How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Outline
In order for you to deliver a good rhetorical analysis essay, it is important that you know how to write a rhetorical analysis outline. An outline is the plan that will guide you in writing the paper, therefore, crafting one is always the first step to take. Using a properly written rhetorical analysis outline, you will always find it easy working on the different sections of the paper.
Developing an outline will help you to think critically and choose the best points to use in the essay in order to come up with an outstanding piece. An outline is a simple draft indicating the sections of the rhetorical analysis essay and key points for the discussion.
A rhetorical analysis essay requires the writer to explore how the various elements of rhetoric have been used in the given piece, presentation and argument of ideas and give an analysis of how the strategy has been applied in order to attain the expected results. The best way to achieving all these is knowing how to write a rhetorical analysis outline.
A greater part of essays are always written similarly, and this implies the skills on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline can also be applied in crafting other academic papers. With an outline, you will be able to save quite a lot of time when it comes to writing the essay.
Tips on how write a rhetorical analysis outline
A rhetorical analysis essay can be written about films, other texts, collection of artwork among other pieces. Therefore, it is important that you first determine the material or piece of work that the essay will be based on. This will also assist you in establishing the direction to pursue when creating an outline.
Read on for more guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline
One of the key elements in writing a rhetorical analysis essay is understanding the intentions of the author. You should try to determine how the creator of the original work presented his or her argument in order to achieve the set target. This might play a significant role in your thesis, hence, should be carefully looked at.
Before writing the outline, it is also important that you decide the sections that will be included in your paper. Doing this will enable you to specifically focus on the important things, thereby saving time.
A rhetorical analysis paper basically has three main sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, there are key aspects that must be highlighted in each of the sections to ensure that your paper is a rhetorical analysis essay. All these must be precisely and clearly indicated in the outline.
The SOAPs tone is one of the key aspects of a rhetorical analysis. This is a short abbreviation that is used to refer to Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject and tone of the original piece of work.
The speaker is the first and last name of the creator of that piece of work. Occasion on the other hand, refers to the type of text and context under which it was crafted. The audience is the reader (s) whom the text was addressed to. Purpose is the result that the author wanted to achieve with the work. The subject defines the topic which is discussed in the text.
It is also important that you examine the appeals or first classification of rhetorical strategy. These entail ethos, logos and pathos.
Also known as ethical appeals, ethos are reliant on the credibility of the writer and character in attaining approval. The mention of an author or writer’s qualification can be used to signify ethos.
Logos apply reasoning in making arguments, especially in academic rhetorical pieces. It refers to the use of evidence, facts and data to support an argument.
Pathos is the instance whereby the author of the original piece has used words or phrases that evoke emotions in order to drive his or her point home. Pathetic appeals can include the use of love, sympathy among others.
In your outline, you will also need to highlight the styles details in the original text, like the use of imagery, diction, syntax and tone. It is also important that you identify these for easy reference when it comes to writing.
In preparation for writing the outline for a rhetorical essay paper, all the above elements must be well defined. Remember the outline is the final plan that will be followed in writing the essay, therefore, always ensure that all the points listed in the outline are sufficient for supporting your argument.
Steps on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline
A good rhetorical essay outline should show the order which all your points will be addressed in the paper. The following procedures will guide you on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline with ease.
Always craft your outline in chronological order. This implies you should start from the beginning of the article or piece of work to be analyzed and work your way through to the end.
The outline should demonstrate how you will distinguish the paper from others. You can simply write a statement defining how you will tell the readers about your analysis in a logical and captivating manner.
You should also list the SOAPs tone of the given piece under section since they will be discussed in the opening sentences of the paper. Besides, also remember to state the work under analysis.
Write your thesis statement or chief argument that will be discussed in the essay. It is recommended that you write the thesis as it will appear in the final paper. The thesis should not be hard to create since it simply reflects your intentions in the essay.
The body is generally the longest and most detailed part of an essay. In order for you to deliver good body paragraphs with proper flow of information, you have to carefully pick the points to list in the outline.
In order to make the outline clearer, try to use bullets, numbers and point-form when listing different aspects to be included in the body paragraphs.
There are key aspects of a rhetorical analysis essay that you should know how to address in the right order when writing the outline. These include the logos, ethos and pathos respectively. The body paragraphs should be outlined by rhetorical appeals.
At least identify one key claim and an evaluation of the document’s use of objective evidence. For logos, pathos and ethos, choose evidence from the given piece to give while writing the analysis.
Under every main claim, it is also advisable that you include a statement indicating how you will wrap up the discussion in the paragraph. However, you can also just have one statement generalizing all the points addressed in the body paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you should simply indicate how the entire analysis will be tied up to form an objective discussion. A proper conclusion should re-state the thesis statement and main ideas, then further point out any future expectations on the subject or topic.
You do not have to write an entire paragraph in the outline, instead, simply list the key points to be addressed on the section.
You should also ensure that your references are well outlined since they will also be written in the essay.
After writing the outline, take a few moments to read through it just to make sure it portrays your intentions for the essay. Writing is an art whereby ideas may sometimes come up in the process of writing and this may lead to changes in the outline.
In case there are certain points that you think would ruin your discussion in the paper, it is advisable that you punch them out or find appropriate replacements. Avoid too much statements or exaggeration s in the outline, instead, only list what is necessary for writing the analysis.
Examples of rhetorical analysis outline
You can also easily find out how to write a rhetorical analysis outline by simply reading sample outlines. The following are professionally crafted examples to motivate you in writing.
Outline for rhetorical analysis
- Introduce your topic or subject
- Make evident your purpose
- Engage the reader
- Summary of the Rhetorical situation
- What is the issue?
- What is the context …
(Simply click here to read the detailed sample rhetorical analysis outline)
Rhetorical analysis essay outline
- Attention grabber sentence
- Brief summary of essay with author introduction
- Thesis statement
(Get the entire sample on this link)
Sample Rhetorical Analysis Outline
- Introduction: Background and Thesis
- Background Information, including details about the author, work, title and publication info. Statement of the author’s argument.
- Thesis: Evaluation and appeals
- Body: Analysis, interpretation and evaluation…
(To continue reading the rest of this sample outline, simply click here)
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Ship of Theseus
According to historians, Theseus, a King in ancient Greece founded Athens, today major city in the country. He was not an ordinary King. He won a series of naval battles, winning the public support. As a result, no one wanted to forget him event after his death. His history and successes was to run through generations by preserving something that would speak on his behalf and make future generations believe in his work. The people of Athens decided to dedicate a memorial to him in by maintaining his ship in the port. Because of the dedication of the people, the ship of Theseus was to spend hundreds of years in the port.
However, as hundreds of years of went by, parts of the ship started rotting since they were made of wood. This could not hinder the people of Athens from preserving the ship further as they replaced the rotting planks of wood with new ones. This was not just a replacement, but also a source of many questions that would later haunt the history of the ship. The main question was whether the ship was to remain the “ship of Theseus” after the replacement of planks of wood or if it was to assume a different name. With this replacement, was the ship in its original state, which the King used? This became a major question in philosophy, especially when analyzing the problem of identity. Many questions arose including the meaning of a physical object and the identity of things after some time. Additionally, people questioned the point at which an object changes from its original form to become something different. What does mean for an object to change?
In the same manner, did the ship of Theseus change after hundreds of years or did it become something else after the replacement of planks of wood? Better still, the question of replacing wooden planks focused on the number of planks that would give the ship a new look. For example, would the ship remain the “Ship of Theseus” if forty-nine, fifty-one or ninety-nine planks of wood were removed? Was the original state of the ship the same after removing a plank at the bottom? What would happen to the ship if all the planks were removed and replaced with new ones? How gradual should the change be so as not to temper with the original state of the ship?
Various scholars and theorists hold divergent views about these questions, which revolve around the identity of the ship after replacing rotting planks of wood. Some have maintained that by altering any part of the ship makes it different from the ship of Theseus. On the other hand, some hold that the ship of Theseus remains the same as long as there is at least an original plank still present. This is because the plank that remains carries the original state of the ship. Which side is correct and which one is incorrect? Philosophers argue that both positions can be valid and wrong. Nevertheless, the question of identity is a major one as the original form of the ship gradually changed with the replacement of wooden planks of wood, which were rotting.
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The existence of God remains a contentious issue in the society. Does God exist? For many years, scholars and theologians have explored theories and arguments to disprove each other on the existence of God. In most cases, there has never been a conclusive consensus on whether God exists or if it is an illusion in the minds of believers. Religion largely supports the existence of God as the Supreme Being, who created the world and everything in it. Christians and Muslims strongly support the existence of God. Is the existence of the world good enough to conclude that God exists? This line of thought is called cosmological argument. Its proponents opine that the world is a proof that God exists and he created it. While there is need to expound on the existence of the universe, the only explanation is the existence of God, who created it.
It is important to note that the cosmological argument does not differ from other arguments, which seek to explain the existence of God. For example, it exists in various forms like the temporal kalam cosmological argument and the modal argument from contingency. The first argument is the cause argument. What distinguishes these two arguments is how they avoid the argument questioning if God has a cause for his existence. This is how the two forms of the argument evade the objection in the argument. Firstly, according to cosmological argument, everything exists on the universe because they have a cause to exist. In other words, whatever that exists, exists for a known reason by someone. Additionally, the argument holds that the universe exists. If this is the case, then there is a case for its existence. Since the universe has a cause for its existence, this argument deduces that God is the cause for its existence and therefore God exists.
Better still, is there a cause for the existence of God? For example if God has a cause for his existence, then using the existence of God to support the existence of the universe does not suffice to make a conclusion. However, if we eliminate God, it becomes hard to explain the existence of the universe. Equally, with God centered in the equation, we are unable to explain his existence. This means by agreeing on the existence of God, it raises as many problems as it offers solutions. On this basis, the cosmological argument does not offer better solutions. It leaves us with God, one entity that we cannot explain its existence.
In the Kalam cosmological argument, it is believed that the universe has a beginning in time. This gives its distinction with God. According to this form, everything that has a beginning in time like the universe always has a cause for existence. Thus since the universe has a beginning in time, it also has a cause for its existence, which is God. For the argument from contingency, the main difference between the universe and God is that the universe exists contingently. This means that the universe could not have existed.
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Essential Amino Acids
Essential Amino Acids is also referred to as indispensable amino acids, essential amino acids refer to a class of amino acids that the body is unable to synthesize. These amino acids are thus, acquired from the diets that we eat. There are several kinds of essential amino acids including valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine among others. It is important that these acids are included in the diet so that they can be received by the body for proper growth and development.
Even though they are much needed in the body, there are some types that do not necessarily have to be included in the diet like arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, proline, tyrosine, glutamine and serine. These types of essential amino acids are considered to be conditionally essential. The reason why they are not necessarily required to be in the diet is because they can have unpleasant impacts on some people. For instance, those who are suffering from PKU are required to only take low amounts of phenylalanine in order to avoid mental retardation.
Typically, the acids can be acquired from diets that contain meat, dairy products, cereal grains and legumes. Besides, there are also quite a number of indigenous foods that can be consumed for the essential amino acids like Mexican corn, Japanese rice, Cajun red beans, and soybeans among others. Deficiency in even just one of the nine essential amino acids can have serious health implications and also degrade the body’s protein levels. The body can be forced to dismantle protein structures and even the muscles in order to obtain the required nutrient.
The reason why humans are unable to internally produce essential amino acids is because we lack all the enzymes that are required for their biosynthesis. It should be noted that of all the essential amino acids, there is one that is only required by children. Arginine is the essential amino acid that is not needed by adults. It is obtained from proteins and works by producing creatine that is ideal for development and growth in children.
Obtaining all of the essential amino acids that is needed in the daily diet requires that one meets their daily protein recommendation. Normally, a person is required to take an estimated 50 to 175 grams of protein every day. Even though essential amino acids can mostly be obtained from animal products, a combination of plant-based diets can also provide the nutrients. To those who may not be able to take certain animal and plant-based diets due to allergies or other reasons, it is advisable that you obtain over-the counter supplements of essential amino acids.
If you are buying essential amino acids supplements, you should always check the label to ensure that the product can provide all the nine. Besides, it is also advisable to talk to your nutritionist or doctor before starting on the supplementation program.
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology is basically an explanation of how genetic information flows within a biological system. The concept was first brought into the limelight by Francis Crick in 1956. In 1970, it was again stated in a Nature paper. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology states that sequential information is not transferrable back from protein to either nucleic acid or protein. This precisely means that once information has got into protein, it can never flow back to nucleic acid.
The central dogma of molecular biology is a framework that can help in understanding the way in which sequence information is transferred in living organisms. The sequential information carries biopolymers that include DNA, RNA and protein. The dogma lists three groups of transfers that include general, special and unknown transfers. General transfers are those that take place normally in a variety of body cells. Special transfers on the other hand, are known to occur but limited to certain conditions in the laboratory or in case of viruses. Unknown transfers never take place.
The general transfers that are highlighted above indicate the normal flow of biological information across the body of organisms. According to the central dogma of molecular biology, DNA can be copied to DNA through a process known as DNA replication. Information contained in the DNA can be copied into MRNA through the process of transcription. Proteins on the other hand, can be synthesized through the use of the information that is contained in MRNA. This process is known as translation.
The biopolymers that include RNA, DNA and peptides are classified under linear polymers. This is to say that every monomer is connected to not more than two other monomers. Information is effectively encoded by the sequence of their monomers. According to the transfer of information that is described by the central dogma of molecular biology, one sequence of a biopolymer acts as template for the building of another biopolymer. The newly created biopolymer takes a sequence that is similar to that of the original one.
Despite the central dogma of molecular biology being a concept that most people have agreed with, it should be noted that it has its setbacks too. Some people have questioned certain issues related to the hypothesis and it would be in order that you also get to find out about such concerns. One of the issues is that the hypothesis does not provide information on what the machinery of transfer is made of. Besides, it does not on the aspect of errors.
The central dogma of molecular biology also does not say anything regarding control mechanisms. There is no information about the rate at which the process takes place. According to recent analyses on the central dogma of molecular biology, there are concerns that the hypothesis is not entirely accurate considering that it mainly focuses on proteins as the mediating unit in biological function. Current research is focused on investigating the work of RNA that neither codes nor follows the dogma framework.
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SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
SWOT analysis of GAP is an effective method that the company applies in determining its ability to survive in the market, while also growing revenue base. GAP Inc. is a leading world-wide retailer that deals in clothing, accessories and personal care products for the whole family. It operates six globally recognized brands including, Old Navy, Banana Republic, Gap, Intermix, Athleta and Piperlime. GAP has several more than 3,200 stores across the world and also operates an e-commerce website from where customers can get products information and do their shopping.
What is SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc?
A SWOT analysis of GAP Inc. basically explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the clothing giant, with regards to the global market which targets. By determining the company’s strengths and opportunities, the management will be able to come up with measures on where emphasis is required for continued success.
The weaknesses and threats of a business are indicators of failure and by knowing them, the company can easily make decisions and plans for eliminating mistakes and avoiding losses in the future. The following is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of GAP Inc.
With the six brands that it operates globally, GAP has been able to attain a strong product portfolio and brand recognition. Coupled with its wide range of products that target the whole family, GAP Inc. enjoys global customer recognition and loyalty.
Its’ presence over a wider geographical area is also another strength that has made several people across the globe to identify with the company’s products.
Because of the global reach of GAP Inc. the business is able to record a high inventory turnover ratio. In fact, this is one of the main reasons the company commands a strong financial position in the market.
GAP Inc’s dedicated section for baby products is also another feature that has kept the business afloat since such products are always in demand even when the market is not doing well.
Despite the global customer base that GAP Inc. has, the company heavily relies on vendors from outside to sell its products. This is an area of weakness since such vendors are susceptible to various kinds of mistakes that may hinder the successful operations of the company.
The high competition in the apparel and accessories industry is also another point of weakness since it implies many customers are learning of new brands that could shift their buying trends. Besides, it also limits the market share of the company.
GAP has not fully focused onto penetrating the emerging economy markets and this has limited its ability for expansion and revenue growth.
One of the opportunities that GAP Inc. can exploit is the emerging markets in Asia and Europe. These markets present an ideal platform for expansion and profitability.
The growing use of technology in business is also another opportunity. Through effective online campaigns and shopping, the company can easily attract new customers for its products and brands across the globe.
Considering the good performance of GAP Inc. in operating six major brands is proof that it can still form franchise units and joint ventures with other companies in the industry for greater development.
The readily available market for kids’ apparel and products is also another opportunity that the company can fully explore for maximum profits.
The clothing and accessories market is experiencing a very stiff completion between various brands, offering more fashionable products at better prices than GAP Inc.
The rapid change in fashion trends is also another threat that the company has to plan on how to handle.
Counterfeits is yet another issue that is threatening the existence and success of businesses today.
Another threat is the increased production and operational costs, which could water down profits.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
According to this SWOT analysis of GAP Inc., the company is strong enough to withstand market forces considering its wide selection of products and brand portfolio, which have ensured global recognition, loyalty and financial power. However, it still needs to focus on international expansion into the emerging economies and intensifying its online presence. Besides, GAP Inc. also needs to consider the shifting fashion trends in order to meet customer needs.
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Systemic risk is the vulnerability to unpredicted events including major catastrophes and earthquakes among others. These events affect the distribution of resources and the amount of resources in the market.
Systemic risk can also be defined as risk inherent to the entire market segment. It usually affects the overall market and not only the industry and stocks. Undiversifiable risk, market risk or volatility risk is caused by events that cannot be avoided completely. What’s more, it cannot be mitigated through diversification but only through the use of the right asset allocation strategy.
Putting assets in bonds and assets in stocks can easily mitigate a systemic risk. This is based on the fact that interest rates often shift and makes bonds less valuable to make stocks more valuable and vice versa. As a result, it limits the overall change in the portfolio value from systematic changes.
Interest rate changes, recessions, wars and inflation can also cause systemic risk. These factors affect the entire market. Systemic risk is one of the risks that underlie all other market and investment risks across the globe.
The Great Recession is one of the best examples of systemic risk. It is a risk that affected many businesses across the globe. Any person who had invested in the market in 2008 suffered a great loss. The value of many investments changed because of the Great Recession. It was a market wide economic event that affected investments regardless of the type of securities that one had held.
The Great Recession also affected different asset classes in different ways. Even so, investors with broader allocations were affected less than those with stocks only. To understand how much systemic risk a portfolio, fund or security has, it is always essential to take a closer look at its beta. This helps you to measure how volatile an investment is in the market compared to others.
A beta that is more than 1 means that a fund is more volatile in the overall market and less than one means that a fund has a less systemic risk. If a beta is equal to one, this means that a fund has the same systemic risk as the market itself.
The federal government often uses systemic risk as a clear justification for it to intervene in the economy. The main basis for intervention by Fed is to ensure the ripple effect from a company level in any event through targeted regulations is reduced. For instance, Dodd-Frank Act of 2010 was put in place with an enormous set of new laws aimed at preventing another event of the Great Recession from occurring. The laws regulate financial institutions and firms by limiting systemic risk.
According to researchers and economists, the size of Lehman Brother’s size and its integration in the US market or economy has made it a great source of systemic risk, when the firm collapsed; the US witnessed a lot of problems in the country’s economy as well as the financial system. Additionally, capital markets froze up, consumers could not access any loans and businesses could only get loans only if they were creditworthy. Those that posed minimal risks to the lender could also access loans.
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Mark to Model
Mark to model is one of the most popular accounting practices that have been used across the globe. It is a practice that involves sharing of assets based on a mathematical model as opposed to market price.
In many cases, the accounting model is used on assets whenever there is no active market. However, it is good to note that Level 3 assets are often valued depending on a financial model used in an economy. Therefore, mark to model is the opposite of mark to market model where asset values are recorded based on the last price recorded on public exchange.
Mark to model takes into consideration the payout for specific assets. It also takes into consideration the risks involved when trading in the assets as well as their expiration date. In addition, it has a wide array of inputs that are very subjective and have been often criticized for providing a value that is more of illusion than real value.
In mark to model, an insurer may provide a policy that covers oil refineries. Therefore, oil refiners will have to pay an insurer over a specified of time. The periodic payments will however be paid back by an insurer in the event of a major disaster. The contracts in mark to model may not be traded publicly as in the case of market to market.
Contracts in mark to model are also highly specialized. This means that it can be very hard to find the real value of assets. A model that will help traders to find the expected payout, probability of finding a market, premiums and the probability of a disaster will have to be created.
In the case of an insurance company, an insurer can report an asset or a liability in a balance sheet. An insurer will also have to record its real value based on mark to model rather than the asset’s real market value.
Why mark to model matters
Mark to model has been considered a risky method of finding the value of assets and liabilities by economists. It is even more risky if it is used to price assets that are traded in a liquid and the market is declining. This is based on the fact that the model is always subjective at an individual level.
Mark to model does not put into account the number of buyers and sellers in the market who are willing to value an asset. Individuals therefore, may not agree on the accuracy if the price of assets priced using mark to model method.
The system also matters bearing in mind that it was used during the credit crisis in late 2000s. Mortgages and securities lost a lot of their values within a very short time. Federal Accounting Standards Board suspended mark to market accounting in favor of the model only to provide way to financial institutions to put up a value for their mortgages.
With mark to model, financial institutions were also able to place a value on MBSs in an old and tumultuous market. The model is similarly used in private bond market whenever it goes liquid.
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Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide simply called NAD refers to a coenzyme that is found in every living cell. This compound is the dinucleotide and since it has two nucleotides that are joined via phosphate groups. One of the nucleotides has a nicotinamide and the other an adenine. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually found in two forms. These are the reduced form and in the oxidized forms abbreviated as NADH and NAD respectively.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is usually involved in the redox reactions in metabolism. It carries electrons across different reactions. Therefore, the coenzyme is found in two different forms in the living cells. These are the oxidizing agent NAD+ which accepts electrons from the other molecules becoming reduced. The reaction forms the NADH with is then possible to reduce as the reducing agent that donates electrons.
The electron transfer reactions are the major role of the NAD. Nevertheless, NAD is also used in cellular processes with enzyme substrate being the most notable that removes or add chemical groups from the proteins in the posttranslational modifications. Due to the crucial role of the functions of NAD, the enzymes that are involved in its metabolism are the targets of drug discovery.
In living organisms, synthesis of NAD can result from the simple building blocks the de novo. This is from amino acids aspartic acid and tryptophan. In the alternative fashion, complex components of coenzymes are usually taken up from the food in form of a vitamin known as niacin.
There are similar compounds that are released by the reactions that break NAD’s structure down. The preformed components pass via salvage pathway recycling them into an active form. There is also NAD that is converted to Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, simplified as NADP. Chemistry of the coenzyme is like that of the NAD. However, its roles in the metabolism process are different.
Despite NAD+ being written with the sign of superscript plus due to its formal charge in a certain nitrogen atom, for most part at the physiological pH is a singly-charged anion. The charge is that of minus 1. On the other hand, NADH is doubly-charged anion. For Haemophilus influenza growth, NAD is considered as the V factor. Just like other dinucleotides, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has the two nucleotides that are joined by phosphate groups as their bridge. They also have ribose rings with one having adenine that is attached to first atom of carbon while the other is with the nicotinamide.
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Genetic drift is also called allelic drift. It is change that occurs in the frequency of gene variant or allele in the population. Genetic drift is caused by random sampling. Alleles that are found in an offspring are samples of the ones found in the parents. In addition, chance plays a role in determining if an individual offspring survives and successfully reproduces.
Allele frequency of a population refers to a fraction of copies of a gene sharing a particular form. Gene variants can disappear completely due to genetic drift. This reduces genetic variation. In cases where allele copies are few, genetic drift’s effect is larger. When allele copies are many, there is a smaller effect.
Vigorous debates have occurred over relative importance of the natural selection process versus the neutral processes such as genetic drift. Some scientists such as Ronald Fisher are of the view that the entire process of genetic drift plays a minor role in the evolution process. This has remained a dominant view over the years.
Motoo Kimura in 1968 rekindled this debate with the neutral theory of the molecular evolution. The claims are that most instances of genetic change spread across the population. However, these are not necessarily phenotypes’ changes. They result from genetic drift.
Many scientists view genetic drifts in statistical drift in a population over time due to the effects that random sampling have in successive generations’ formation. In a narrower sense, genetic drift can be seen as expected dynamics of a population of the neutral alleles. Neutral alleles are the ones that are defined as comprising negative and positive impact on the reproductive fitness. They are predicted to becoming fixed at 100 percent or zero frequency eventually in absence of other mechanisms that affect the distribution of allele.
Genetic drift can cause a loss of genetic traits in a population. A genetic trait can also become widespread in the population irrespective of the reproductive or survival value of the involved alleles. Random statistical effect of genetic drift can be seen in small and isolated populations where there is small gene pool that is sufficient to allow chance to change its makeup significantly.
In a larger population, specific allele can be carried by many individuals making it almost certain that it will be transmitted by some organisms of the population unless if it is unfavorable biologically. Nevertheless, genetic drift, mutation, migration and natural selection are the basic mechanisms that facilitate evolution.
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Protein biosynthesis is the process through which biological cells build new proteins and is balanced by loss of cellular proteins through export or degradation. Translation which is protein assembly by ribosomes plays an important role in the pathway of biosynthetic along with messenger RNA generation (mRNA), post-translational modification, co-translational transport and aminoacylation of RNA transfer (tRNA).
Protein biosynthesis is regulated strictly at multiple steps and there are mechanisms for error checking in place. This process is initiated in the nucleus of the cell where specific enzymes unwind need DNA sections which make DNA in the region accessible and a copy of RNA is made.
All cells will function through their proteins and the function of protein is defined by molecular function, involvement of a biological process and localization within the cells. All protein components functions are defined by the exact structure, conformation and composition of the proteins encrypted in the DNA region (known as locus) encoding that protein.
The cistron DNA gets transcribed into RNA intermediate varieties and the last version gets used in the synthesis of polypeptide chain. Protein is also often synthesized directly from genes through translation of mRNA.
When there is need for protein to be available within short notice or in larger quantities, there is production of a protein precursor. Proprotein is an inactive protein that contains one or more inhibitory peptides that can be easily activated when inhibitory sequence gets removed by proteolysis especially during posttranslational modification. An mRNA chain is generated during transcription with one DNA strand double helix in genome as a template. The strand is known as template strand. Transcription is divided into three stages which include:
Each of the stages mentioned above is regulated by a high number of proteins like coactivators and transcription factors that ensure the correct gene is transcribed. Transcription will take place where DNA is held which is the cell nucleus. The structure of the DNA cell so made of two helixes made up of phosphate and sugar held together by hydrogen bonds between bases of opposite strands.
The phosphate and sugar in each of these strands are joined by stronger phosphodiester covalent bonds. Synthesis of proteins from RNA is referred to as translation and it occurs in the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located. The ribosomes make up large and small subunits that surround mRNA. The capacity of inhibiting or disabling protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics like cycloheximide, anisomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, puromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin.
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Nucleic Acid Sequence
Nucleic acid sequence is determination of nucleotide bases sequence in a RNA or DNA fragment. This type of sequencing is an indispensable tool for carrying out basic biological research and it is also applied in varying fields like molecular diagnostics, forensics, systems biology, pharmacogenomics and genetic engineering.
By principle sequences are presented from the five inch to the three inch end. Normally, nucleic acids are linear (unbranched) polymers specification of the sequence is equivalent to definition of covalent structure of the complete molecule. Precisely for this reason, sequence and nucleic acid is also termed as the primary structure.
Sequence also has the capacity of representing information. Biological DNA also represents the information that is needed to direct functions of a living thing and in such context, the term genetic sequence is used often. Sequences can also be read from biological raw material though DNA sequencing techniques.
Nucleic acids also have a tertiary and secondary structure. The primary structure of often mistakenly known as the primary sequence. Equally, there is no parallel concept of tertiary and secondary sequence. The analysis of DNA sequence was traditionally accomplished through use of two varying techniques:
- The ddNTP mediated chain termination technique if Sanger (1997
- The chemical degradation technique of Gilbert and Maxam (1997).
Numerous next generation sequencing technologies for DNA have been developed and while this is the case, the traditional nucleic sequence techniques are routinely used in majority of life science laboratories. Obtaining optimal results with the conventional sequencing techniques requires careful reagents selection.
Nucleic acids is comprised of a chain of units that are linked known as nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of 3 subunits which include, a sugar (ribose in RNA case and in DNA case deoxyribose) which makes up the backbone of nucleic acid strand, phosphate group and a set of nucleobases attached to the sugar. The nucleobases are especially important in the base pairing of strands to form tertiary and secondary structure like the famed double helix.
Possible letters in this case include A, C, G and T which represent the 4 nucelotide bases of DNA strand adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine-covalently linked to a phosphodiester backbone. I n typical cases, the sequence are printed adjoining one another without any gaps as in the sequence AAAGTCTGAC which is read left to right in the 5 inch to 3 inch direction.
Current methods of sequencing rely on discriminatory ability of DNA polymerases and as such can only distinguish 4 bases. When using current technology, it is difficult to sequence small amounts of DNA because the signal is usually too weak t be measured and this can be overcome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification.
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The Ontological argument is an argument for God’s existence based entirely on reason. According to the argument, there is no need to wander around looking for physical evidence of the existence of God; we can easily work out that he exists just by thinking about it. Ontological argument purports to be an a priori proof of the existence of God. The argument was first proposed by St Anselm of Canterbury in the 11th century. His main aim was to refute claims by some people that God does not exist. In his view, the atheist is not just mistaken but internally inconsistent.
St Anselm in his proposition of the ontological argument claimed to have derived the existence of God from the concept of being than which no greater can be conceived. He reasoned that, in case such a being fails to exist, then a greater being –namely, a being than which no greater can be conceived, and which exists- can be conceived. However, this would be absurd in that, nothing can be greater than a being than which no greater can be conceived. Thus, a being than which no greater can be conceived- i.e. God exists.
The ontological argument asserts that that idea by some people that God does not exist is just as absurd as the idea that a four-sided triangle does. According to the argument, we can easily tell that the claim that God does not exist is false without having to look into it in any detail. The claim that God does not exist is self contradictory. The argument further points out that, to call something that is not all-powerful God would be like calling a shape that does not have three sides a triangle, which would not make any sense.
According to the ontological argument, God is perfect and all-powerful. If something is perfect, then it could not possibly be better than it is, there cannot be anything better than perfection. If we think of God as perfect, then we must think of God as a being that cannot be imagined to be better than it is. It is therefore, impossible to conceive either of there being anything much greater than God or of it being possible to imagine God being better than he already is.
Despite several people having supported the Ontological argument, it has also received its fair share of criticisms. For instance, Immanuel Kant, in his Critique of Pure Reason claims that ontological arguments are vitiated by their reliance upon the implicit assumption that existence is more of a predicate. However, as Bertrand Russel observed, it is much easier to be convinced that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them. This helps in explaining the reason why ontological arguments have fascinated many philosophers for over a thousand years. According to another critic, Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, using the analogy of a perfect island, he suggested that the ontological argument could be used in proving the existence of anything.
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United States Fiscal Cliff
The United States fiscal cliff came into existence in 2013 January whereby, a series of laws previously enacted came into effect simultaneously. The 2001 Bush tax cuts which had received a 2 year extension by the Tax Relief Act of 2010 and were to expire on 31st December 2012 as well as planned spending cuts under Budget Control Act of 2011 at that time also came into play.
In the past, the term ‘fiscal cliff’ has been used for purposes of referring to various fiscal issues. The use of the term came into context with the 2010 expiration of the Bush tax cuts. In 2011, the term started been used to refer to deficit reductions that would occur in 2013 under fiscal cliff scenario. Ben Bernanke, the chairman of the United States Federal Reserve in late February 2012 popularized use of the term for the upcoming tax reduction deficits.
He described the massive fiscal cliff of tax increases and large spending that would take effect on 1st January 2013 before the House Financial Services Committee. Majority of the analysts were not in agreement with the choice of words and argued it should have been called fiscal hill or slope.
They reasoned that such options would have been appropriate since while the cumulative economic effect of 2013 would be substantial, the same would not be felt immediately but gradually with advance in the weeks and months.
There are some key laws that lead to the cliff and some of these are as highlighted below:
- Bush tax cuts expiration as part of the 2001 Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act and the 2003 Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act as extended by the 2010 Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization and Job Creation Act.
- Spending cuts across the board to most of the discretionary programs directed by Budget Control Act of 2011
- Reverse of Alternative Minimum Tax threshold to the 2000 tax year levels.
- Expiration of 2percent Social Security Payroll tax cut extended most recently by MCTRJCA
Without any new provisions, the provisions were to go into effect automatically on 1st January 2013. There are some provisions that raised the taxes while others reduced spending. Some of the lawmakers had intentions to attach bipartisan extension to expiring wind-power tax credit.
There were proposals to avoid the fiscal cliff which involved passing new legislation or repealing legislation that contained some of the provisions in order to extend the provisions that were about to expire. There were also different proposals aimed at including changes to all or some of the provisions.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder refers to one of the common disorders that occurs in early childhood and may continue to adolescence and then adulthood. This disorder is the same as hyperkinetic disorder according to ICD-10. It is defined as a psychiatric disorder of neurodevelopment category. In this disorder, there are serious problems of hyperactivity, acting impulsively and attention that are inappropriate for the age of a person.
For an individual to be diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder they must depict the symptoms at the early age of 6 to 12 and they must also depict them for over 6 months. In the school going children, attention symptoms usually result in bad performance.
Despite being one of the most studied disorders that is diagnosed among adolescents and children, the cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is unknown in most cases. It usually affects approximately 6 to 7 percent of children that are diagnosed through DSM-IV criteria and about 1 to 2 percent of the children diagnosed through ICD-10 criteria. The rates are the same between different countries and it depends mostly on the way the disorder is diagnosed. In boys, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is diagnosed about three times more than in girls.
Studies indicate that about 30 to 50 percent of individuals who are diagnosed with this disorder in their childhood continue showing symptoms in their adulthood. About 2 to 5 percent of adults suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
This disorder has three main sub-types. These are:
- Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
- Predominantly inattentive
- Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
Among the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include difficulties in paying attention and staying focused, hyperactivity and difficulty in controlling behavior. Some scientists suggest that the disorder may be caused by genes. Just like some illnesses, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be caused by a combination of different factors. Apart from genetics, studies are being done to determine a possibility of environmental factors playing a role. There are studies that indicate that nutrition, social environment and brain injuries might be some of the other causes.
It is important to note that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be mistaken for other medical conditions. This is why it is important to consider the symptoms of the child carefully and seek professional medical help immediately. Treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that are currently available focus in symptoms reduction and improved functioning. Treatments include psychotherapy, medication, training or education and a combination of different treatments.
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