in the development of strategic leadership within the entire hospitality industry since it depicts co-leadership as a model of leadership that can be pursued by leaders. Choosing this leadership model demands the designing of proper programs for training leaders in order to prepare them for a new model.
Bernsen, P., Segers, M. & Tillema, H. H. (2009). Learning under pressure: learning strategies, workplace climate, and leadership style in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Resources Development and Management 9(4), 358-373.
This article examines the impact that leadership model, organizational settings and learning approaches have on the middle managers in the whole hospitality industry. The study is motivated by the significant realization of varied benefits that come from professional development that equips leaders with vital leadership competencies for solving challenges within the business environment that is becoming more unpredictable.
The belief of the authors is that employees’ attitude is mainly affected by the working environment. Among the styles of leadership focused on by the researchers include transformational leadership where employee’s goals are aligned with organizational goals. They also focused on transactional leadership where the concern of leaders is working conditions’ improvement rather than organizational goals. The researchers also focused on laissez-faire leadership where most decisions are made by the employees.
Several findings are reported by the study about workplace climate’s relationship, learning and style of leadership. First, a correlation was established between leadership model and workplace environment. Leaders who were interested in supporting employees had higher chances of practicing transformational leadership. A positive association was found to exist between transactional leadership and exercising more freedom in organizing tasks among employees of an organization (choice dependence). Both transformational and transactional leadership approaches establish a workplace that has positive supervision as well as considerable freedom in organizing tasks.
Second, a clear-cut correlation was established between learning style and workplace environment. Nevertheless, positive correlation was reported between workload and deep style of learning.
Third, they associated surface learning with a transactional leadership especially due to the fact that transactional leaders do not concern themselves with the development of their employees. Instead, they motivate employees by rewarding them. Surface learning can be common within the entire hospitality industry since the days of managers are usually busy.
In a nut shell, the belief of the researchers is that leaders who wish to develop middle managers have to consider the demands that the employees are required to meet while handling difficult tasks and operating under pressure. Additionally, the study shows that learning is possible among middle managers even with their busy schedules. According to this research, supportive leadership plays a vital role of facilitating employees’ learning.
This is a relevant study in the development of strategic leadership within the entire hospitality industry since leaders have to deliberately take measures that will enhance employees’ training as a way of preparing them for current and future challenges within the industry. Understanding learning strategy and leadership style’s correlation will enable leaders to select a leadership approach that will support learning styles that suit personal and organizational goals.
Journal Article Analysis
Raban, B.,(2012), Early literacy – audience, context and purpose . Practically Primary, 17( 2),4-5.
Raban states learning begins before children begin to attend school and that the Early Years Framework explains the outcomes and practice of enhancing the learning of children. During the early years before children start formal school are of importance in enhancing as well as encouraging their ability to learn across different aspects of social, physical and cognitive spheres. It is also of importance to bring together education and care instead of putting education down in aspects of education. The structure offers an explanation on regulars and the effects of increasing the knowledge of young children. It is crucial to know the outcomes achieved in order to judge learning through skill, assessments and progress monitoring known as assessment learning. The reform-National Quality Standard measures childhood services and indicates the quality environment that is essential for the early education and learning of a child. The ideas teachers hold on learning is what determines the provision of literacy experience. The assumption made by teachers on how children can become literate either limits or broadens their development chances. Therefore, literacy experiences can be detrmined by the manner and equipments teachers model and how they enhance the efforts made by children. As such educators are limited in anticipations of learning progress. They also lack wider depiction and importance of children reasoning in a literate manner.
Raban, B.,(2012), Early literacy – audience, context and purpose . Practically Primary, 17( 2),4-5.
Raban, in the article suggests review of practices and policies towards the achievement of objectives of early childhood literacy. It is also necessary to appreciate natural links between the growth of the child and early exposure. The recognition of early experience also leads to establishment of home-preschool-school interface which results to appreciation of the significance of educaton on the lives of children. The article also states preschool children are more likely to use print in real life so long as the are within an environment that promotes it.
Raban states those who get support explore meaning of print as well as its use and they demonstrate capacities of using legit writing before formal instruction can be initiated. Australia, measurement was done on how children develop through use of Australian Early Development Index (AEDI, that determines cognitive skills as well as emotional maturity. There was also the Numeracy study that explored realization of numeracy and scenary learning in relation to development in children.the latest regulations and national rules that led to programs of early childhood commencement in order to review their practice as well as an informal amd formal development. So that the instructors can identify learning outcomes, it is important to perform assessment in skills achieved. Literacy basics are also provided based on the related expectaions regardless of the skills that are displayed in Preschool year. The early childhood literacy is of great importance since it sows excitement and professionalism in young ones by giving them courage needed to grow in life with reflection and determination of practice and professionalism.
Bridie Raban, a superior researcher in Australian council for Educational Research’s (ACER) learning programs, teaching and management as well as a voluntary researcher (Eimly Childhood) at the Melbourne Graduate School of Education. Bridie researches on development in the field of Early Childhood as well as literacy development and intervention. She has already established a career in execution of early childhood learning and constant support of untimely international literacy . Bridie has also written an article aimed to prove how children, being exposed to early learning have the ability to use the knowledge they acquire in real life later, exploring experience that is available within their environment.
Raban, B.,(2012), Early literacy – audience, context and purpose . Practically Primary, 17( 2),4-5.
Tumor Suppression Gene
Tumor suppression gene also known as antioncogene refers to genes regulating cell growth. This gene protects the cell from been cancerous and when it mutates causing reduction or loss of function, the cells then progress to cancer. This occurs when other genetic changes are present as well. Loss of the tumor suppressor gene is more important than oncogene/proto-oncogene activation in the formation of different kinds of human cancerous cells. There are different kinds of tumor suppressor genes and they include the following:
- Gatekeeper genes
- Caretaker genes
- Landscaper genes
As medicine continues to evolve, classification genes also evolve and adapt from fields such as genetics, epigenetic and molecular biology.
Unlike the case of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes follow “two-hit hypothesis”. This implies both alleles coding for a certain protein must first be affected before any effect is noted. This is attributed to the fact that just one allele for that gene gets damaged while the second still produces the appropriate protein. In other terms, this means distorted tumor suppressor alleles are recessive while mutant oncogene alleles are dominant.
A.G Knudson was the first one to make the proposal of two-hit analysis. He made the observation that onset of retinoblastoma follows the second order kinetics which implied that 2 self-determining genetic events were a necessity. He also made the recognition that it was consistent with recessive mutation which involved one gene but required biallelic mutation. In contrast though, oncogene mutations involve single allele since they are the gain of mutation functions.
There however exist exceptions to the rule of “two-hit’ for tumor suppressors like particular mutations in p53 gene product. Such mutations are known to function as “dominant negative” which means if there is a p53 mutated protein, it prevents the functioning of normal protein from an allele that is un-mutated. Other suppressor genes that are also an exception to the “two hit” rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as:
- NF1 in neurofibroma and
- PTCH in medulloblastoma.
A good example in this case is p27Kip 1 cell inhibitor cycle in which a single allele mutation leads to an increase in the susceptibility of carcinogen. Tumor suppressor genes functions fall into different categories some of which include:
- Gene suppression which is important for continuation of cell cycle. When the genes aren’t expressed, then there is no continuation of the cell cycle hence cell division is inhibited
- Coupling of cell cycle to damage of DNA. If there isn’t damaged DNA then the cell shouldn’t divide. In cases where the damage is repairable, the cycle of the cell continues
- When the damage isn’t repairable, the cell initiates apoptosis and gets rid of the threat posed for the organisms good.
- Proteins involved in division of cells prevents tumor cells from dispersing, block contact inhibition loss and also inhibit metastasis
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Inbreeding is a term that defines production of offspring from breeding or mating of organism or individuals that are genetically related which is the contrast of outcrossing which is mating of individuals that are unrelated. By analogy, inbreeding is used in relation to human production but often refers to genetic disorders as well as consequences that might arise from consanguinity or incestuous relationships. Inbreeding can lead to homozygosity which increases the possibility of the offspring getting affected by deleterious or recessive traits.
As a result of this, the population is exposed to a decreased level of biological fitness (known as inbreeding depression) which is the ability of the offspring to reproduce as well as survive. Individuals inheriting deleterious traits are referred to as inbred. The technique of inbreeding is often applied in selective breeding and is often used in the case of livestock. For instance, majority of breeders try to create a desirable, new trait in livestock but they also have to keep an open eye for characteristics that are undesirable so they can be eliminated by carrying out further culling or selective breeding.
In plants, inbred lines are often used as the stock for creating hybrid lines and make use of heterosis. In plants, inbreeding will occur naturally as self pollination. Note that inbreeding in humans can lead to congenital birth defects and this is because there is a likelihood of the homozygous zygotes level been very high in offsprings.
Individuals with 2 gene copies are likely to suffer from disorders such as autosomal recessive for recessive genetic mutation. Except in extremely rare cases, like uniparental disomy or new mutations both parents of the individual with the disorder are carriers of that gene. Such carriers don’t display mutation signs and in some cases they are often unaware of the fact they have a mutated gene. Since relatives have a high proportion of the same genes than is the case in unrelated people, it is likely related parents have similar recessive genes hence the children they have together are placed at a high risk of suffering from a genetic disorder. The risk of the disease been worse will depend on the parents’ genetic relationship.
Children of sibling-sibling or parent child relationships are at a high risk of such defects compared to those of cousin to cousin relationships. Inbreeding also results to higher phenotypic expression of recessive genes in a population than would be expected. Consequently, the first generation of inbred individuals re likely to have health and physical defects which include:
- Reduced fertility in the viability of sperm as well as litter size
- Increase in genetic disorders
- Facial asymmetry that is always changing
- Low birth rate
- High infant mortality
- Facial asymmetry that is always fluctuating
- Immune system loss function
- Small adult sizes
- Depression on the rate of growth which includes weight, height as well as body mass index.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of an Article
Knowing how to write a critical analysis of an article is very important because your university professor will most probably ask you to critique a journal or newspaper article at some point. A critical analysis is a subjective form of writing in which a writer expresses personal evaluation or opinion of a text, which in this case is an article. This can be a journal article, a magazine article or a newspaper article. While writing a critical analysis, you should read an article and think about it critically. It is important that you start by understanding the prompt or assignment question. This will enable you to understand the angle that you are required to take in your critical analysis.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article from a newspaper
- Know the event that led the author to write the article
Before you start analyzing the article, know why the author wrote it. This can be an event that happened or an event that is about to happen. When you know the reason why the author wrote the article that you are required to analyze, you can understand the purpose for writing it or the goal that the author wanted to accomplish by writing the article.
- Read and analyze the title
You can know the main idea of the article by reading its title. Before you start reading the body of the article, think about the title of the article and write a subjective opinion about it. You can also form basic points that you would include under the title in your mind if you were to write an article on that title. This will give you the first impression and help you in forming a critique of the article.
- Read and analyze the body of the article
After analyzing the title of the article, read the body to find out how the author supports the main idea as expressed by the title. To analyze the article critically, read it several times. Take notes while reading. Come up with a list of the analytical questions that will guide you in your analysis. Use these questions to form your critical analysis of different aspects of the article. For instance, what words does the writer uses in the title and the body of the article? Why does the author use these words? Is the author biased or objective? Does the author make and substantiate claims with valid arguments in article? This is a vital step of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article because it determines what forms the basis of your critique.
- Consider how the author supports claims in the article
In this step, analyze the article carefully to determine whether the author has provided adequate factual material which supports the presented ideas. The author can quote witnesses, state information sources or provide statistics in supporting claims. An author of an article can also be an eyewitness to an event or the author can obtain information via a news service.
- Consider your opinion about the reportage
Since critical analysis is subjective, you should give your opinion about the reportage. Is the reportage true, biased or balanced in your opinion? Explain your opinion while citing examples of instances that support your claim from the article.
- Explain how the author presents different points of view
For instance, tell readers whether the article under analysis is an editorial, a balanced article, an informative article or a convincing article. Again, support your stance with evidence from the article that you are analyzing.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Wrap up your analysis with your final view or opinion of the article. Tell readers about the tools that the author used to pass the message, the goal of the article and whether the author accomplished that goal. Also tell readers about the target audience and whether the article had impact on the intended audience in your opinion.
How to write a critical analysis of an article from a scientific journal
A scientific journal article is different from a newspaper article. As such, even how you analyze a scientific journal article should be different from the way you analyze a newspaper article.
To analyze a scientific journal article, follow these steps:
- Read the article and the critical analysis prompt
Start by reading the assignment and the article that you are required to analyze critically. Understand what the assignment requires you to do and whether you are required to take a particular angle in your analysis. Find out if there is a theoretical framework on which the argument in the article is based.
- Summarize the article
Summarize the goals or objectives of the article, methods, findings, analysis and conclusions. Explain how they are presented by the author. Show your comprehension of the research that the author of the article presents using one or two paragraphs.
- Highlight the strengths of the scientific article
Characterize the features that you find useful in the article. Tell readers about the aspects that are strong in the article. For instance, tell readers whether the article has sections that are particularly helpful.
- Highlight the weaknesses of the scientific article
Characterize the aspects of the article that you find confusing. For instance, are there apparent weaknesses of the study that come out in the article? Did you find any section of the article confusing and why? Support your claim with evidence from the article.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Conclude the analysis by telling readers how effective or ineffective the article was in presenting the findings of a scientific research. For instance, did the author suggest directions for future studies? Were the findings and analysis presented in a conclusive manner? Leave readers with a sense of completion after reading your critical analysis.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a critical analysis of an article
- Always identify the objective of the author
Before you start your critical analysis of an article, identify the objectives of the author. Ask yourself, what was the motive behind writing the article? What did the author want to achieve by writing the article?
- Identify any theory in the article
Is there a clear theoretical framework in the article? Does the author make vital theoretical assumptions? Are there clearly defined concepts in the article?
Identify the argument of the author in the article. Find out if there are specific hypothesis made and whether the author of a scientific journal article states whether they were supported by the study or not.
- Identify the main points and evidence
Tell readers what the main arguments or points made by the author in the article are. Are there conclusions or inferences made by the author? What information or evidence does the author provide to support the arguments, inferences or points? Is the provided evidence used to measure something? Is the provided evidence factual? Does the author of the article present factual data?
Tell your readers whether the author is reliable. State what the sources of evidence or information are. Are the sources of the provided evidence identified? For instance, can the eyewitness mentioned in the article be reached? Does the author give examples of specific publications, organizations, journals, books or web sites? Are the sources secondary or primary or are they from other sources like textbooks. Does the author site authorities? What are the credentials of the authorities and are they credible or not and why?
- How persuasive is the author?
Tell readers of your critical analysis whether the author presents evidence that is consistent with the presented argument? Does the author present a convincing argument? If yes, tell readers why and if not, explain why. Can the presented evidence in a scientific journal article be interpreted in another way? Do you have adequate evidence to support your judgment? What additional evidence do you consider necessary to judge the made claim’s validity?
- Global view
Tell your readers whether the author makes general assumptions in the article? If yes, state them. Does the author present a world view of the findings presented in the scientific article? Is there a different viewpoint or world view that should be considered on the basis of the presented findings?
Does the author use propaganda words in the article? Does the author use propaganda techniques in the article to make arguments?
- Your take
Do you disagree or agree with what the author says in the article and how they say it?
- Use a sample to write your critical analysis
To know how to write a critical analysis of an article with ease, review a sample critical analysis of an article. You can find a critical analysis of an article here.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of a Poem
When you know how to write a critical analysis of a poem, you can enable the readers of your critical analysis to understand the language and symbols that the author of the poem uses better. A critical analysis is a form of subjective writing in which the writer expresses his/her evaluation or opinion of a text. A poem on the other hand is a form of writing that takes the nature of a song and a speech and it is almost rhythmical in most cases and usually metaphorical exhibiting different formal elements which include a stanzaic structure, rhyme and meter. A critical analysis of a poem therefore should break down a poem and study its parts to give the evaluation or opinion of the entire piece.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of a poem
While writing poems, authors are very deliberate with their choice of words as well as the format that they use to convey meaning. Most poets hope that their poems will be read aloud. This is why they strive to maintain high lyrical quality. Others strive to maintain interesting rhythms in punctuating the elements of their poems. As you write a critical analysis of a poem, depict an intimate appreciation of it.
Step 1: Read the poem
To critique a poem, you should read it severally to understand what the speaker is saying or what the main message of the poem is. If there are unusual or difficult words, find their meaning. In most cases, the title will give you the summary or general meaning of the main idea or thought that is being presented.
Step 2: Know who the speaker is
The speaker in a poem can be an elderly person, a child, a shepherd, a student, a swordsman, a sailor, a milkmaid, an animal or an object such as a chair, a place or a mountain. Speakers in poems speak differently.
Step 3: Identify the main theme of the poem
Start your critical analysis by identifying the major or specific theme in the poem that gives it a larger meaning. To identify this theme, you need to consider or study the entire poem including its title. Maybe the poem that you are analyzing is about losing innocence, growing old, or importance of preserving the environment. The overarching or major theme of a poem can come out clearly or it can be hidden in its presentation and words.
Step 4: Establish the context
The context gives the location and time of a poem. This is usually what prompts the creation of a poem. A poem can be prompted by a political event which has a great importance in the history of a country.
Step 5: Identify inter-textuality
This implies that a poem looks back to another poem. This is also called reference. If a poem has this aspect, include it in your analysis and show how it enhances the message or its delivery.
Step 6: Identify the genre of the poem
Genre is simply the category. There are characteristics and rules of each genre. For instance, a poem that comprises of a long narrative dealing with demi-gods or divine figures and describing incredible journeys or terrible wars that determine humanity fate is called an epic poem. A sonnet on the other had is a short poem with 14 lines in which intimate emotions are expressed. Other poem genres include mock-epic, lyric, ballad, parody and ode among others.
Step 7: Create a checklist for your critical analysis
You should come up with a checklist that will guide you as you review or analyze the poem. A checklist will enable you to analyze or dissect the poem into separate pieces in order to understand it as a complete piece better. For instance, you can come up with a checklist that includes the title, genre, viewpoint, setting, meter, rhyme scheme, context or conflict. Make the elements in your checklist your guide while writing the critical analysis of the poem.
Step 8: Review the poem’s plot
While reviewing the plot, answer the following questions after reading the poem:
- What is going on in the poem?
- Who is affected by what is going on?
Your answers to these questions will enable you to understand what exactly the poem is describing. This will enable you to apply the meaning of the poem in the analysis.
Step 9: Analyze the poem’s rhyme scheme
Note that, not every poem has a rhyme. Nevertheless, most poems are written with the hope that they will be read aloud and therefore they have a rhyme scheme. Perhaps, this is one of the most important steps of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of a poem because you must read and analyze the poem carefully to notice its rhyme scheme. Before you conclude that the poem under analysis does not have a rhyme scheme, read it aloud with a friend or alone. Listen to its sound instead of simply looking at its words. This will enable you to identify its rhyme scheme and analyze it.
Step 10: Analyze the format
A poem can be a free form. This means that it does not have an identifiable pattern. It can also have a unique writing scheme. The format of a poem is usually a deliberate choice of style or act by the writer. Describe the format chosen by the author in your critical analysis and what it could mean as well as how it hinders or help in communicating the message.
Step 11: Analyze the used figurative language
Poetry uses a wide range of literary devices which include personification, metaphor, simile, metonymy and irony. Apart from constituting the body, these devices also demonstrate the control of language by the author. Therefore, it is highly important that you evaluate and analyze the use of figurative language in the poem.
Step 12: Create a thesis statement
On the basis of your comprehension of the meaning of the poem, create a thesis statement for your critical analysis. Note that while writing any academic piece, you should have a strong, clear thesis statement.
Step 13: Gather evidence from the poem to support the controlling idea or thesis statement
In the body of your critical analysis, cite actual lines of the poem to support your thesis. This will make your critical analysis credible and strong. Readers will get clues of where your thesis statement came from because it will have adequate supporting evidence from the poem.
Step 14: Write the analysis
At this step, you already know how to write a critical analysis of a poem and you have all the information required to write a critical analysis of a poem. Use your checklist to write your critical analysis.
Your critical analysis should include the following:
The introduction should include:
- Title of the poem under analysis
- Author of the poem
- Publication information
- Purpose or topic statement
- Thesis statement that indicates your reaction to the poem
- Description or summary of the poem
Provide a summary or brief description of the poem that you are analyzing critically.
- Evaluation or/and interpretation of the poem
Use your checklist to analyze or evaluate or discuss different aspects of the poem as described in the steps of this guide.
Draw conclusions from your analysis. Tell readers what was the goal or theme of the poem that you were analyzing, tools that were used in conveying the main idea or theme of the poem, how they were used and whether they were effective.
Bonus tips on how to write a critical analysis of a poem
- Add value
While writing a critical analysis of a poem, try to help the writer and the reader know how the poem would have been made better. Provide suggestions on how the writer can improve the work. However, point out instances where the author is inconsistent or not clear and then provide concrete advice to the writer.
- Be positive
When critiquing the work of another person, be constructive. Do not say unnecessarily harmful things about the poem. If you must say something negative about the poem, provide supporting evidence.
- Review the content of the poem
In your critical analysis, say whether the author was redundant in terms of the used imagery or chosen words. For instance, did the author use varying syllables, meters and vowel rhymes? How did the author choose the words to use in the poem? Did the author use irony, similes, metaphors or symbolism properly? Were they used consistently?
- Use a sample of a critical analysis of a poem
To easily know how to write a critical analysis of a poem, use a critical analysis sample as your writing guide. A good sample will enable you to know where and how to present different elements of your analysis. You can find an example of a critical analysis of a poem here.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of a Film
If you enjoy watching movies, you would most probably like to know how to write a critical analysis of a film. Critical analysis refers to a subjective form of writing in which the author evaluates or critiques the work of another person. The work that is critiqued or evaluated can be a film, an essay, a book, a painting or any other creative work. The aim of writing a critical analysis is to enhance the understanding of the work by the reader. Additionally, the analysis aims at determining how effective the work is. It is important to note that critical analysis of a film is different from a movie review. A movie review is just about watching a film passively while a critical analysis entails engaging on a level that surpasses mere storytelling.
How to write a critical analysis of a film step by step
While writing a critical analysis of a film, you should always remember that this writing is subjective because it should express your evaluation or opinion of the film. Analysis simply means breaking down and studying the parts. Therefore, your analysis should depict two major aspects: studying and critiquing.
Here are the steps to follow when writing a critical analysis of a film:
Step 1: Watch the film
At this step, you watch the film severally to get its gist. This is very important because it enables you to understand different aspects of the film which is crucial in writing a good critical analysis paper. To watch the film critically implies that you must watch it severally and take notes while watching it. If you are watching the film using a DVD player or a computer, rewind and pause to understand crucial parts of the movie.
Step 2: Engage with the film critically
At this step, start engaging critically with the film that you want to analyze. This is very important because it will enable you to come up with a strong critical analysis essay. Identify and focus on a single concept or theme that dominates the film. For instance, you can focus on how the film was photographed, how a sequence in the film relates to a broader cinematic concept, how the film relates to a specific historical event dramatically without compromising facts. You can also focus on the use of various devices such as dramatic irony and overlapping dialogue.
Step 3: Outline your critical analysis
Writing an outline of a critical analysis will enable you to present your critical analysis in a more organized manner. Writing an outline entails determining the information that you intend to include in the analysis, where to place it in the critical analysis paper or essay and how to place the information. In this step, determine the number of chapters to have in your analysis. Create rough headings for different chapters. Outlining a critical analysis is simply planning how to write a critical analysis of a film and this makes the actual writing easier.
Step 4: Introduce the film
In this step, you start the actual writing by introducing the film that you are analyzing critically and the major participants in it. Among the participants that you can introduce at this step include the film director and the actors. You can also include names of other technicians in the film especially if you will focus on that particular aspect of the film in your analysis. For instance, if you will be writing about shadows in a film, introduce the cinematographer. If you will be writing about the importance of the included background information in creating the emotional tone, introduce the composer of the movie.
Step 5: Write the movie story overview or summary
In this step, provide an overview of the film story in a brief manner. However, avoid writing a synopsis of the movie instead of an analysis. Reveal twists in the plot or how the film ends if this is related to the analysis directly.
Step 6: Write the analysis
Start writing the analysis section with the film at hand. If possible, have the movie in the DVD player and the television close to you. To write a food critical analysis of a film, avoid relying on your memory. This is because it is difficult to memorize all the events, cinematic techniques and dialogues after playing the film. Therefore, make sure that you have easy access to the film while writing your critical analysis.
Step 7: Make sure that you are familiar with filmmaking technical jargons
While writing your critical analysis, make sure that you can differentiate a dissolve from a cut. Familiarizing yourself with such terms will enable you to write about the subjective work of a camera if the analysis entails a film shot part from the viewpoint of a character. Using filmmaking words properly will make your critical analysis essay more authoritative.
How to write a critical analysis essay of a film in a conventional essay format
You should know the format of a critical analysis essay to compose a good critical analysis of a film.
Here is a simple format that you can use as a template for writing a critical analysis of a film:
- The introduction
In the introduction section, introduce the key players in the movies. These can include the producer; the director and the cinematographer among others depending on the angle that you intend to take in your analysis. You can also include the main idea or theme of the movie as well as the thesis statement of your essay or paper.
In the summary or film overview section, you outline the major theme or idea of the film. This involves what, who, where, when, how and why. You can also discuss the style, structure or view point.
In this section, you tell readers what you liked and what you did not like about the film. Provide an explanation for your ideas by citing specific examples from the film. Additionally, identify the goal of the film and whether it accomplished it. Your analysis should focus on determining whether the film is understandable, focused, interesting, properly concluded, authentic, clear and meeting its purpose, among others. Include several paragraphs in the analysis section with each paragraph giving a specific idea and supporting it with evidence from the film.
In the conclusion section, end your critical analysis by restating the thesis statement that you stated in the introduction. However, use new words. Also summarize the main ideas that you discussed in the analysis section using stronger and new words. End the conclusion with an effective call to action.
Remember that a critical analysis is a systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of a work of another person. This entails determining whether the work does well, how and where as well as how it does poorly, where and how. Therefore, watch the film carefully and severally to familiarize yourself with its different aspects before you start writing your critical analysis paper or essay.
Bonus tips on how to write a critical analysis of a film
- Conduct research from secondary sources before you start writing the analysis
Before you write your critical analysis of a film, conduct some research from other sources. Find analyses by other people and reviews about the film that you are about to analyze. Consider the issues that others have raised about the film before you start writing your analysis.
- Select the theme or idea that dominates the movie and other analyses
This could be the theme that you agree with, find relevant or disagree with. It could be a controversial theme that some people are uncomfortable with on the basis of their beliefs. Find out whether it is worth majoring in while analyzing the film critically.
- Consider the question that you are required to investigate
While giving you the assignment, your teacher or lecturer may have given you a question or prompt. This prompt may require you to investigate a particular idea. Consider your feelings towards that issue or idea and why you may support the feelings that you hold about the issue. If what you have written is interesting, then you can use it as or in forming your preliminary thesis. If it does not impress you, continue analyzing the film until you come up with a good preliminary thesis. This is a very important tip on how to write a critical analysis of a film because it guides you in creating a thesis that you can use as the controlling idea of your critical analysis paper or essay.
- Use a sample of a critical analysis of a film
Using a good critical analysis of a film sample makes mastering the steps of writing a critical analysis essay or paper easier. Therefore, look for a well-written sample analysis of a film and use it in writing your own analysis. To read a critical analysis of a film online, click here.
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How to Write a Conclusion for a Lab
Knowing how to write a conclusion for a lab report is very important because the conclusion is an important section where you state what you learned from the lab experiment while justifying how you learned it. The conclusion is the last paragraph and a working part of a paper. In this section, you should push readers into thinking about the global implications of the findings that you present in the report.
In the conclusion, you should sum up the procedures that you used and the results of the lab project for the reader. Also restate the goals of the lab project and include final notes or data on whether the experiment answered the posed question successfully. Readers should get all the vital points of the lab report by simply reading the conclusion while noting the unforeseen results of the experiment.
How to write a conclusion for a lab report step by step
The conclusion of a lab report ought to be written in the format of an essay. It should have proper spelling as well as correct punctuation.
Here are steps that you should follow when writing this section of a lab report:
- Restate the purpose or the problem
Start by restating the purpose or the problem and whether the experiment supported the purpose of conducting the lab experiment. This is very important because it ensures that your conclusion relates to the purpose or problem that you stated at the introduction of the report. Remember that the purpose or problem is what necessitated the experiment.
The purpose of carrying out this experiment was to establish the comparison between acid pH after adding bases to it. Data from this experiment supports the notion that acid pH increases with base addition to it.
- Discuss how you reached the conclusion with the help of the gathered data
To show how the data that you collected during the experiment relates, refer to the graphs that you used to present the findings in the body section. Your explanation in the conclusion should be based on the relationship of the information presented in the graphs. If you included an equation while presenting the findings, use the equation to explain the relationship of your data in the conclusion.
- Discuss possible errors in data collection or procedures
In any experiment, there are possible causes of errors. Therefore, discuss possible reasons why your conclusion or data may be inaccurate because of certain errors.
- End the conclusion
Close your conclusion by restating the conclusion and the problem. You can also suggest changes that should be made while carrying out future experiments and how they are likely to affect the collected data.
Various bases were used to indicate their neutralization effect on acid pH in this lab experiment. It might be helpful to add base into acid using a dropper rather than a beaker to prevent base spilling into acid. The other part of the process is safe and following it is easy.
Checklist for a conclusion of a lab report
Once you have known how to write a conclusion for a lab report, find out how you can evaluate your conclusion to determine if it serves its purpose.
To do this, you need to ask yourself the following questions:
- Have you restated the goal of your experiment?
The conclusion should start with a restatement of the goal of the lab experiment. Restate the goal that you stated in the introductory paragraph though using different words. Ask yourself, what question were you trying to answer with the experiment? It is also important that your conclusion include a summary of the predictions that you had made for the results of the experiment.
- Have your described the used methods or procedure?
Your lab report should briefly summarize the methods or procedures that you used in the experiment. Note that a comprehensive list of the items that you used in your experiment should be in the section where you discuss the methods in the body of the report. The conclusion should provide just a summary of the procedures or methods and the reason for choosing them to obtain data.
- Does the conclusion include an analysis of the final data?
The focus of a lab report is on the data that you collected from the experiment. This includes all the data that you obtained from experiment and its analysis. In the conclusion, restate the data that you gathered from the experiment. Include the final data acquired from the analysis only. Additionally, provide an explanation of the final data and what it means in a brief manner. Explain data trends while noting whether there were irregularities indicated by the results raising further questions. Additionally, make sure that your conclusion indicates possible causes of errors.
- Have you stated whether your experiment answered the question successfully?
In the conclusion, you should examine data from the experiment on the basis of your predictions and goals of the experiment. Tell readers whether the experiment answered the question that you stated in the introduction. If it answered the question successfully, tell readers so. If it did not, explain the possible reasons or explanation for this while suggesting methods that can be used in future experiments. However, whether the experiment answered the question successfully or not, tell readers what you learned from it while stating the experiment’s results predictions that turned out to be true.
Your answers to these questions will enable you to determine if the conclusion of your lab report serves its purpose effectively.
Additional tips on how to write a conclusion for a lab report
- Maintain the accurate length for your conclusion for a lab report
The conclusion of a lab report can be long or short depending on the nature of the lab experiment and what you learned or deduced from it. Its length can also be determined by the prompt or what you were required or wanted to accomplish during the experiment. Thus, it can be a one sentence conclusion or a paragraph conclusion. There are also cases where it can be longer than one paragraph. Therefore, make sure that your conclusion has an accurate length that includes relevant information only.
- Identify the most important aspect of the result from the experiment
The main interpretation of the results should be based on the single most vital result of the experiment. Make sure that your conclusion presents the analysis of this result as well as its implication.
- How data was obtained
Remember that your conclusion is based on the data that you obtained while conducting the experiment and its analysis. It is therefore important that you tell readers how you obtained data so that they can determine if your data is reliable and whether your interpretation, analysis and conclusions are based on solid evidence.
The conclusion is the last part of the lab report where you should tell readers what the results of the experiment mean and their implications to the real world. Therefore, make sure that your conclusion leaves readers with something to think about. Stating the implications of the findings of your lab experiment also shows that the experiment was necessary.
- Edit the conclusion of your lab report
After writing the conclusion for your lab report, ask a friend that you trust to edit it for you or enlist our editing service. You may have a good conclusion for a lab report but spelling and grammatical errors ruin it.
- Double-check results
It is important that you take time to double-check all results from the mathematical equations that you presented in the body. This will enable you to avoid the embarrassment which may arise from misplacing decimal points.
- Use a conclusion sample to easily know how to write a conclusion for a lab
You should also use a conclusion sample while mastering the steps of writing a lab conclusion.
Here is a lab report conclusion sample that you can use:
The purpose of this experiment was to find out how the concentration of nitrogen fertilizer affects com plants’ growth by comparing com plants’ growth when subjected to nitrogen fertilizer with different concentrations. The hypothesis was that the concentration of nitrogenous fertilizer does not affect the height of plant but the experiment did not support it. There was a significant variation in the height of the non-fertilized plants and fertilized plants with the average height increasing more in fertilized plants. The experiment was done in a classroom in which there was no constant temperature. Perhaps, this may have caused some errors in the results. Future experiments can be improved by conducting the experiment in a place with constant temperature.
With such a sample, knowing how to write a conclusion for a lab report is easy. This is because it enables you to know how and where to place different elements of a conclusion for a lab report.
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US Electoral College
The US Electoral College is the highly presumed institution that legitimately elects the president and the vice president of the United States. It is a process that is established in the United States constitution. An Electoral College is made up of 538 electors who take part in the elections. Electors are the chosen and authorized constitutional participants who foresee the success of an election and are chosen by a popular vote on a state-to-state strategy. Hence, U.S president and the vice president are not directly elected by the voters, but Citizens vote for the electors who pick the best candidate.
There is a deep-rooted history on the U.S Electoral College. The year 1787 changed the face and history of America. It was an era when a group of national leaders drafted the U.S constitution whilst another group decided that the average citizen should not elect a president without a system to link the process – the Electoral College. At the time, many politicians believed that the most popular candidate was likely to win the election and this was a uncontrolled strategy that favors certain areas.
The Electoral College process worked effectively until 1800 when there was a tied election outcome between Arron Burr and Thomas Jefferson. But electors from both parties were selected to elect the best candidate. This outcome also resulted to 12th amendment of the Unites States constitution which clarified more on the electoral voting process. Today, each state has to present a number of electors’ equivalent to the number of senators and its representatives.
Despite being the most effective election process in United States, the Electoral College has been faced by a number of critics and proposals. Unfortunately, most of the debaters have been trying to abolish the Electoral College. Those against the U.S Electoral College and preferred a direct popular vote of the president cite issues such as;
- The possibility of having “faithless” electors.
- Risk of electing a minority president who has fewer numbers of votes.
- Failure to of the electors to reflect the national popular voter will and
- Possibility of the Electoral College in disappointing voter turnout.
Supporters of the U.S Electoral College have normally stood to defend it on its logical ground asserting that;
- It brings out the consistency of the nation by ensuring distribution of the popular support to rightfully elected president.
- It also boosts the status of minority interests
- The process also maintains a federal way of government and exceptional representation
- It also contributes to the political stability of the nation by boosting a two-party system.
The U.S Electoral College has played great roles over 50 presidential and vice president elections. It has also been in the forefront to pledging peaceful presidential elections that meet and gratify the needs of the people. The Electoral College has stood as an essential piece of American Federalist democracy for many years and millions Americans treasure it to date. Hence, due to its transparency and consistence in the election process, no one should have any qualms voting for his or her desired candidate.
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Illinois Pension Crisis
Illinois is one of the great states in United States. It is the 5th most densely inhabited state with an extensive and diverse economic base. The dollar gross state product for Illinois by 2010 was estimated to be US$652 billion while the state’s taxpayer burden in 2011 approximately hit US$38,500 mark per taxpayer. On top of this, unemployment rate in the state was estimated at 11.5% as of March 2010 and it has been decreasing with time. Currently, Illinois is going through the worst pension crisis in history. The recent passage of the breakthrough Illinois pension bill implies that the long fight over how to address the massive pension crisis will shift to courts.
There has been a lot of hullabaloo on whether the Illinois pension issue is a crisis that demands nation attention or not. Many leaders within the state have controverted their statements many times on the issue. The pension crises that have been facing Illinois have not only impacted state operations, but also have threatened education, public safety, social services and any other area of the public interest. Like many other states in Unites States, the ratio of workers to pensioners has been declining on daily basis.
With many public servants anticipating for retirement security, there have been differences on whether to abide to the Illinois pension systems. If proper reforms are not decreed, many retirees will lose or have their pensions deducted. These taxpayers will be pushed into huge bailout and the youngsters in such for better jobs might not pension at all. With a bill being tabled by the Illinois senate, it is wise to keep a number of things about the Illinois pension crisis in mind. They include;
- The Illinois pension crisis is a vast burden to the taxpayers as they are on the nail for more than $203 billion in local pension and state deficit. This means that, every household has a deficit of $42,000.
- The structure of the Illinois pension system can be blamed for the catastrophes. Most of the residents unfunded liabilities are due disaster of defined benefit plans.
- More than 63% of current Illinois state pensioners retired before the age of 60 years, a decade before those in the private sector.
- The current pension bill will not save the day and common citizens as it will do more harm than the anticipated benefits. This is because the bill will only reduce Illinois pension deficit to 2011 levels. The bill also lets state workers to retire in their late 50s and enjoy full benefits that come with their retirement package. On top of this, the pension bill also reduces state work contributions, placing larger burden on the taxpayers.
- The average Illinois state retiree contributes only 6% of what they will receive in his or her pension payouts. This means that, many workers contribute less and expect to earn more when their retirement benefits are due.
Illinois is facing the worst pension crisis in United States. Pension reform bills have been passed, but many have been a step backward for the state. For Illinois to overcome this pension crisis, real reforms that will move the state away from defined benefits and in relation to worker-controlled retirements need to be ratified and save the state from indebtedness.
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Strand Binding Protein
Single strand binding protein can simply be defined as protein that binds to single-stranded DNA. This Process usually takes place near the replication fork for stabilization of the single strands. The SSB protein fights towards protecting the single stranded DNA from being consumed by the nucleases through the process of digestion. Besides, it also eliminates the secondary structure from the DNA so that other enzymes are able to effectively operate upon it.
Single stranded DNA can always be produced in every aspect of DNA metabolism. Such aspects include replication, repair and recombination. Single strand binding proteins are joined to numerous proteins that are involved in all processes of DNA metabolism. Besides, they are also very active in the modulation of these proteins. It should be noted that single strand binding proteins do not bind quite well to double stranded DNA.
DNA is usually stable when it is within a double helix under physiological conditions. However, this can only remain so if the complementary strands of DNA are in a similar location. After the double helix is separated by the enzyme helicase into single strands of DNA, there are higher chances that they try to re-construct the double helix. However, they need to be prevented from pursuing that course. The work of single strand binding protein is to ensure that these post-replication fork single strands of DNA do not regroup.
Single strand binding proteins are present in humans as well as bacteria and viruses. The only organisms that have not been found to contain the SSB proteins are Thermoproteales. The most ideal characterized single strand binding protein is obtained from bacteria known as E.coli. In this case, the SSB protein occupies a large number of DNA bases with regards to various factors. One of the main factors that play a role in this procedure is salt concentration.
DNA that has been changed from a double stranded form to a single stranded form can be said to have undergone denaturing. The objective of single strand binding protein is to prevent the denatured DNA from renaturing. It positions itself between two DNA strands that are undergoing replication or an individual one that is undergoing a similar process. However, emphasis is mainly placed on the latter.
A single strand binding protein ensures that even if it takes a long duration of time, renaturing of DNA does not take place. With this, there is no chance that replication of DNA shall take place. After this process, the work of the single strand binding protein is done and it is not needed anymore.
When studying single strand binding protein, it is important to also note that it binds to single stranded DNA in two different ways, limited and unlimited. Under limited, the protein clusters are only tied to the formation of dimmers of tetramers due to the interaction of four single strand binding subunits with single strand DNA. Under unlimited, there are chances of formation of long clusters of protein since they interact with one another on either sides of the protein that they are bound to.
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Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein refers to proteins that are secreted in vertebrates and have the affinity for binding to IGF-1. These proteins have high affinity for binding IGFs and they modulate the IGFs’ biological actions.
There are six different sub-groups of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins that range from IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6. Their categorization is based on gene organization, IGFs binding affinity and structural similarity.
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein is simply called IGFBP and it acts as an insulin-like growth factor I carrier protein. About 98 percent of insulin growth factor 1 is bound to one of the six binding proteins. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 is found in the body in high amounts and it accounts for 80 percent of IGF binding.
The molar ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 is 1:1. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein also binds to the IGF-1 in the liver. This allows the growth hormone to act on the liver so that it can produce IGF-1 continuously. IGFBPs also have inhibitor domain homologues. These are related to the family of MEROPS protease inhibitors, clan IX and equistatin.
The domain architecture of all insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins is the same. These proteins are molecules that are unusually pleiotropic. Just like the other binding proteins, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein can prolong IGFs’ half-life through their high affinity for ligands’ binding. IGFBPs share a 50 percent homology with one another. The order for their binding affinity for IGF-II and IGF-I is the same in terms of magnitude and ligands’ affinity for IGF-IR.
Individual insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins can act in a way that attenuates or enhances their similarities. However, there are cases when they exhibit different characteristics such as chromosomal location, site for RGD recognition, heparin binding domains, phosphorylation differences and glycosylation among others. Interaction of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein with the membranes of cellular basement can be affected by some of these differences.
Apart from functioning as protein carrier, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in serum form can regulate the actions of paracrine/autocrine and endocrine actions of IGF. They do this by modulating the availability of IGF to bind onto the signaling receptors of IGF-1.
Additionally, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein can act as a growth modulator without depending on IGFs. For instance, IGFBP-5 stimulates bone makers in the osteoblasts that lack functional IGFs. IGFBP binding to putative receptor on a cell membrane can also stimulate pathway signaling that is independent of the IGF receptor. This mediates IGFBPs’ effects on specific types of cells.
IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-1 have characteristics that enable them to stimulate the migration of CHO cell as well as human trophoblast cell via an alpha-5-beta 1 integrin-mediated action. Finally, when IGFBPs are transported into a nucleus through a nuclear localization signal they can exert effects that are independent of IGF via a genes’ transcriptional activation. Several studies have confirmed the ability of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein to influence cell growth both independently and by depending on IGFs.
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