Chandra Bahadur Dangi
A lot of incredible information is available in the Guinness Book of World Records. This is a reference book published annually, containing a collection of world records. This includes both human achievements and the extremes of natural world. One of the interesting extremes of nature is the case of Chandra Bahadur Dangi. Dangi is the shortest man in the world and he measures 1.ft 9 inch [0.546 m].
A doctor and a Guinness official measured Dangi to confirm that he is actually the smallest person in the world. He had travelled from Kathmandu in order to be measured by the officials and this marked the first time he had travelled away from his home village. Chandra Bahadur Dangi lives with his nephews in a remote village of Nepal.
He broke a record that was held by Gul Mohammed [1957-1997] the then shortest adult who stood at 1 ft. 10 inch [0.57 m]. He also takes the record of the shortest man in the world from Junrey Balawing of the Philippines who is 23.5 inches [60 centimeters]. Dangi came into the news highlight of the local media when a wood contractor saw him in his Nepal village.
He lives in the isolated Nepalese village of Reemkholi in Dang district. The village has 200 homes, no television and a few solar panels that provide the online electricity. Dangi is looked after by his immediate older brother and his family. He is the seventh sibling and three of his brothers were less than four feet tall, whereas his two sisters and two brothers are of an average height.
Chandra Bahadur Dangi was born on November 30, 1939 and he is a primordial dwarf. This is a form of dwarfism that results in a smaller body size in all stages of life starting from birth. Despite his age, Chandra Bahadur Dangi claims that he has never taken any kind of medication. In addition, he says that he has never been examined by a doctor. He has a normal sized head and regularly shaves, but his body is abnormally small. Moreover, he can walks and climb small stairs. On daily meals, Dangi eats mainly rice and vegetable and occasionally meat and in small portions.
Dangi managed to escape being discovered and his condition exposed for more than 70 years before Guinness found him in the remote areas of Nepal on the Nepalese mountain village of Rhimkholi. According to Guinness, and he spends most of his time making placemats and head straps for villagers. He also helps look cows and buffalos in his village.
After his worldwide recognition, Chandra Bahadur Dangi has been able to travel across Nepal and to foreign countries. He said that he does not want to get married or have his own children. In 2012, Chandra Bahadur Dangi met the world shortest woman, Jyoti Amge of Nagpur, India. In 2013, Dangi and Jyoti posed together for the 57th edition of the Guinness World Records. Chandra Bahadur Dangi is happy to be recognized in the book of records, and hopes good things will come his way and family.
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Factors Affecting the Automotive Industry in Japan
The automotive industry in Japan enjoyed spectacular success in the 1980s mainly as a result of the ‘lean production system’ applied in the sector. Lean production system can be simply defined as a combination of effective supply system, efficient production system and a product development system. The success of the industry was faced with a downturn in the 1990s due to the Japanese asset price bubble and the appreciation of the currency to the extremes. However, the industry has been able to survive through the hard times and is not currently doing so bad on the global grid. In fact, the Japanese automotive industry is now one of the largest in the world.
Over the years, Japanese automotive industry had been doing so well but a major tragedy that almost brought down the sector struck in the 1990s. The country’s economic bubble burst and became stagnant. This hampered operations in the industry owing to the fact that it had by that time become one of the main contributors. The trough of recession dragged back the automotive industry into a position that production had to be cut down.
The recession that hit Japan almost twenty years ago hit one of the largest car manufacturers in the world Toyota, that has its base in Japan. It made the management of automobile manufacturing operations difficult and the industry had to struggle getting back to its feet. In order to counter this, the industry best player; Toyota was forced to transfer its operations to overseas countries after entering into a joint venture with General Motors. Despite the country’s growing contraction in the automotive industry, the transfer of the corporation’s lean production system to overseas plants has enabled it to brace the hard economic times.
Internalization is a strategy that almost all Japanese car manufacturers adopted in order to counter the economic bubble. However, it has had great impacts on the country’s automotive industry considering that currently, the number of vehicles that are manufactured by Japanese assembles in overseas plants has exceeded that produced at home. Even though internalization has been widely viewed by many as killing the automotive industry in Japan, it has played a role in ensuring that Japanese car manufacturers do not run out of business. It has enabled the car manufacturers to stay afloat amidst the scorching heat of inflation that continues to hurt the country.
In 2011, the Japanese automotive industry was faced yet with another crisis that significantly cut the manufacturers’ profit margins to levels that had never been experienced before. This crisis resulted from the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan thereby disrupting the operations of the country’s largest chip makers. Besides, the earthquake also destroyed some of the plants of car manufacturers. However, the impact on the chip maker hit the motor industry with a bang since every car manufacturer depends on the custom-made chips in assembling their automobiles. This kept the production levels at less than 50% for quite a long time, hurting the Japan automotive industry as a whole.
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Environmental Degradation on Cultural Heritage
Environmental degradation has impacted different aspects of life in major ways. It has not only impacted agricultural, industrial and pastoral purposes but cultural heritage as well. There are numerous and main risk factors that affect the cultural heritage of any country and these include numerous anthropogenic and natural environmental factors.
Others such as landslides, earthquakes, rising water levels, smog formation in cities, pollution of streams, soil degradation, poor drainage systems, pollution of basins, lakes and lack of or poor drainage systems lead to destruction of historical, archeological and cultural heritage. The impact that is most destructive is often caused by natural catastrophes like earthquakes. Armenia is one such country that has lost great cultural heritage as a result of environmental degradation.
There are several graphic images and bibliographic notes that prove this. For instance, part of Ani City fell in 1064 during the 1319 earthquake and the Ani dome cathedral also collapsed. The 1679 earthquake was one of the most destructive events as it lead to the destruction of the major cathedral in Garni, several churches in Kanaker, Yerevan, Gokhtan village, the Ararat valley and Nork as well as cathedral in Abbey of Gayane, churches of St Hripsime and the cathedral in Echniadzin.
Salinity also affects the cultural significance of the Aboriginal culture. It has also impacted their contemporary expression of culture. Salinity has also played a major role in contributing towards species decline that are valued such as medicines, totems and wild foods. Salinity has damaged and in other cases destroyed archeological sites like carved and scarred trees, some burial sites as well as historical sites.
There are several heritage monuments, gardens and buildings that are at salinity risk. This is because as the water rises and gets into contact with the buildings they are damaged. When water evaporates, salt crystallizes and this leaves the masonry under immense stress and causes it to ‘spall’ then collapse damaging buildings that are of great cultural significance.
Yet, most of these buildings, traditional places and infrastructure cannot be replaced or repaired thus, leaving cultural heritage of the people completely destroyed. Cultural heritage is an extremely important element of the identity and history of our societies as such, it is important to ensure they are not negatively impacted by environmental degradation.
Europe is also known to have a cultural heritage that is rich and extraordinary. This includes unique values that were left behind by ancient civilizations in the Mediterranean basin and other regions. With use of proper intelligence, creativity and knowledge, it is possible to reduce or eliminate the further damage to the cultural heritage.
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Effects of Environmental Degradation on Human Life
Environmental degradation is described as deterioration of environment through depletion of natural resources like soil, water and air. It also refers to eco system destruction as well as distinction of wildlife. Environmental degradation has serious effects on human life some of which often go unnoticed for years.
There are several factors which contribute to environmental degradation which in turn affects human life such as a noisy environment, temperature, atmosphere and air. Breathing air that is polluted for instance poses numerous health complications that affect the quality of life and leave individuals at a high risk of suffering from other kinds of illness.
The huge burden of disease that is been seen today is largely as a result of environmental degradation. At least ninety to twenty five percent of diseases reported in most developing nations are as a result of environmental degradation and it is estimated that child mortality in such regions is close to 43% due to poor conditions.
Precisely for this reason, degradation exerts immense pressure on human health when people get exposed to water, soil and air pollution as well as chemicals which are released into the environment and noise. Respiratory, cancer, communicable and cardiovascular diseases are some of the illnesses that are often caused by environmental degradation. Other diseases include neuro-psychiatric disorders and poisoning.
The most obvious environmental pollution risk to the health of millions of people across the globe is air pollution. It contributes to different types of illnesses like asthma and more often than cause, it causes premature deaths. Of great concern is the fact that children are placed at a great risk than adults leading to high infant mortality rate. Concerns about the effects of environmental degradation on human life has also led t o numerous measures been taken to mitigate emission of pollutant gases and other factors that contribute to environmental degradation.
The greenhouse effect is one that is still been investigated and studied. It is often as a result of fossil fuels which are burnt then they release greenhouse gases into the environment. The gases don’t have the capability to dissipate and as such, they remain trapped in the atmosphere and absorb heat from the sun and this in-adversely affects those people who store wood in their homes as they risk the possibility of starting a fire once it reaches flash point.
Also, environmental degradation leads to soil erosion and this poses a serious threat to food production. As such, people are unable to access the resources needed in order to ensure they live comfortable lives and enjoy health food.
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Effects of Environmental Degradation on Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal is known as one of the best monuments in India but reports from the Indian government reveal it is under great threat as a result of pollution. India’s National Environment Engineering Research Institute compiled the report and shows the measures taken after reports that the tomb, which dates back to the 17th century was irreparably been damaged due to pollution were failing.
The Taj Mahal is not only part of the 7 Wonders of the World but it is only seen as a major symbol of love across the globe. Its beauty is breathtaking though pollution of slowly taking its breath away. There are several steps which have been taken to protect it though most of them have failed to maintain the beauty of the monument.
Every year, Taj Mahal’s beauty is vanishing as a result of environmental degradation. The major threats it faces include excessive tourism, pollution, rising Yamuna threat and toxins that come from factories. The pollution which comes from industries and vehicles is steadily turning Taj Mahal yellow and this is regardless of the efforts made by the government to control pollution.
The largest effect is that of airborne particles which get deposited on the monuments white marble thus giving it a yellow touch. Annually, the Taj attracts two to four million people with over 2,000,000 people coming from abroad. Majority of the tourists prefer to visit the attraction during the cool months of February, October and November. Most of them thro trash in the surrounding area and this also serves to destroy the beauty and appeal of the Mahal.
The Mathura oil refinery which is located twenty five miles from the Mahal releases high levels of toxins which further place the attraction at great danger. The refinery is known to produce pollution emissions like nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide and the gases react with one another further adding fuel to fire by damaging the monument even further.
The white marble dome monument was built in 1632 to 1654 by the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan for Mumtaz Mahal, his favorite wife. It houses a mosque, their graves and other graves for Mogul Royalty of lower classes. There are several measures which have been taken to cut back the effects pollution has on the monument.
For instance, buses and cars are not allowed anywhere close to the monument but rather, they are parked 1 ½ miles from it. Visitors are only allowed to get close to the Taj by using horse driven carriages or buses that are battery run.
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Recruitment and Compensation
All industrial processes depend on employees’ hiked participation, proper relationships among the managers, clients, employees and financiers combined with good compensation (Mathews, 2008, p. 133). A business culture that is aligned to the objectives of the organization of achieving improved levels of output recognizes that compensation and recruitment are among the factors that contribute towards increased competition and industrial expansion. In most instances, HR team works relentlessly to provide the best terms for the employees in the organization while keeping the recruitment costs low.
Similarly, manager of the organization and the HR have to incorporate the processes of ensuring that employees get fair compensation for their good work. Simply put, compensation and recruitment are the functions of the organization that are outlined as the cultural practices of the organization and managers as well as the HR department of an organization must implement them for production processes to be successful (Simone, 2009, p. 105).
Investigation of the effort that is put in the processes of recruitment combined with the incurred cost and employees’ compensation in various industrial growth sectors is important. Additionally, one can be interested in comprehending the employees’ compensation rationale as well as the extent of the influence of the process on the performance level in certain institutions (United States, 1990, p. 65). There are several criticism and limiting factors regarding how a HR team determines the personnel that is fit for the office positions, levels and forms of compensation that are necessary in order to motivate the employees. These factors are all vital in generalizing growth in the industrial sector in relation to improvement of performance levels of the employees. As such, recruitment of employees and compensation are some of the factors that remain the major concepts that determine the future organizational prospects.
Sometimes back, practitioners in the human resource or the recruitment specialists were considered as the only managers whose only responsibilities included the executive and recruitment functions. There were times when the managers would use newspapers, employees’ referrals and employment agencies in finding appropriate employees to fill the positions that were unfilled at the workplace. At such times, employees’ resignation was not acceptable by managers and when this happened, exit interviews were conducted. Exit interviews enabled the managers to determine why the employees resigned. Historical organizational weakness would be determined so that managers could establish strategies for ensuring that employees were accorded the best treatment in order to prevent future resignations.
Currently and in the future, employment programs’ projections run on platforms that aim at attracting more qualified workers. The current process of recruitment appears to reject the reactive employees. Workers who want to learn as well as those ready to operate under the organizational provisions are given an opportunity. The idea is that employment agencies for some time have been working towards taking control of employment practices and these have replicated to form systematic discrimination. Managers have been through transformation processes. Today, there is a recruitment process whose nature is non-discriminatory, creative and pro-active. The techniques that the recruitment process employs entail more genuine and realistic advertisement means such as Cyberspace job and job vans that are mobile. This recruitment involves high costs and therefore the recruitment and HR departments ought to focus past the recruitments and instead consider creating an environment that enhances retention.
Examples of retention environments are the aspects of motivating employees which include compensation via good remuneration in order to satisfy employees so that they can have less inclination towards resignation from vital roles or complete resignation (Rostker, Hix, Wilson & Rand Gulf States Policy Institute, 2007, p. 155). The thematic recruitment policies application as well as individual levels of participation relates to strategic plans of an organization to increase return levels. As such, management issues have changed over time to pave way for effective and rationale managerial practices. In some cases, managers attempt to link the employees’ performed work with the cultural requirements of the organization. The use of this measure places an organization at a high peak in the provision of better ethical practices and this enhances good relationships among the employees and the managers.
During recruitment, common practices involve giving every applicant an opportunity. This implies reviewing every application that is received without any application being left out. There are several occasions when prior decisions tend to be made by the managers via the HR department regarding the applications’ number that should be given attention while others are unattended to. Due to this practice, mistrust has emerged in the industrial area when it comes to employment. There are few individuals responsible for the employment process and these prioritize their relatives while denying other, qualified workers an opportunity to take part in the production processes as per their drive (Thatcher, National Research Council, Transit Cooperative Research Program, United State & Transit Development Corporation, 2010, p. 132). Once the applications have been reviewed, hiring employees due to their talent rather than experience becomes necessary. This is mainly because when talented employees are eliminated on the basis of their lack of experience an organization is hindered from acquiring innovative expertise and skills. Involvement in the processes of a company on regular basis is what leads to experience acquisition. This is something that someone can become if granted the opportunity to eventually become a talent and experience combination’s replica.
As mentioned, managers have to ensure that compensation processes use the best practices. Consultant and independent compensation board’s creation becomes necessary because this body can ensure that the processes of setting pay are accurate. Past studies have shown that an independent body for regulating salary enhances the confidence of the employees because the presented pay scheme is not produced from compulsion or favor but on the evaluation processes. According to scholars, top officials within firms with Independent Compensation Boards get higher pay while essentially the maximum received pay is merited and accounted for entirely. According to the current version, common practices when it comes to compensation ought to include the necessary disclosure elements, must offer equivalent bonus for banking to employees and they must also give the health of individuals priority. These are practices that are within the organization control and without them the level of employees’ performance would show a significant reduction.
Misconception and Shortcomings
Misconceptions that relate to compensation and recruitment are that giving good remuneration benefits the employees only without being linked to the overall organizational growth (Arthur, 2001, p. 62). Focusing on the objectives of the organization poorly is a factor that can largely lead to denial of employment right to potential employees and therefore fail the entire operational system of the company.
The entire compensation and recruitment process can be accompanied by several flaws. Allocating cost for the necessary activities, funds misappropriation, urge for discriminating against some employees and biasness, conflicting roles during execution as well as poor activities’ coordination are part of the major challenge (Johnson & Keegan, 2006, p. 126). Apart from recruitment stage requirements, there are similar flaws at compensation stage. These can lead to total organizational failure. The management as a team has a general objective which is to offer a fair recruitment processes platform and ensuring that employed workers represent a fraction of growth processes in general. There are cases where managers can have their personal interest at the time when there are employment opportunities.
In such cases, managers can recruit employees with lower grades while leaving those with better grades in regard to skills that can contribute towards the realization of organizational goals more. Similarly, there are cases where managers compensate employees based on how they are known. In regards to employees’ motivation, the most appropriate strategic plan that should be initiated should consider the part that every individual plays, testing the roles and embracing a model for evaluating performance in order to determine which employee is the best among the existing workers.
Considering the challenges that the employees face at their workplace, managers ought to embrace affirmative action in order to ensure employees’ wellbeing even with the industrial operation’s constraining factors (Campbell, 2013, p. 44). The HR department with much integrity and prominence should inculcate a culture of providing credit where it is deserved without any kind of discredit even when the production of an employee is relatively lower than the required output amounts. The employees’ potential depends on the effort that managers put in form of recognizing their rate of participation as well as providing the right motivational factors (Fuerst & Geiger, 2003, p. 2011).
For effective operations to be realized, development of skills during recruitment and in form of updating employees’ job is necessary. Thus, industrial production is largely dependent on the individual skills that employees exhibit during production and delivery. After considering the process of recruiting employees and factors affecting transparency at the workplace, it is important to recognize the essence of employees’ guidelines in particular business norms and culture (Warne, National Research Council, National Cooperative Highway Research Program & American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2003, p. 35). There are managerial qualities that are important in the plan’s execution. These have to correspond to the objectives of the company.
As such, the HR department has to be evaluative, impartial, uncontrolled and strict as well as goal oriented. There are occasions where the argument to deploy resources of the company during recruitment causes the essence of remaining loyal, truthful and accountable in every execution. This implies that a good HR department should understand the company’s basic needs in relation to the participation of the employees and therefore convert constraining factors in order to ensure progress and wellbeing of a company. Proper allocation of the budget becomes vital in ensuring that managers complete the activities as per the plan. As such, issues about funds sources’ identification, accurate apportionment of cost and timely finances release remain important. Necessary adjustments of the allocated finances should be identified before recruitment in order to allow time for proper maintenance and scheduling of the industrial goals.
According to this discussion, it is apparent that employees’ compensation and recruitment are among the strategies that firms use in creating environments that credit extensive production as well as services delivery. The concentration of labor economic is on the effect that employees have in terms of industrial progress (Ross, Williams & Pavlock, 1998, p. 66). One can argue that the output level of the employees is entirely responsive to hours that they spend contrary to involving themselves in leisure activities extensively at work. Employees’ level of output, time spent on production as well as the general levels of output are among the determining factors of the compensation amount that an employee ought to get at specific production levels.
Simply put, performance levels of the employees are used by the HR department in determining the amount that the employees can get as compensation (Singer & Francisco, 2009, p. 71). With all these factors, the HR department is always sensitive to the employees’ compensation needs and it takes appropriate and prompt actions in ensuring that employees are always committed to different organizational activities. The study has revealed that when compensation programs and recruitment processes are improved, managers can have positive influence on employees so that they can participate in different processes of industrial growth.
As such, recruitment processes ought to always be fair, open and with individual skills as their basis rather than favoritism. To get the best workers, an organization should employ mechanisms that provide an equal platform for every interviewee while responding to the asked questions because this is the only suitable way via which the organization can determine their skills. The given response and how individuals conduct themselves after, during and before the interview should help the organization determine their suitability for the positions (Johnson, Hallgarten & Institute for Public Policy Research, 2002, p. 105). Although the HR department operates within the industrial operations bounds, there are times when initiating personal skills as well as experience becomes compelling in order to obtain, retain, employ and demote employees. If an employee cannot take up the responsibility of the assigned position, demoting them is the best way of preventing a similar emergence among other employees. However, the employees should be accorded proportionate compensation on the basis of the period that he/she has worked for the organization at that position (Dartnell Corporation, Davidson & Swope, 2007, p. 117).
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Arthur, D. (2001). The employee recruitment and retention handbook. New York: AMACOM.
Campbell, A. K. (2013). Improving the recruitment, retention, and utilization of federal scientists and engineers: A report to the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. Washington, DC: National Acad. Press.
Dartnell Corporation., Davidson, W. L., & Swope, G. S. (2007). Foremen’s compensation, recruitment and training. Chicago.
Fuerst, O., & Geiger, U. (2003). From concept to Wall Street. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Johnson, B. A., & Keegan, D. W. (2006). Physician compensation plans: State-of-the-art strategies. Englewood, CO: Medical Group Management Association.
Johnson, M., Hallgarten, J., & Institute for Public Policy Research (London, England). (2002). From victims of change to agents of change: The future of the teaching profession. London: IPPR.
Mathews, K. (2008). Practical guide to hospitalist recruitment & retention. Marblehead, MA: HCPro.
Ross, A., Williams, S. J., & Pavlock, E. J. (1998). Ambulatory care management. Albany: Delmar Publishers.
Should Government Promote Dental Information to Community?
The great changes in the oral health for a number of years reveals the strong science foundation for corrective action of oral diseases that has been caused as well as linked to the society, in clinical exercise and in the households. The dental calling for long duration as any person can recall campaigned for disease as well as health development methods to oral health. The early insights in the 1930s that people staying in groups who were offered fluoridated water had higher levels of dental decays led to the amazing clinical prevention investigations of the 1940s as well as 1950s. Oral health consciousness services offered by dental experts in the surrounding environment can aid enhance dental health issues for households, adults as well as special needs patients (IFDH, 2013). Nevertheless, offering an important fountain of learning, medicine procurement as well as the continuing support of health messages, community health schemes can reveal the goals of the state and other mankind services supporters. The state acts considerably in enhancing oral health of its populaces.
The amazing achievements of the researches hurried up a prevailing seizure of community water fluoridation as great gains, minimal effort precautionary system that benefited older as well as youngsters, rich and poor in the same manner. On top of this, it offered authority to medical experts, scientists, industry as well as open health managers to ponder on diverse kinds of group wide, supplier founded and unique systems that deal with improving oral as well a wide-ranging health. Majority of regular oral illness could be shunned via an assortment of a group, unique as well as adept methodologies.
These methodologies that the state must make use of include sickness appropriation as well as health improvement negotiation restricted within the people, experts and policymakers to guarantee a nature’s domain, lessen threat variables, brief target accumulations as well as improving training and exercises. They were picked on basis of the significance of the health problem they were projected to expect, if concerning commonness, intensity, price, occurrence or effect on individual gratification. The society can enhance their oral health when they are conscious of the actions to be undertaken by the state. The state ought to convey the measures as well as request the society to enact them so as to shun dental illness as a result of fluoridated water.
Given the collection of variables impacting dental advancement as well as improvement, the means to open health schemes directed at shunning life commencement inadequacies depends essentially on health advancement and learning campaigns. Individuals ought to be made aware of recognized threat as well as protective components in dental illness. These schemes might also highlight the importance of great sustenance, avoidance of tobacco as well as liquor use and dental issue. As information from developmental science, epidemiologic, clinical and heredity studies collates, dental consideration suppliers are in a good position to offer commands. People generally are well suited by health development as well as illness prevention fights that deliver findings on threat as well as protective components in pregnancy. Lack of data can impact peoples’ health in the community. In the occasion that individuals are not well-versed with importance as well as consideration of their adolescents’ important teeth or when they have no idea that dental sealants exist, they are impractical to make fine move or search for professional directions. It is the function of health care sector being controlled by the state to make sure the society is conscious of the presence of dental complications.
As it turned out that the widespread community is not aware of the gains of society water fluoridation, open votes and subsidizing for these interventions are not likely to be supported. On top of this, in case individuals have no knowledge that an oral tumor test exist, they may fail to focus on its importance. Nevertheless, it is universally safe that data alone will not hurry up suitable exercises. A good example is despite the verity that individuals understand that tobacco use is detrimental as well as it aids a number of life-threatening complications, a number of them cannot quite smoking. The leading number of people who need these data, majority are those earning low income and those with huge scopes of commands are those who do not provide information and expertise (oral health ability) to ask and acquire certain protective administration or treatment options. Medical professions are in a great position to offer the best health information and forethought on their patients. They similarly have an opportunity to enhance their data as well as exercise in addition to creating their correspondence to patients on the systems they offer and the clarifications behind these methods. Majority of the people paying attention to socioeconomic scope agree that the best tactic to get rid of dental decays is by cleaning their teeth (Gift et al. 1994).
A comprehensive look at the value of fluorides by general people in preventing dental caries on top of this was seen in year 1985 NHIS (Corbin et al. 1985). In a summary of data and verdicts of people at large, dental experts, and dental scientists on the most perfect tactic to prevent dental caries is via tooth cleaning, whilst dental analysts consistently amassed fluorides, as most essential. A small research around Latina mothers confirmed that they recognized that cleaning with preparing pop is a great tactic to prevent dental caries; they knew nothing about cleaning teeth with a fluoride-holding dentifrice (Watson et al. 1999).
A research on the oral hygiene exercise of an accommodation sample of 34,897 customers and non-users of tobacco items who got dental awareness in 75 exercises, 74% accounted brushing twice a day as well as 36% accounted flossing each day (Andrews 1998). Tobacco customers clean and flossed significantly less as regularly as possible than those who are non-smokers. Patients with more than a secondary school training were less supportive to tobacco commodities as well as more supported cleaning teeth no less than two times each day and floss daily than those with no lessons.
A small sum of countrywide studies of open as well as professional training, state of mind as well as exercises are evident. Important points from these, governments and surroundings considers that evaluated hatred of dental caries, oral malignancies as well as periodontal illnesses are offered below. For most part, people at large are not able to separate between systems that shun dental caries and those that prevent periodontal maladies (Gift et al. 1994). This confusion has been due to the predominant advertising content that refers to them a “plaque ailments” avertable by extensive tooth brushing with a toothbrush and floss. On top of this, the general populace as well as medicinal services providers are not fully trained on the comparative price of fluoride and the perfect suggested requisitions of regimens to prevent dental decays (Gallup 1992). Extra efforts are necessary to improve data and exercises recognized with oral tumor evasion. The same way as with diverse areas of testing, extensive research is necessary to understand as well as to enhance custom-made interventions.
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Corbin B, Maas W, Kleinman D, Backinger CL. 1985. NHIS findings on public knowledge and attitudes about oral diseases and preventive measures. Public Health Rep ;102:53-60.
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Watson M, Horowitz A, Garcia I, Canto T. 1999. Caries conditions among 2-5 year old immigrant Latino children related to parents’ oral health knowledge, opinions and practices. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol;27:8-15.
Analysis of Kent Monkman’s Performance and Visual Art Interventions
As an artist who believes in retelling history as opposed to blaming the colonizers, Monkman is an artist who uses specific personas in his paintings in the attempt to retell the native’s own version of events. There has been a gross misrepresentation of the native culture and identity by certain popular artists, who could have used the pedestal or platform of their art to tell the actual story, but instead used their positions for self-grandeur. Christianity perceived the native cultural practices as either laughable of deviant hence suppressed them. Consequently, the natives themselves began to deny their own culture and suppress themselves.
Monkman’s arguments are mainly based on the sexuality of the Natives, and how the colonialists portrayed them as being ‘on the brink of extinction’, as well as the contributions of colonialism to the long-held perception of the native Indian by the white community. The artist attacks the works of two famous painters in which they portray Canada as being an uninhabited land, an element that grossly undermines the very existence of the Native Indians. According to him, even though Caitlin through his works might have sounded the death knell for the Native Indians race, a renaissance is possible if only the natives retell their stories.
The artist further argues that the native Indian was grossly misrepresented and he uses a rather surreal method, packaged in the form of a ‘two spirited’ character to clearly illustrate this notion. With works that combine humor and irony, Monkman challenges established artists like Catlin. The artist immerses himself in his art by inventing a character who has a conflicting gender in order to portray his mixed heritage and the revered ‘two spirited men’ of the native Indians’ culture. The essay further argues that the white colonialists dominated over the Native Indians.
As a concept, sexuality is given much weight in Monkman’s works and through his pieces of art, he addresses the sexuality of the natives. The ‘two spirited man’ can be perceived as a depiction of a suppressed side of the natives’ sexuality. Even though the majority of the native tribes commonly practiced homosexuality, they had to suppress this with the advent of Colonialism and Christianity, as these institutions considered non-heterosexual sexual relations as deviant. While he depicts the whites as simply dressed in the loin cloths, Monkman portrays Share as a sexually charged character.
The theme of misrepresentation is recurrent in Monkman’s arguments because it is central to his work and beliefs. Despite the fact that George Catlin and Albert Bierdstadt believe that they are the sole artists who have the opportunity to record the native people’s accounts and the verge of their extinction, they misuse their opportunity and portray the natives as “doomed savages” belonging to dying tribes.
Monkman must have intended to spearhead renaissance when he created the character of Share. Whilst her name is a depiction of the sexual undertones that she must carry with her everywhere she goes, her domination of the white man is apparent and her outfit boasts of the latest brands in the fashion industry. Share does not suppress her sexuality and a clear indication of the Renaissance in Monkman;s works are depicted through the physical incarnation of Share’s Testickles and the use of light.
Reflections on the contribution of the article to sexuality studies
Since Share uses both sides to dominate, s/he is the perfect blend of hyper-femininity and masculine authority. This is the portrayal of sexuality as an instrument that can be used in domination and Foucault states that sexuality can be used as atool that can offer a lot of maneuversas well as a launchpad for diverse strategies. Yet Monkman uses this tool is used to right the wrongs of imperial machinations and and the same time invent a new identity for the native Indians, ultimately creating a platform through which they can reinvent themselves. He does this by reinventing the status of Two-Spirited people (Swanson, 2005.Pp 9).
Studies on sexuality can use Monkman’s pieces of art as a tool to decolonize and demystify Native sexuality especially considering that the current perceptions of Native Indians and their sexuality are mere constructs of imperialists and a wrongful depiction of them.
The Two-Spirit, is an embodiment of the male and female spirit hosted in one body and advocates for the acknowledgement of sexual orientations besides heterosexuality.The Native gay community has embraced the term “Two Spirit” and popularized it because it has brought a level of acceptance of this group even among heterosexuals.
The works are evidence of the infusion of sexuality and identity. As such, by suppressing the sexuality of the natives and therefore resulted in the loss of identity of the Native Indian communities. Christian imperialists quickly suppressed the diverse sexual practices of the Native people the repercussions of such suppression are clear. Due to the denial of the existence of homosexuality existed amongst the diverse native tribes that interacted with the white Christian cultures, anthropologists were unable to record this diversity as they feared severe punishment (Swanson, 2005, pp 11).
Therefore, Monkman’s art also offer lessons on the Renaissance of native sexuality. In his art pieces, Monkman uses light to convey the message of re-emergence of the Natives identity through their sexuality.
Looking at Monkman’s works, it seems that he was fighting conflicting natures within himself, even as he tried to retell the story of the native Indian. This is depicted when he plays the role of the imperialist on one hand, while his alter-ego, which he controls, is the depiction of a strong and confident native who makes the white colonialists bid to her whims. Despite this, he displays the native as clad in Louis Vuitton and Hudson Bay accessories and therefore this can be perceived as a deliberate alteration, that executes exactly what Monkman intended to fight- the misrepresentation of the native Indian.
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Swanson,Kerry.The Noble Savage Was a Drag Queen: Hybridity and Transformation in Kent Monkman’s Performance and Visual Art Interventions. E-misferica 2.2 (2005) Available online at http://hemi.nyu.edu/journal/2_2/swanson.html
Bleeding can have serious impacts on the victims and many paramedics, regard controlling bleeding as an important practice in their daily lives. There are diverse methods of controlling bleeding in patients within the pre-hospital settings. This is done to avoid endangering the lives of the patients. In Keeping it Under Control by Timothy Perkins (1), there are certain methods that have been in use for sometimes that are deemed more problematic and endangering hence can no longer be adopted. In his article, he advises against the use of methods such as tourniquets because of the adverse problems it causes to people. Instead, Timothy Perkins goes further offer alternative methods that are efficient in controlling excessive bleeding such as the use of hemostatic agent and compression bandages that have been used for many years now during military operations. This article is aimed at informing and convincing paramedics to adopt such bleeding control methods which do not cause serious problems to the victims. The article by Perkins provides an important analysis that evaluates varied methods and suggests the best modern methods that are safe.
To achieve his goal, Perkins employs a number of appeals in his article and one of the key aspects is ethos. In the article, the author introduces himself as a learned professional who is highly knowledgeable in the field, and he does this by writing his name exactly after the title of the article as Timothy J. Perkins BS, EMT-P. The initials at the end of his name can appeal to the readers hence preparing them psychologically for the academic article. His article is started in a professional and academic manner, and states some of the scientific facts about controlling of excessive bleeding. Throughout the article, he maintains a professional tone with an academic angle that entails citing certain sources of information which are used in the article. It is such aspects of the article that create credibility among the readers concerning the author.
The article also shows the aspect of appeal to pathos and this mostly appeals to the medical audience. For Timothy Perkins, doctors, nurses and other health care givers are the most suitable audience for his article. Nevertheless, paramedics would find the article extremely useful given that they deal with many bleeding cases before rushing victims to hospitals. The article points out certain techniques that are useful to help in stopping bleeding immediately after incidents or accidents, especially because of the dangers posed by excessive bleeding that can even lead to loss of lives.
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Perkins, Timothy. Keeping It Under Control. emsworld.com. 2007. Web. January 28, 2014
UBC Writing Centre.The University of British Columbia. 7 May 2007. Web. January 28, 2014
Wal-Mart Strategic Competitiveness
Wal-Mart is one of the amazing success stories in the history of the world. The company found by Sam Walton in 1962 started as a mini discount shop in Arkansas. Since its inception, it has grown to be the global largest corporation. It appears almost unbelievable that the organization has grown to be the second largest organization in less than sixty years.
Almost one third of the country’s population shops at Wal-Mart on weekly basis (William, 2010). Additionally, up to 93 percent of households in the US visit the store at least once a year. In the financial year ending 31st 2006, the slogan for the company ‘’every day low prices’’ made about $354billion in more than 500 hundred facilities in more than 15 nations and with more than 1.4 million staff members.
Wal Mart stores in the USA generate about 8.8 percent of all retail sales (William, 2010). It was also profitable and in 2009, it earned 14.7 percent of invested capital return (Hitt & Hoskinson, 2013). It was as a result ranked top of its competitors Target and Costro with 10 percent and 9.4 percent respectively. Currently, the company has more than 3900 stores in the US alone and has since been considered the national commons.
This paper will therefore evaluate the role of technology and globalization changes in competitiveness in regards to Wal-Mart, and how the company’s vision and mission statements have affected its overall growth.
Vision and Mission Statements
The most significant feature of the strategic management process according to Hitt and Hoskisson (2013) is to design a company’s mission statement. This should provide a background within which the formulation of objectives will take place. A mission statement defines the organization’s reason for existence clearly where the company hopes to be in the future is known as vision and the major goals are the key values of an organization’s statements.
In the USA, the success strategy for the company is based on the sale of branded products at an affordable price. The store grew rapidly by reducing its prices compared to local retailers and as a result, keeping them off business easily (William, 2010). This is why the company has managed to do exceptionally well in a retail industry characterized with cut throat competition.
“If a company’s strategy results in superior performance, it is said to have a competitive advantage”. Wal-Mart has rapidly enhanced competition based on establishing new knowledge while creating the first, mover benefit, price and quality positioning as well as competition to help protect and invade markets that are geographically established. This has enabled the company to enjoy superior performance from 1994 to the present despite growth of new rivals.
The store has additionally achieved a cutting edge over its competitors (Hitt & Hoskisson, 2013). Its higher profitability replicates an economic advantage that depends on successful implementation of different strategies. The company was also among the top first movers to employ the self-service strategy created by grocery stores to common merchandise.
The company is also focused on suburban locations and southern towns that are often ignored by its competitors including Target and Kmart. Even so, the industry in which a company competes has a major influence on its performance compared to internal forces of management. The components of the industry may include various factors such as economies of scale, diversification and differentiation of production among others.
The external environment in which Wal-Mart operates imposes constraints and pressures that govern strategies leading in average returns above. Therefore, a company will create and develop internal skills needed by external environment to point out what a company can make of existing opportunities.
Technology is one of the most crucial elements of competitive advantage. The ability to effectively and efficiently access and utilize IT has been considered an essential resource of economic advantage (Tsui, 2012). IT includes virtual reality, PCs, massive databases, electronic network, artificial intelligence, online business and cellular phones.
The success story of the Wal-Mart is therefore not restricted to its location strategy. The company is an innovator driver in information systems and logistics. It paved way for retailers in the US in the creation and application of high quality goods tracking system that utilized a bar code technology as well as checkout scanners. The company through the technology was in a position to keep track of sales and make necessary adjustments to its stores accordingly to match the found in store products with the demand of locals.
This made it possible to prevent any unnecessary stoking and as a result, not holding any periodic sales to shift unsold inventory. Later on, the company connected the information system to a state distribution network facility where the inventory was kept before shipping other products within a radius of 300 miles.
The inclusion of information and distribution centers also led to a reduced number of inventories that the company held in stores thus, devoting more time to selling of space, which also reduces the capital it held in its inventory over time. the company also influenced its suppliers to have an electronic network in its stores to cut down on geographical distance between them, store information on daily sales, expenses, profits and loses gathered, evaluated and processed electronically on real time basis.
On the other hand, IT development has been a major driving force behind globalization and that it has since been considered the focal constituent of a company’s global business strategy. It has also been embedded in almost every field including economic government, business or social fields.
Globalization has also affected the way in which the world operates. According to Hitt and Hoskisson (2013), it is “the intensification of global interconnectedness, suggesting a world full of movement and mixture, contact and linkage, and persistent cultural interaction and exchange”. Today, different markets have gone global thus evaluating the environmental situations in the industry would also mean evaluation the effect of globalization on completion in a given industry.
Even so, according to Tsui (2012), globalization is a process of enhancing flow of capital, humans, products, images and idea across the globe. Wal Mart- has transformed from small scale retail business to a global company at an impressively increasing rate. It has more than 4000 operational stores in the US and more than 1, 6000 facilities in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Germany, China, Korea, Argentina and the UK.
Additionally, the company has embraced the global supply chain integration that is monitored by multinational producers as well as distributors. Even so, globalization has led to growth of competition amongst companies. Trade is taking place across nation’s leading to importation of products from all global corners. This has also forced the store to keep up with new trends and changes to maintain an edge in the market.
Its growth has also been seen by others to have long term benefits. The company is too be and could experience profitable growth limits (William, 2010). Wal-Mart is also a target of law suit constantly and many staff members across the globe have various lawsuits claiming that the company’s culture segregates against them.
Globalization is a strategy of spreading out the political, social, cultural and economic practices across frontiers. It has brought about time-space compression. The change between different moments and space between localities are reduced and shortened. The company recognized this opportunity and planned on global markets. Additionally, it has firsthand facts on information systems, logistics and human resource practices. These strategies when combined together had led to enhanced productivity and reduced costs compared to any other competitor.
This also helped the company to generate high levels of profit while trading at low prices. This analysis further reveals that a company can move from production facilities to another country to expand into developing markets aggressively.
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Hitt, M. A., &Hoskisson, R. E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness &
Globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Tsui, E. (2012). Technology in Knowledge Management. Bradford, England: Emerald Group
William, F. A. (2010). Center of Global Leadership: Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. Norwood, N.J: Ablex
Inventing a Business: Richmond Gold International Inc
Richmond International Inc is a production corporation that majors in production of coffee products. It is located in many nations within Europe, Asia and North America. It began its undertakings in January 1988. Despite having its headquarters in Australia, it takes care of a clientele base of coffee consumers with a worldwide distribution. Coffee commodities are packed as soluble mixed flavors. They incorporate coffee blends of caffeinated or decaffeinated blends in regular, small and premium packs as espressos, lattes and cappuccinos. The mixtures have mint, chocolate, vanilla and hazelnut flavors. The flavors differ depending on areas or nations of distribution, due to the fact that local consumers have diverse and varying likings and flavors when it comes to the coffee commodities. It acts as a wholesale as well as a retail corporation for customers buying coffee goods so as to improve and meet client effectiveness and monetary standards. Money-making undertakings at the Richmond International Inc are strategically organized, enacted and understood. As a result, analyzing logistic plans all over the corporation’s production branches is essential in meeting money-making as well as performance success. Corporation older and younger bosses, workers, worldwide partners as well as clients, thus, play a vital function in meeting Richmond International Inc.’s objectives and purposes.
Richmond International Inc Mission and Vision Statements
Richmond International Inc.’s mission statement displays the company as a corporate enterprise built and committed to forming as well as enhancing pleasant exposures amongst worldwide coffee customers. The workers, investors, as well as employing and running techniques, focus on improving the productivity and standardization of coffee commodities. They are as well given the duty of improving service delivery, chiefly via improved and creative technology solutions. The mission statement also focuses on enhancing, inspiring, teaching as well as spurring coffee clients to buy commodities from the corporation, because it presents a promise in meeting distinctive, special and full ability from coffee use.
The vision statement looks forward to offer a hopeful and dynamic working setting for corporation workers and the workforces. This is according to the corporation’s anticipations and philosophies that secure, inspired, respected and spurred workers attempts in meeting the needs, requirements, requests and prospects embraced amongst coffee clients. This is due to the fact that they make worthy, qualified, quantified as well as unvarying coffee goods. The vision statement in addition targets backing and forming a social and business money-making enterprise capable of making use of revenue generating undertakings at the corporation, whereas increasing Richmond International Inc. and investors’ worth. As a result, it focuses on meeting and also growing effectiveness in the corporation situated at a vast competitive and rapidly developing sector.
The mission and vision statements at Richmond International Inc are, as a result, made based on the following philosophies. Trained, skilled and qualified workers are dynamic and active. Due to this, produced coffee products can satisfy and meet clients’ needs, requirements, interests and anticipations, together with flawless service distribution. As a result, gained revenues, stake values, as well as reserved incomes are assured to escalate to realize accomplishment at the Richmond International Inc.
The Porter’s five forces concepts will be used in analyzing and debating the corporation’s prospects in the vastly crowded coffee production sector. This concept is made up of five force factors in figuring out the most active and influencing facets impacting a corporation in a vastly crowded and rapidly growing sector. They as well impact productivity scopes in a corporation because of the money flow effects faced by many corporations and a SWOT analysis. The five Porter’s factors incorporate input differentiation, bargaining power among suppliers, buyer’s inclination to substitute, their bargaining powers and competition (Duncan, 2009).
Input differentiation alludes to the accessibility of substitutes. The corporation focuses on making distinctive and exceptional coffee commodities. This would incorporate the concentration on lessening of threats from competitors, new entries and general competitors. Suppliers have a surged bargaining power because of an improved degree of input differentiation. In addition, the corporation uses large sum of money to get certain distinctive and special raw materials, therefore lessening the dangers brought about by intensified bargaining power amongst suppliers chiefly where there is rigid rivalry. Buyers’ susceptibility to substitute is established on the accessibility of substitute. The corporation’s distinctive, high quality, reasonable price, standardized as well as easy availability of commodities protects it from rivalry and lessening rigid competition threat. As a result, consumers as well rejoice in a bargaining power founded on huge sums of coffee products in domestic and oversea markets. Richmond International Inc has made sure that the volumes are huge, and that data regarding its undertakings and roles is accessible and handy on the site. Together with high quality coffee commodities, the substitute and competition threats are significantly lessened (Tony, 2006).
SWOT Analysis on Richmond International Inc.
Based on the Porter’s five factors analyzed aforementioned, the table shows the corporation’s SWOT analysis. It signifies the four sections making up a SWOT analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (Duncan, 2009).
· Production of high quality and standardized coffee commodities
· Diminished production costs per unit
· Effortless purchasing approaches and systems
· Highly motivated and productive human resources
· Elastic production operations
· Newly innovated manufacturing, advertising and selling program
· Multiple branches available and accessible globally
· The rate at which buying habits are changing among coffee consumers is too dynamic
· Headquarter production unit recording a reducing rate on revenue growth rate
· Unavailability of raw materials and resources to manufacture organic coffee products
· new entrants manufacturing organic coffee commodities
· Augmented consumer demands, wants and needs for coffee
· Newly acquired machinery, plant and equipment
· Increasing number of unsatisfied consumers purchasing from rivals
· Partnering with coffee growers and manufacturers
· Acquisition of more advanced technologies to enhance company functions and operations
· Availability of new and highly potential markets across the globe mainly Africa
· The current plans for the company to expand are overwhelming and unrealistic
· Weak and poorly performing economies status in various global countries
· An increasingly unhealthy debt position and cash flow
· Substitutes especially organic coffee products are on the rise in markets
· Increasing fluctuations on global currencies
· Sales in the coffee industry are reducing and slowing
A Strategy for Richmond International Inc
The SWOT analysis table above pinpoints several working and useful parts in Richmond International Inc that can be eradicated, altered or fortified. Centered on the recorded strengths, the corporation requires to be developed when it comes to coffee production undertakings in the company to carry on successfully. Enhanced corporation structures offer better operations and purposes according to the adjusting customer purchasing conducts. The SWOT analysis table shows that the buying conducts amongst clients are adjusting, as they fancy coffee blends because of the wellbeing merits with which they are linked with. The wellbeing merits are linked with the lessened levels of sugar detrimental to diabetic clients as well as they are highly maintainable amongst the aging people.
Richmond International Inc, as a result should get new plants, machines and devices. They ought to be used in manufacturing healthy coffee beans mixed into last organic products that boost and maintain health amongst clients. Therefore, diabetic customers who treasure coffee however cannot buy the latest mixes will be cared for, reducing the danger posed by competitors. Ascertaining lately improved production actions, together with better technology in producing, growing and making coffee mixes, will lead to more healthy products. They will be more cherished amongst health-mindful coffee clients.
Therefore, their buying manners will be upturned, as they go on to purchasing coffee commodities from Richmond International Inc. As a result, corporation sales will upsurge, as the market will rejoice in the freshly enhanced healthy coffee produces, leading to an increased demand. Flow of money at Richmond International Inc will progress, and this will cause lessened debts and improved foundation of happy, reliable and contented clients.
The corporation ought to join together internal and external abilities, assets, openings and strengths in building a sturdier base via which the corporation can go on to progress and enlarge. Richmond International Inc has been working for more than 25 years. So as to carry on its undertakings as well as roles in the coming days for long duration, premises, worker skills, raw material, abilities and experiences ought to be vastly sustained. Grouping these facets will be an accreditation that the corporation will invariably be important in the coffee production sector, whereas satisfying and nourishing business and customer wants and requirements.
The external modifications, chiefly making up poor market structures and currency variations, signify the corporation’s threats and weaknesses. To either lessen or get rid of them and uphold corporation’s undertakings as well as duties in the sector, whereas satisfying and sustaining desires, requirements and requests amongst coffee clients, the company should go for a broad-based plan. It ought to make use of rental vehicles as well as more airlines to offer coffee goods to all clients who make their orders via the corporation’s site. Domestic outlets list delays prior to offering coffee goods to clients because of snarl-up and damage to vehicles.
Giving an easy to fathom account to clients regarding changes of policies will offer the company a chance to expound why coffee rates are as well impacted. The clients will neither feel weighed down nor contemplate that Richmond International Inc is immorally earning from currency variations via the escalated prices of goods. The profits and revenues made beyond the invest cost of capital confirm that the corporation can go on to satisfy and accomplish coffee clients’ needs. Therefore, they offer a chance for the corporation to make huge profits and incomes whereas accounting for efforts and production processes. Copyrights, licenses, capital, plants, employees, staff skills, equipment and also finances, also involve corporation resources that have to be justified, so as for the firm to be significant and gainful all over the worldwide markets as well as the coffee manufacturing sector.
Richmond International Inc should bring together these assets via an experienced and trained group of professionals. These staff should evaluate, organize and enact helpful ways so as to record a great performance that can give it an extra advantage in the sector. The SWOT analysis presents the firm with an overview to enhance and fortify its undertakings and roles in the manufacturing sector. SWOT table verifies that the corporation has the ability of accounting for better undertakings to remain essential all over the worldwide markets and the sector.
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Duncan, W. J. (2009). Chapter Three: Assessing the Internal Environment of the Firm, Academy of Management Executive.
Tony, L. (2006). Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model, New York, Simon & Schuster 1: 1-3.
External Influences on Tesco
Tesco is a leading supermarket chain operating in six countries, mainly in Europe. These countries include the United Kingdom, Hungary, Republic of Ireland, Poland, Turkey, Czech Republic and Slovakia. Tesco also has stores in Asian countries like Japan, Malaysia, and South Korea among others. Like many multinational companies in the world, there are various external factors, which affect the performance of Tesco, as you will notice in this essay. These external facilities are mainly political and legislative, even though economic, social, environmental and technological factors come into play too.
Regarding employment laws, the government requires retailers to offer a range of jobs, including high-skilled, lower-paid, locally based, and centrally located jobs among others. This legislation is in place to ensure that organization meet the diverse needs of the population, ranging from students, senior citizens in the society and parents. Tesco understands the fact that retailers have a bigger role in creating jobs in any economy. It hires more students, aged and disabled workers who earn lower salaries. This category stands for desirable employees because of the high staff turnover of the industry.
Secondly, Tesco has a concern for economic factor since they influence costs, demand, profits, and prices. In most economies, unemployment is a major factor because it affects effective demand negatively. Normally, employment serves as a source of income, which gives people the power to purchase. When unemployment hit high levels, this power reduces, affecting the performance of Tesco. Even though most of these economic factors are usually out of the company’s control, they have significant impact on the performance of business organizations.
Socio-cultural factors also affect Tesco. Because of social changes in the United Kingdom, shopping trends among people have drastically changed. Today, most people prefer one-stop and bulk shopping. To keep pace with these changing trends, Tesco has increased its stock of non-food items on the shelves to ensure that its customers enjoy shopping at one point for their convenience. UK retailers are also shifting to value added services because of demographic changes in the country. Some of these factors include the aging UK population, decline home meal preparation and increased number of female workers in the country. Consumers are also more informed and concerned about health issues, which has direct impact on demand. This is also affecting their attitude towards certain foods in the market. To adapt to this changing mix, Tesco is increasing its organic products on shelves because of consumers’ beliefs.
Though it is a micro-environmental factor, technology has influenced Tesco’s development of most of its products. Importantly, new technology in the market benefits customers and the company simultaneously. Tesco has achieved high customer satisfaction because of convenient shopping, presence of personalized goods and services and availability of products. Tesco stores employ a wide range of technologies, including wireless devices, electronic shelve labeling, radio frequency identification, intelligent scale and self-checkout machine. Most of these technologies have improved Tesco’s efficiency in meeting the changing needs of customers and keeping pace with the stiff competition among retailers.
Environmentally, Tesco has to align its operations with government laws, which requires firms to beware of their responsibility in the society through environmental protection. Through regulation and governance, Tesco focuses at greater corporate social responsibility and ensuring that it gives back to the people in different ways. Government regulations like Food Retailing Commission (FRC) equally affect Tesco’s activities as the law dictates how firms interact with suppliers and controls alteration of prices without prior notice to concerned parties.
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Factors Affecting the Leather Industry in India
Background facts on India’s leather industry
India is the second largest producer of leather garments and footwear in the world and its leather industry has grown substantially in the past decades. Between 2011 and 2014, the estimated growth rate of this industry was 8.5% and analysts predict better figures in the near future.
The main factors affecting India’s leather industry
As one of the top ten contributors to India’s GDP, the leather industry rakes in 7.5 billion dollars annually and the country has thus invested heavily in it. There are many factors that have affected the growth of the leather industry in India.
- Availability of raw materials. According to experts, 11% of sheep and goats in the world are found in India. This number almost double for buffalos and cattle with an estimated 21% of this population thriving in India. There is therefore a huge supply of hides and skins which are necessary raw materials in the leather industry. India has a comparative advantage in this industry because of the ready supply of these raw materials hence the growth of the industry.
- Presence of human capital. The leather industry is highly capital intensive. In India it employs more than 2.5 million people with an estimated 30% of the female population being absorbed in the industry. India’s high population and readily available cheap human resource has been instrumental in propelling forward the leather industry. It has encouraged both local and foreign investors to put their stakes in this industry.
- Support industries. There are several support industries which have helped the leather industry to grow. Industries such as chemical, machinery and tool industries have played a major role in the growth of the leather industry. Since chemicals, machinery and tools have been readily available, the leather industry is able to run more efficiently. There are also other support services such as transport, telecommunications and distribution services which have also enhanced the growth of the leather industry.
- Research and development investment. There have been major changes in the leather industry in India over the past decade. The quality of shoes has improved because of these design and manufacturing changes. This is due to varied investments in the research and development areas. These have resulted in new developments and more efficient methods of production. There are also many up and coming designers who have invented better designs for shoes that are more cost effective to make. Additionally, the industry is embracing new trends and this has increased its European market.
- Huge market. India’s leather industry accounts for 3% in the global market. This industry has a huge market is comprised of both domestic and foreign consumers. It is estimated that around 95% of all the shoes manufactured in India are purchased locally. Besides China, India is the second largest supplier of shoes in the world. There are also several leather articles that cater for both the local and foreign markets. India thus supplies articles such as saddles, gloves, jackets and bags to both foreign and local consumers. According to statistics, the major foreign destinations for India’s leather products include European Union (64%), USA (9%), Hong Kong (7%), UAE (2% and Africa (1%). Ultimately the leather industry in India has grown steadily due to this market.
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Goodness of UN PRI
The UN PRI organization is an investor plan that is supported by the United Nations. Its focus is mainly on responsible investment. The body is so far quite good and successful in assisting investors to integrate good practices in their activities and investment processes. Besides, it also seeks to promote and enhance sustainable financial markets. As a result of this, the organization is a network of international investors with the commitment of putting together its six principles into action.
For example, in January 2009, investors whose values surpassed the $3 trillion mark launched an initiative to assist in boosting the corporate responsibility with regards to the UN PRI principles. This is a revelation that as an organization, UN PRI initiative is good and many investors have great belief in it. In the same way, during the crisis of 2007, quite a number of investors joined the initiative of the UN PRI. This is an indication that the organization can be of help during times of economic crises.
The increase in the number of members of the UN PRI has been impacted by two good qualities of the body. The organization holds the belief that even in times of global financial turmoil; many investors are convinced that the consideration of various factors like climate change, socio-environmental elements and good governance in the process of making investment decisions and exercising ownership is very critical. On the other hand, this impacts responsible investment as an aggregate for long term benefits. The organization ensures that long term results are achieved on investment despite the conditions of the market. This is acquired through appropriate consideration of social, environmental and governance matters.
Members of UN PRI also have the opportunity of maintaining responsible asset ownership as a group with various investors instead of a single entity. As a result of this, the joint initiative supports the sustainability of entrepreneurship that benefits all the investors, owners and communities. Several companies are already experiencing the benefits of the integration of the UN PRI’s six principles. This points out that the organization is a unique venture that is quite good.
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UN PRI (2009). Rapid Growth in Responsible Investment despite Credit Crisis. Retrieved from
Poverty, Social Welfare & Social Policy
This paper focuses on the causes, impact of poverty as well as reviews of social welfare and different policies that can be employed to reduce poverty amongst individuals. The paper also takes a closer look at policy strategies from the United States for a comparative point of view with countries with high poverty levels. Additionally, the topic includes a wide range of research studies from economic, sociology, psychology, public health and political science (O’Connor 25-80). Lastly the paper addresses a number of questions including
- What is poverty
- Why is poverty persistent
- Why are poverty rates among the minority high
- What is the causal impact of poverty on adults and children and
- What is the effect of social welfare and policies on poverty
Additionally, the topic defines poverty as lack of shelter and minimum food among other necessities for maintaining good life. Extreme lack of essential needs including food and clothing is known as absolute poverty. For example, a high number of up to 35million people live in poverty in the United States of America.
There are many causes of poverty across the globe. While some of the causes can be completely eliminated by employing certain measures, getting rid of underlying and major causes remain a highly critical challenge across the globe. Changing economic trends, lack of access to education, epidemic diseases, corruption, overpopulation, environmental issues and culture of poverty are leading and root causes of poverty. There are also a wide range of social implications in relevance with this topic (90-102).
The effects of poverty as well as its sociological implications are widespread and quite adverse on the populations of many countries across the globe. Those who grow up in poverty experience severe, persistent and regular health issues compared to those who grow up in areas with low poverty levels. Additionally, many children born in poor environments tend to have physical, mental and low birth weight related problems.
Many infants also die before they are born and for those who are born, they end up being severely affected by high poverty levels. Similarly, children born in poor backgrounds miss school frequently because of illness related issues. Moreover, people from poor families are known to have high accident rates compared to those from rich backgrounds (105-110).
Social welfare on the other hand can be defined as prosperity, health and general wellbeing of the people of a country. It represents crucial values that the society can be built on. It also aims at ensuring awareness amongst the people on the most ideal ways of enhancing the quality of life. Social welfare programs aim at enhancing goals and values that support the way of living in the society.
The implications of such programs are to enhance and facilitate the quality of life by initiating the programs directed at uplifting individuals as well as providing quality education and health programs. Social welfare programs are also made probable through application of social policies aimed at achieving set goals and objectives for enhanced quality of life amongst the citizens of a given country.
Social policy denotes activities, guidelines, legislation and principles that affect and influence the lifestyle or living conditions favorable to welfare of humans. It also analyzes the response of the society to social needs of the people. Additionally, it is primarily focused on issues affecting the society, policy and economy among such factors that are very critical to human living and ways in which they can be made available.
The policies shape access and distribution processes of goods as well as resources in a given country with at aim of promoting equality for all (Whitman 28-100).
Observations and analyses
In Canada, poverty remains high and common. Its rate of poverty is high amongst the world’s richest nations. Canada experiences declining poverty levels in the recent past and some of the programs employed in the country to help citizens are designed by the government based on what the country’s market can provide.
Canada also has a high rate of government transfer payments to the citizens and it amounts to more than $176.6billion shillings. What’s more, the government has taken the initiative to fund public education and Medicare for its people as a policy measure to help reduce poverty levels and to enhance the quality of life (World Development Indicators 58).
All provinces in Canada provide publicly funded and universal healthcare services to its citizens. The services are medically essential especially for citizens who cannot afford high Medicare costs. There are also other social programs that have been subsidized by federal authority in Canada. Provinces in the country are also responsible for ensuring that children going to school access quality education.
Education in Canada is a must up to the age of sixteen. Both high school and elementary education in the country is available at a normal cost to ensure that many citizens afford. Similarly, federal government in the country provides safety nets and funds to students and the elderly. All these steps are aimed at reducing poverty levels in the country (108-1588).
Another good example of poverty, social welfare and social policy is Bangladesh. It is the most densely populated country in the world with more than 150million people. Bangladesh also has more than 20 percent of its total population living under the poverty line of 2 US Dollar a day.
Bangladesh also has child malnutrition rate of 48 percent. The country is also characterized with high corruption levels, overpopulation, insufficient electricity, poor roads, overpopulation and political instability. Economic growth in Bangladesh is also low, between 5 and 6 percent per annum. The country similarly, remains overpopulated, poorly governed and poor (198).
The population in Bangladesh is also predominantly rural with high rural poverty levels. More than 45 percent of the people of Bangladesh rely on agriculture for their livelihood. Additionally, it lacks enough working welfare programs that can help enhance the lives of its citizens. The government of Bangladesh also has limited social policies that can be pursued to ensure equal sharing of resources amongst its people (200-289).
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O’Connor, Alice. Poverty Knowledge: Social Science, Social Policy, and the Poor in Twentieth-Century U.S. History. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 2001. Print.
Whitman, Sylvia. World Poverty. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc, 2008. Print.
World Development Indicators, 2005. Washington, D.C: World Bank, 2005. Print.