Strategic Leadership in the Hospitality Industry
Khakssar Ghahroodi, H., bin Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali, M., & Seyed Ghorban, Z. (2013). Examining Ethical Leadership and Its Impacts on the Followers’ Behavioral Outcomes. Asian Social Science, 9(3), 91-96. doi:10.5539/ass.v9n3p91
In this article, authors investigated ethical leadership and its role in the entire hospitality sector. The aim of the researchers was specifically to determine the relationship that exists between employees’ retention and role modeling in any hospitality firm. The study had four guiding hypothesis.
First, job satisfaction of junior managers is influenced positively by the commitment of the high ranking leaders to an ethical leadership. Second, a feeling of belonging to an organization is enhanced among the middle managers by the commitment of the top leaders to an ethical leadership. Third, job satisfaction and the possibility of leaving an organization among junior managers have a negative correlation. Finally, a negative correlation exists between the intention of junior leaders to leave an organization and the feeling of belonging to the organization.
Information was gathered by the researchers with an aim of examining the hypothesis. 117 junior managers in Malaysian travel and tour companies provided the information. According to the findings of these researchers, a positive relationship existed between job satisfaction and a feeling of belonging. Additionally, there was evidence to link a feeling of belonging and job satisfaction to the intention or lower rates of leaving an organization. Ethical leadership, according to the researchers was relatively new in this industry. However, it was becoming increasingly recognized by researchers. Nevertheless, these authors observed that ethical leadership’s role in this industry which includes influencing job satisfaction, feeling of belonging to the organization and the likelihood of leaving has not gotten much attention.
These findings are used by the authors in supporting the belief that a model of ethical leadership can benefit the entire hospitality industry. Job satisfaction and ethical leadership have a positive correlation which means that the employees’ behavior can be influenced by executive leaders via role modeling. The managers of the organization can realize this goal by developing and maintaining a good ethical code that describe employees’ behaviors and proper procedures of making decisions.
The researchers established that ethical codes are not imposed on employees by ethical leaders. Instead, they exemplify the behaviors that they would like to see among their employees to influence their behavior. The emphasis of the researchers is that a practical approach that can motivate employees while increasing productivity is leading by example.
The conclusion of the authors shows that the entire hospitality industry can be affected in various ways by ethical leadership apart from increasing job satisfaction and commitment. Thus, this subject should be investigated further. Additionally, the belief of the researchers is that other hospitality industry’s sectors apart from travel and tour agencies can benefit from ethical leadership.
This is a relevant study in the entire hospitality industry in regards to leadership development since it shows the potential benefits of ethical leadership when employed as a leadership model. Modern leaders have to familiarize themselves with ethical issues that affect the entire hospitality industry. This is very important because ethics are now a crucial research and debate topic in almost all sectors of business. Thus, this article highlights the importance of training leaders on ethical leadership’s principles as well as role modeling.
Lamelas, J., & Filipe, J. (2011). Co-leadership in the tourism sector companies: increasing effectiveness and efficiency. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(4), 475-480.
This article analyzes the shared leadership concept in the contemporary hospitality firms while highlighting certain factors that make co-leadership effective in the management of the tourism and hotels industry.
These researchers start by giving an overview of the history of co-leadership which depicts the evolution of human leadership from the patriarchal system where an organization’s leadership was entrusted to one leader who was considered to possess a divine leadership gift to the approach where team leadership is valued. The traditional leadership training model is challenged by the authors.
This leadership training model had views of different thinkers such as Aristotle whose belief was that a single person had the leadership ability in a society or organization as its basis. According to these authors, the appreciation of team leadership has increased significantly after the Second World War. However, many models that are used in training leaders still depict leadership as one leader’s responsibility such as the CEO, chairman or president.
The article presents factors that make co-leadership successful when used as a model of managing organizations. The researchers acknowledge that co-leadership is not usually effective than sole leadership. A business’ context determines the leadership model that it chooses. Thus, it is important to be careful when choosing a leadership model. Among the factors that influence shared leadership’s results include the first selection criteria, stability and capabilities of an individual, nature of the roles of a shared leadership, the essence of complementing skills, as well as the chosen role-sharing strategy.
These researchers also discuss factors that necessitate using shared leadership within the contemporary business environment. Factors that have been identified by these researchers include the essence of merging organizations with similar business operations as a way of maximizing benefits that come with co-ownership and globalization of organizations as well as the essence of trying a modern approach in leadership of organizations in which other approaches have failed. The essence of rapid changes in an organization in order to deal with complex business and organizational environment more so in the hospitality sector is another factor.
The other co-leadership approach discussed by the researchers is participative management where owners and employees participate in the leadership through risk management, responding to different issues, participating in improving programs continuously and taking extra steps towards the achievement of the set organizational goals.
The essence of shared leadership within the tourism sector is also discussed by the researchers. They describe this sector as complex and in need of large investments, elastic demand, stiff competition, high seasonality and labor intensive. According to these researchers, the major problem that the entire hotel industry is facing is the need for a more flexible model of leadership that is capable of responding to business environment’s changes via experimentation, continuous modification and taking risk.
The conclusion of these researchers is that there is a need to consider every variable that can influence the organizational success within the entire hospitality industry so as to effectively apply co-leadership. The main argument of these researchers is that although it is commonly believed that co-leadership is ineffective, the demand of the tourism sector is that more competencies and leadership skills that a single individual cannot possess should be applied. This makes shared leadership the most preferable leadership model in the industry.
This is a relevant article in the development of strategic leadership within the entire hospitality industry since it depicts co-leadership as a model of leadership that can be pursued by leaders. Choosing this leadership model demands the designing of proper programs for training leaders in order to prepare them for a new model.
Bernsen, P., Segers, M. & Tillema, H. H. (2009). Learning under pressure: learning strategies, workplace climate, and leadership style in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Resources Development and Management 9(4), 358-373.
This article examines the impact that leadership model, organizational settings and learning approaches have on the middle managers in the whole hospitality industry. The study is motivated by the significant realization of varied benefits that come from professional development that equips leaders with vital leadership competencies for solving challenges within the business environment that is becoming more unpredictable.
The belief of the authors is that employees’ attitude is mainly affected by the working environment. Among the styles of leadership focused on by the researchers include transformational leadership where employee’s goals are aligned with organizational goals. They also focused on transactional leadership where the concern of leaders is working conditions’ improvement rather than organizational goals. The researchers also focused on laissez-faire leadership where most decisions are made by the employees.
Several findings are reported by the study about workplace climate’s relationship, learning and style of leadership. First, a correlation was established between leadership model and workplace environment. Leaders who were interested in supporting employees had higher chances of practicing transformational leadership. A positive association was found to exist between transactional leadership and exercising more freedom in organizing tasks among employees of an organization (choice dependence). Both transformational and transactional leadership approaches establish a workplace that has positive supervision as well as considerable freedom in organizing tasks.
Second, a clear-cut correlation was established between learning style and workplace environment. Nevertheless, positive correlation was reported between workload and deep style of learning.
Third, they associated surface learning with a transactional leadership especially due to the fact that transactional leaders do not concern themselves with the development of their employees. Instead, they motivate employees by rewarding them. Surface learning can be common within the entire hospitality industry since the days of managers are usually busy.
In a nut shell, the belief of the researchers is that leaders who wish to develop middle managers have to consider the demands that the employees are required to meet while handling difficult tasks and operating under pressure. Additionally, the study shows that learning is possible among middle managers even with their busy schedules. According to this research, supportive leadership plays a vital role of facilitating employees’ learning.
This is a relevant study in the development of strategic leadership within the entire hospitality industry since leaders have to deliberately take measures that will enhance employees’ training as a way of preparing them for current and future challenges within the industry. Understanding learning strategy and leadership style’s correlation will enable leaders to select a leadership approach that will support learning styles that suit personal and organizational goals.
Journal Article Analysis
Raban, B.,(2012), Early literacy – audience, context and purpose . Practically Primary, 17( 2),4-5.
Raban states learning begins before children begin to attend school and that the Early Years Framework explains the outcomes and practice of enhancing the learning of children. During the early years before children start formal school are of importance in enhancing as well as encouraging their ability to learn across different aspects of social, physical and cognitive spheres. It is also of importance to bring together education and care instead of putting education down in aspects of education. The structure offers an explanation on regulars and the effects of increasing the knowledge of young children. It is crucial to know the outcomes achieved in order to judge learning through skill, assessments and progress monitoring known as assessment learning. The reform-National Quality Standard measures childhood services and indicates the quality environment that is essential for the early education and learning of a child. The ideas teachers hold on learning is what determines the provision of literacy experience. The assumption made by teachers on how children can become literate either limits or broadens their development chances. Therefore, literacy experiences can be detrmined by the manner and equipments teachers model and how they enhance the efforts made by children. As such educators are limited in anticipations of learning progress. They also lack wider depiction and importance of children reasoning in a literate manner.
Raban, B.,(2012), Early literacy – audience, context and purpose . Practically Primary, 17( 2),4-5.
Raban, in the article suggests review of practices and policies towards the achievement of objectives of early childhood literacy. It is also necessary to appreciate natural links between the growth of the child and early exposure. The recognition of early experience also leads to establishment of home-preschool-school interface which results to appreciation of the significance of educaton on the lives of children. The article also states preschool children are more likely to use print in real life so long as the are within an environment that promotes it.
Raban states those who get support explore meaning of print as well as its use and they demonstrate capacities of using legit writing before formal instruction can be initiated. Australia, measurement was done on how children develop through use of Australian Early Development Index (AEDI, that determines cognitive skills as well as emotional maturity. There was also the Numeracy study that explored realization of numeracy and scenary learning in relation to development in children.the latest regulations and national rules that led to programs of early childhood commencement in order to review their practice as well as an informal amd formal development. So that the instructors can identify learning outcomes, it is important to perform assessment in skills achieved. Literacy basics are also provided based on the related expectaions regardless of the skills that are displayed in Preschool year. The early childhood literacy is of great importance since it sows excitement and professionalism in young ones by giving them courage needed to grow in life with reflection and determination of practice and professionalism.
Bridie Raban, a superior researcher in Australian council for Educational Research’s (ACER) learning programs, teaching and management as well as a voluntary researcher (Eimly Childhood) at the Melbourne Graduate School of Education. Bridie researches on development in the field of Early Childhood as well as literacy development and intervention. She has already established a career in execution of early childhood learning and constant support of untimely international literacy . Bridie has also written an article aimed to prove how children, being exposed to early learning have the ability to use the knowledge they acquire in real life later, exploring experience that is available within their environment.
Raban, B.,(2012), Early literacy – audience, context and purpose . Practically Primary, 17( 2),4-5.
How to Write an Analysis Paragraph
Knowing how to write an analysis paragraph makes writing analytical essays easier. An analysis paragraph is a paragraph that responds to analytical issues. A good analysis paragraph should support the claim or thesis statement that is presented at the end of an introductory paragraph of an analysis essay. It does this by providing evidence, which can be a quote, and explaining how the work and literary features enhance the impact or contribute to the success of the work as a whole piece.
Why you need to know how to write an analysis paragraph
Analysis paragraphs are at the core of research papers, history essays and other writing assignments that require you to demonstrate your ability to think critically and tell others what you are thinking about. Usually, most students are taught how to construct analysis paragraphs in junior high as well as high school. However, knowing how to construct them and practicing their construction will greatly help you in college and university. Any well-paying job requires the employee to process information in an analytical manner.
Additionally, logic requires that ideas and their supporting evidence be conveyed in an analytical manner to convince readers. It is analytical paragraphs that make this presentation possible especially in research papers. Therefore, to write good research papers and other documents, you must know how analysis paragraphs should be written.
A step by step guide on how to write an analysis paragraph
Step 1: Develop a topic sentence for your analysis paragraph
This is a sentence that tells your readers what the paragraph that you are writing is about. It states the main idea of the analysis paragraph. This sentence should be the first one in your analysis paragraph. It should also connect to your thesis statement. Make sure that your topic sentence is not a mere statement of facts but a statement that other reasonable people can argue against or for. The topic sentence should also present an idea that you are passionate about and something that has a crucial meaning to you. Tell readers about something that you are confident that it deserves your expression through this sentence and make it concise.
“The feeling of Mama is that the complications that she and Walter are facing are due to their differences but their differences are in fact caused by their common desire for pride.”
Step 2: Establish context and introduce evidence
The topic sentence should be followed by background information, explanation of the setting, the condition, motivations and characters. These are important because they orient readers to the analysis. Providing evidence after a topic sentence helps in supporting the stated main point in the topic sentence and creating context of the analysis. Some people think that examples or quotes that they use in supporting their thinking speak enough in an analysis. However, this is not true. Although you are thinking, your readers do not know what you are thinking about.
Therefore, your analysis paragraph should:
- Provide a context for the readers before presenting evidence. This should show who the example or quote involves, what is generally happening and when or where it is happening.
- Include details that you consider necessary in establishing a smooth flow of information and ideas in the analysis paragraph.
Step 3: Provide support or examples
After introducing your evidence, you should support it with examples. Choose the examples or support to include in your analysis paragraph wisely. For instance, you can choose a quote that expands on your topic sentence or the main point of the analysis paragraph while allowing for analysis or elaboration. Thus, you should pick a quote that you have something to say about. Additionally, avoid a quote that is simply a repetition of what you have already said or too complex to use in supporting your idea.
Step 4: Write the analysis
This is perhaps, the most important step of a guide on how to write an analysis paragraph. Here, you bring your ideas into play. This part is very important because it is where you express your thoughts and show how the quote or example that you have selected supports the main point that you expressed through the topic sentence.
While writing your analysis:
- Analyze the quote in a clear manner explaining the visible connection between the quote and the main point of the paragraph as expressed in the topic sentence. Do not assume that readers can see the connection.
“The belief of Mama is that due to changes in times, Walter can no longer understand the challenges and difficulties endured by his parents in ensuring that their children have a good life. Consequently, the pride his father and mother had for their family no longer exists.
- Avoid simply restating the quote or using phrases like, “this quote indicates that” or “this quote proves that.”
The analysis section should be the largest in your analysis paragraph trying to prove or support your main point as stated in the topic sentence. It should include a detailed illustration and irrefutable facts with an aim of persuading the audience.
Step 5: Write a profound transitional or concluding sentence
This is the final sentence of your analysis paragraph. It should create a good impression in the readers. Consider your concluding sentence carefully just the way you consider the topic sentence. Make sure that your concluding sentence unveils a specific unseen aspect of the analysis. Avoid a simple restatement of your topic sentence and instead, take a unique approach.
“Although Walter does not win the liquor store, they resolve their differences in the end. They reach an understanding that gives each tremendous pride though the pride of each of them takes a different form.
Checklist for a good analysis paragraph
A good analysis paragraph should have four major elements.
- A topic sentence: This is a clear answer or response to a topic statement or topic question.
- Evidence: This is one or two citations or quotations that support the answer that is presented through the topic sentence.
- Analysis: This comprises of between two to four sentences that explain the topic sentence and the evidence in relation to the stated topic question.
- Concluding sentence: This states the conclusion or the vital thing that is learnt or what comes out clearly in regards to the topic question.
In a properly organized analysis paragraph, these elements work together in creating a unified and coherent piece.
Bonus tips on how to write an analysis paragraph that serves its purpose effectively
While writing an analysis paragraph, think about it as a mini-essay whose aim is to prove a particular aspect of the thesis statement of your overall essay.
- Make sure that your analysis paragraph makes a debatable claim through the topic sentence.
- Provide a proof for the claim and show how the claim is supported by the evidence through your analysis.
- Conclude your analysis paragraph with an effective transition to give your argument a logical flow.
Example of an analysis paragraph
To understand how to write an analysis paragraph better, take a closer look at a well written analysis paragraph.
Here is such an analysis paragraph:
“Alexander the Great became a successful ruler for creating long lasting impacts on cultures which continue up to this day. The creation of the Hellenistic Society is a good example of the legacy of this ruler. Hellenistic society combined the Greek, Egyptian and Persian cultures. During the remarkable time of this society, members of the society were encouraged to develop different arts and pursue education formally. New art designs, science and math that impact on the modern society emerged that time. Were it not for the success of the new culture introduced at the time of Alexander the Great, his legacy would not be as groundbreaking and memorable as it is. By merging cultures and conquering several countries, this ruler has been credited for many achievements throughout history.”
This sample of an analysis paragraph starts with a clear topic sentence, main point or thesis. It identifies the thesis or main point of the paragraph. The second sentence introduces the example by using a specific detail in history, “the Hellenistic society.” This sentence also uses the transition, “a good example” to enhance the logical flow of information. This is followed by the analysis of the main point and the provided example. Part of this analysis is the definition of the Hellenistic society and the explanation of the historical information or detail that follows.
The writer ends the analysis with the explanation of what makes the stated example or evidence important. The writer makes a clear connection of the example or evidence to the argument of the analysis paragraph. Finally, the author concludes the analysis paragraph with a sentence that sums up the thesis or main point of the analysis paragraph. The sentence reminds readers what the thesis statement or main point of the paragraph was and the example that has been used in the paragraph.
Get online help with an analysis paragraph
Contact us today for help in writing your analysis paragraphs or visit our website’s homepage for additional information regarding our writing services. Alternatively, continue reading for more guidelines and tips on how to write an analysis paragraph and samples on this blog.
The Future Privatization of the UAE
Privatization is considered as the most viable solution to dealing with the existing problems that currently face the UAE. This platform is founded on the important roles that this institution has played in spearheading wealth generation amongst different peoples in different parts of the world. One of the key solutions articulated by management frameworks is total overhaul of organizations. The harsh reality that has been brought forth by economic problems in the UAE have led organizations to initiate designs of privatization to deal with these economic issues.
Keywords (Privatization, organization, management, economic, social, future,)
The United Arabs Emirates future trends are centered within the needs to secure bright future for the country. The UAE is currently going through tough economic conditions and this has brought about the need to use privatization as one of the solutions to the financial woes. This is attributed to the massive wealth and control that the UAE as an institution holds over the globe. According to some studies, the UAE has control over most of the oil reserves and energy resources, in addition to economic infrastructure and this wealth has come with many responsibilities. Over time political and social hiccups have led many to believe that privatization of the UAE is the most feasible solution to its problems. One of the major problems involves leadership and managerial lapses that are being experienced within the top structure of the organization. In fact, according to the experts the social and economic problems being currently experienced by the United Arab Emirates need some form of immediate realistic redress (Celâsun, 2001, p.67). Some have attributed the weakness of this organization to the low overseas debts and other economic problems currently being faced by major economies around the world. Through privatization as a platform, there is hope of breaking down bureaucratic processes being experienced in the management of UAE and helping the country retain its importance in the world economic and social affairs.
The past century has experienced a variety of social and economic activities that have had an effect on the UAE. Tremendous social and economic pillars have been integrated within the United Arabs Emirates as whole. This has been received with mixed reactions with some criticizing the management diseconomies that have taken place based on the wide variety of activities undertaken by the institution. The UAE operates a multifaceted economic set up that encompasses different operational and trading platforms with research showing that the country controls different economic and trading activities within the business sector. Its main operations are within the the exploration of oil and energy resources as well as infrastructural investments. Despite this control and having majored in investments as well as other forms of trade, the UAE has had many management and leadership problems and especially with regard to the conduct of some of its officials and administrators. If allowed to persist, these management problems have the potential to place the viability of the organization under questionable and doubtful circumstances in future hence the dire need for privatization as a solution. Privatization measures will first embark on structurally reforming Abu Dhabi. The manifesto of this organization spells out some social attributes of this organization as good service delivery, and maximum social responsibility for all its members, as well as the society at large (Gonzales, 2008, p.123). Ultimately, the management problems of the UAE can be resolved through restructuring.
There have been difficulties in predicting the future leadership of the UAE because of the current managerial problems. Even though its vested interests are viable and stable, its management casts doubt in its leadership structures. Privatization is the process through which private firms or individuals get the permit to lease an organization’s social and business interests for an agreed period of time. It is one of the major undertakings in restructuring viable organizations taken up to save many public institutions (Schwartz, 2010, p. 62). By allowing for privatization to take place, the UAE will salvage its image and future because there will be intrusion of new management and this will help to curb vices perpetrated through managerial and administrative officials. One of the main challenges caused by management problems in the UAE is the increased gap in social and economic structures of shareholders which has been created by the strata put in place by the management. The huge gap between the rich and poor will inevitably create tensions amongst shareholders of the UAE. This can be resolved through privatization. Currently the Emirates is undertaking privatization processes to resolve these problems. Abu Dhabi has embraced the privatization frameworks as the solution to social and economic gaps as well as diseconomies. In fact, privatization is deemed as a viable solution because it will create more wealth and reduce managerial diseconomies.
The taking up of privatization by Abu Dhabi has somewhat increased tensions because of the rise in the gap between the rich and the poor. Nevertheless Abu Dhabi has made great strides to reduce through the UAE privatization under which subsidies to the northern emirates have been reduced. Such moves have generated some amount of success even though poverty margins have still been seen to increase. The future success of the privatization process lies in the stipulated programs and changes in leadership structures. In fact, the leadership structure has remained firm and reinforced the support for the privatization project and the United Arab Emirates foresees a brighter future because of this project (Delener, 1999, p.95). It is expected that a firm leadership will be generated through this privatization project.
The financial and social burden experienced in the UAE remain strongly linked to the leadership structure in place. The solutions to these pertinent administrative problems are anchored in the confines of privatization. Currently, the future of UAE seems bright under the capable leadership ofShaykh Khalifa. In addition, privatization also permits majority of the reprieves offered under UAE’s membership. The service sector which is of high importance to UAE has been largely affected by the privatization process because of conditional factors that encourage domination of experts in service delivery to many of UAE’s organs. most reprieves to the UAE’s membership. Privatization has not come without its own share of problems. For instance analysts state that an institution like UAE is supposed to have the mandate and capabilities for solving social and economic problems. An institution like UAE has the mandate of solving most social and economic problems in the society. Leadership and integrity are viewed as pertinent social aspects that form the basic elements of the organization (Ramamurti& Hashai, 2011,p.78). To this effect, building a viable and sound leadership structure is seen as the responsibility of the UAE.
The current status and trend of theUAE leadership has caused huge social and economic problems that need to be addressed immediately. Through privatization, social pillars are being created for this organization with an aim of building strong leadership that can propel viable economic solutions for the institution. The platform also offers economic integration and institution that will create social justice and eliminate barriers to economic success for different social classes.
The privatization platform has created firm and socially vigilant frameworks for administration and leadership hence brightening and stabilizing the future prospects of UAE. The operational platform of this organization has prioritized leadership transparency and effectiveness in its stature. In addition, it has taken up social responsibility activities and good service delivery which the society at large heavily depend on. These pertinent restructuring activities form fundamental solutions to reducing poverty margins and conflicts that exist within the UAE as an organization.
Celâsun, M. (2001).State-owned enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa: Privatization, performance and reform. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
Delener, N. (1999). Strategic planning and multinational trading blocs. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Quorum Books.
Energy Conference, Markazal-Imārātli-d-Dirāsātwa-‘l-Buḥū̱t al-Istrātīǧīya, & Annual Energy Conference. (1999). Privatization and deregulation in the Gulf energy sector. Abu Dhabi.
Gonzalez, G., Rand Corporation, Rand-Qatar Policy Institute, Rand Education (Institute), & Labor and Population Program. (2008). Facing human capital challenges of the 21st century: Education and labor market initiatives in Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates: executive summary. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corp.
Ramamurti, R., &Hashai, N. (2011).The future of foreign direct investment and the multinational enterprise. Bingley, UK: Emerald.
Schwartz, D. (2010). The future of finance: How private equity and venture capital will shape the global economy. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
United Arab Emirates Mineral & Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. (2012). s.l.: International Business Publications.
Toys R US Marketing Plan
General Motors Company is a global vehicle manufacturing based in Detroit, USA. It boasts of its operations in more than 150 countries and more than 10 vehicle brand models in 35 countries across the globe. These features make the company rich in income and in asset. Currently, General Motors employs 212,000 people in its operations in its branches across the globe.
Besides motor vehicle manufacturing, the company offers consumer banking and vehicle financing services as well as housing mortgages. These services helps he company to supplement a great deal on its revenue in its effort to complete in international business arena. General Motors has also been growing since the year 2010 and it has registered high revenue returns based on high vehicle brand sales and more specifically the Chevrolet vehicle brand.
The success rate of the company is attributed to its mission to produce high quality products. It also has competent professionals and high profitability to the company’s stakeholders. The General Motors 2010 annual report says
‘‘The new General Motors has one clear vision: to design, build and sell the world’s best vehicles. Our new business model revolves around this vision, focusing on fewer brands, compelling vehicle design, innovative technology, and improved manufacturing productivity and streamlined, more efficient inventory processes. The end result is products that delight customers and generate higher volumes and margins- and ultimately deliver more cash to invest in our future vehicles.’’ (General Motors, 2010 Annual Report, 2010).
General Motors focuses on technology as a way of satisfying tastes and preferences of its clients to become a leading motor vehicle company with high brand visibility or coverage in the global market based on its annual income of $9.2 billion annually.
General Motors has three major competitors in the market and they are Honda, Nissan and Ford motor companies. These are companies with a wide range of motor brands selling greatly across the global market.
Nissan Company is a major automobile manufacturing company based in Japan and it competes globally with General Motors. The main goal of the company is to produce automobiles that are environmentally friendly for example its latest Nissan leaf electric car. It has more than 156,000 staff members in its branches across the globe.
It is also a global company that generates revenue of $116.16 billion per year and profit of $4.13 billion (Nissan, 2012). The company’s mission statement indicates a clear determination to enrich the lives of its clients through innovative and valuable products. This is in connection with a price strategy that is not under estimated for their global automobile brands.
The company also has high market share and it aims at increasing it to 8 percent across the glove as well as its global profits. The company’s global strategy is also diverse with that of its competitor General Motors because Nissan is more focused on customer service and is also sensitive on environmental impact of its products. General Motors however engages in other financial businesses including housing mortgages unlike Nissan which is into automotive (Nissan, 2012).
Ford Company is located in Michigan, USA and has more than 171, 000 staff. Besides automobiles, the company deals with automotive financing. Over the years it has been in the industry, profits and income of the company had been declining but still high at $5.664 billion income. It operates on a one team; one goal and one plan that generally give raise to ‘one Ford built for the road ahead’, a slogan that drives the company to generate high revenues.
Through the company’s one strategy, Ford has continued to leverage its stock globally as its key springboard to compete efficiently in the global market. It focuses more on team work and not so much into other forms of investment outside automotive business as it is with the General Motors. Ford also boasts of high market shares in USA (19.5%) and in Europe (7.5%). The company’s strategy is to expand its Asian market and other parts of the world (Ford, 2013).
Honda is a Japanese company automotive company that also manufactures motorbikes. Motorbikes has earned the company great sales in the market compared to other motor companies. It has a wide coverage in automobiles including power generators, garden machines and water engines. This is one of the factors that make the company highly competitive in the global market because of wide range of products.
More than 180,000 employees work in the company that has a global market share of 6.7% and generates $5.00billion (Honda, 2012).
From the analysis above, it is clear that Nissan commands a high global market share in automobiles then Honda followed by the General Motors. General Motors ranks low in market share because of financial crisis the company suffered in 2009, as the other companies remained strong in the market.
Comparison of financial ratios
- EPS- earnings per share
- ROA-return on assets
- ROE-return on equity
- Profit margin and
- Current ratio
Companies’ quarterly financial ratios
|Financial Ratios||General Motors||Honda||Nissan Ford|
|Profit Margin||3.62%||4.32%||3.673% 3.24 %|
When it comes to the global, Honda Company is a major threat. This is because it is the largest motorcycle manufacturing company and it offers a wide range of automobiles compared to the General Motors, who focuses more on motor vehicles. The other companies make the most of high financial returns from their strategies and diverse production.
Ford Company for example has a one team, one goal and one company strategy that drive it to perform even better in the global market (Ford, 2013). The company also needs to venture in a wide range of automobiles and diversify its products alongside a market strategy that will give it a competitive edge.
Barofsky, Neil. Factors Affecting the Decisions of General Motors. Darby, PA: Diane publishing company, 2010.
“Ford Motor Company U.S. Sales Up 6 Percent, Outpacing Industry for … – Press Release.” Ford Motor Company – Official Global Ford Corporate Information . Ford, 1 Oct. 2013. Web. 2 Oct. 2013. <http://corporate.ford.com/news-center/press-releases-detail/september-2013-sales>.
- General Motors. 2010. “2010 Annual Report.” Retrieved October 2, 2013.
Honda Motor Co. Ltd. (HMC) | Common Stock Valuation Ratios (Price Multiples). (2012) Retrieved from http://www.stock-analysis-on.net/NYSE/Company/Honda-Motor-Co-Ltd/Valuation/Ratios>
Nissan motor company. News releases. Nissan Production, Sales and Export Results for December and Calendar Year 2012. Retrieved from http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/NEWS/2013/_STORY/130128-01-e.html.
An Easy way of how to write a thesis statement for an essay
A thesis statement is a condensation of your argument or main idea. In academic writing, your thesis statement should appear towards the end of your introduction paragraph. In most cases, a thesis is a single sentence that summarizes the rest of your paper. However, in some cases, especially when writing very long papers, a thesis could be several sentences or a paragraph. Importantly, no essay is complete without a thesis statement. Thus, whether you are preparing to tackle a short essay or your PhD dissertation, you must have the tips of how to write a thesis statement for an essay at your fingertips. This will ensure that you do not go off the tangent as you put together your ideas.
This document will take you through different steps that will help you develop awesome thesis statements whenever you are writing academic essays. Here is what is coming up….
- Importance of a thesis statement
- Developing a thesis statement
- Making your thesis strong
- Examples of thesis statements
Read on and get the facts right…
The basics of how to write a thesis statement for an essay and why you need one
When writing an academic essay, it is important to state the purpose of your paper. The reader wants to know why you writing on the topic. This purpose should come early in your paper to help your audience understand your argument better. Do not hide the aim of your assignment. Here are the functions of an effective thesis statement
States the function of your paper- A thesis should clearly define what you are discussing. What is your argument?
Determines the structure of your paper – An effective thesis statement will dictate the order of your ideas and supporting evidence. This is essential in shaping the structure of your final draft.
Strengthens your argument – One can only tell the strength of your argument by looking at your thesis statement. Use this statement to win your audience by making it captivating.
It guides your audience – As you think about how to write a thesis statement for an essay, have in mind the needs of your readers. A good thesis acts as a compass to you as the writer and as a guide to the reader. It ensures that you are moving together without any disconnect.
With this introduction, let us look at sample thesis statements before we move to the next section:
Example #1: Sample thesis Statement
“Admission panelists in colleges experience a dilemma of admitting students who have high-test scores or those with strong extracurricular backgrounds”.
This is an analytical thesis statement from OWL. If someone were reading an essay with this thesis, he or she would expect the essay to discuss the following in details:
- The process of admitting students in colleges
- Challenges which admission panelists face
Steps of how to write a thesis statement for an essay
Did you know that you could reduce every writing assignment into a single question, regardless of how it is complicated? Well, you first assignment before you start writing your essay should always be finding a suitable question that summarizes the task ahead.
Once you have the question that you are about to answer in your essay, go ahead and summarize your thoughts in two or three sentences.
Here are hints of how to write a thesis statement for an essay to help you master this better:
STEP 1: Brainstorm the topic – The first step is to look at your topic from all angles and write down the ideas, which pop in your mind. Since most of these ideas will be broad, you will have to refine them in order to turn into guiding statements.
Step 2: Narrow your topic – An effective topic is a narrow topic. A narrow topic is specific and focuses on a particular aspect of the issue. This allows you to be focused as you piece together your ideas. For example, instead of talking about Internet as your topic, refine your title. “How the internet has revolutionized communication in the 21st century” narrows down to a specific issue.
Step 3: Take your position on the topic – After narrowing to a specific topic, state what you want to discuss. For example, you may take an opposing position and support your stance throughout your paper. When taking a position, be sure to research and find out evidence backing your angle.
Step 4: Use a specific language – As you draft your thesis, do not use general or vague language. Be clear and concise with what you are saying. The reader must not have any doubts regarding your position and your discussion.
Step 5: Revise your thesis – Mastering how to write a thesis statement for an essay is about giving your best. At this stage, revisit your statement and fine-tune to make it strong and effective. Do not assume anything or leave gaps for the reader to fill. Put everything, as you would want your audience to understand. Examine the following example as you reflect on the five steps above. From the example, you should be able to visualize how the writer employed the strategies we have discussed in this section.
Example #2: Sample Thesis Statement
The following is a thesis statement of an essay titled, We Can Live Without Petroleum. The writer says:
“Petroleum offers a wide range of opportunities and advantages to humanity. However, the world can overcome overreliance oil by exploring alternative sources of energy that are renewable, cost effective and environmentally friendly.”
From this thesis statement, the reader expects the following in the essay:
- Advantages of petroleum as a source of energy
- Disadvantages of petroleum as a source of energy
- Alternative sources of energy in comparison to petroleum
This thesis is specific because it narrows to petroleum as a source of energy.
Writing a strong thesis for your essay
A strong thesis captures your argument and helps your audience to follow your ideas. It is the backbone of your paper, without which you will not accomplish your objectives. How do you make your thesis strong? This section gives you more hints on how to write a thesis statement for an essay without any struggle.
A strong thesis takes a firm stand – A good thesis should state your take on the subject. Tell your audience about your conclusions on the issue you are discussing. A statement that does not take a clear stance is weak. It is likely to give you a weak argument.
A strong thesis qualifies your discussion – Your thesis should be a pointer to your main discussion point.
A strong thesis has one idea – Do not crowd ideas in your thesis statement. Readers want to see one clear issue in your thesis. Multiple thesis statements are likely to confuse your audience. In addition, you are likely to wander as you develop your ideas and loose track.
Example #3: Sample Bad Thesis Statement
Organizations should utilize internet marketing opportunities, and online gurus can offer advertizing and customer support simultaneously.
This example has multiple ideas, making it hard for the reader to follow your argument. When you read this statement, it is not clear if the writer is discussing marketing or online companies.
A strong thesis is specific – Show exactly what you are discussing in your paper. The reader should now flip through several chapters looking for your purpose. Make it clear in your introduction.
As you discover how to write a thesis statement for an essay, it is equally important to understand common mistakes that students make. In the following section, you will learn about these errors plus ways of avoiding them.
The don’ts of how to write thesis statement for an essay
To put together a good thesis statement, avoid the following:
No thesis at all – This is a grave and inexcusable mistake. You must have a thesis statement for all your essays. In cases where your tutor is very strict, he or she may not grade your work if you do not have a thesis statement.
Avoid general statements – Sweeping generalizations are not thesis statements.
Avoid reporting facts – Scientific or documented facts are not thesis statements. Go deeper into in the matter and tell your reader why the issue is important.
Avoid announcing your thesis – Do not publicly announce your thesis. ‘This is paper will discuss A, B, and C’ is a wrong way of stating your argument.
Do not hide your thesis – Your thesis should appear towards the end of your first paragraph.
This document gives you all the secrets of how to write a thesis statement for an essay. With it, you have the key to batter writing experience. All the best.
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Good Ways to Start an Essay
In order to deliver essays that will attract your audience and compel them to read on, you should know good ways to start an essay paper. They way your essay is introduced will determine whether readers will be interested in it or not. The following section will not only show you some of the good ways to start an essay paper but also offer advice on how to choose the right approach to pursue when writing an essay introduction. Besides, you will also be able to find examples illustrating how essay papers should begin.
Essays are academic papers that require proper analysis and evaluation of the topic of discussion before writing. The introduction part of an essay paper is written to inform readers about the topic and motivate them to continue reading. The essay should start on a high note that can capture the attention of the audience. Therefore, it is advisable that you know a couple of good ways to start an essay for success.
Tips on how to choose good ways to start an essay paper
There are various ways through which an essay paper can be introduced. However, it should be noted that academic papers follow a particular writing format that you should always consider. The following are some of the points to also consider when choosing good ways to start an essay paper.
Get information about the topic
Despite the approach that you will pursue in starting the essay, you will need to also provide readers with a precise background information about the subject. This will be used in setting the stage for your thesis statement. Therefore, it is important that you evaluate your points keenly in order to come up with a few points or facts for introducing the paper. The information should be based on outstanding facts about your subject.
Refine your thesis
At the point of picking a strategy for writing the introduction paragraph, you must have decided on the main claim of the paper. But, it is important that you refine it further to ensure that it represents your specific reason for writing the essay.
When refining the thesis, you should also draft a plan that will be used to show readers how the paper is organized. It is recommended that you come up with a unified statement that highlights the main claim and plan of the paper.
Know the type of essay
There are various types of essays that you can be asked to write including analytical, argumentative, persuasive, and expository among others. Each of these essays play a specific role and requires a particular format or style of writing. Therefore, it is advisable that you also consider the kind of essay that you will be writing in order to choose the most appropriate approach for the introduction.
For example, a short story about yourself or anecdote can work quite well for a personal essay introduction unlike an argumentative essay.
Consider your audience
An audience refers to readers or people to whom the essay is addressed. Based on your target readers, you should always start the paper with information that they can read, understand and relate to with ease.
Choosing good ways to start an essay paper
Just as hinted above, there are numerous ways on how to frame the introduction of an essay paper. However, not all may work for you in every paper. The following are some of the good ways to start an essay that you can choose from.
Anecdote or quotation
It many circumstances, it is said that emotions appeal more to readers than plain facts. One of the best ways of evoking emotions in essay writing is starting the paper with a brief story that is memorable and relevant to the topic of discussion.
In case you decide to use an anecdote, always go for a short narrative that is engaging while also creating a clear link to your argument that will be expressed in the paper. You can draw from myths or legends that tend to answer a similar question to your own. For quotes, you should choose those that are outstanding.
Interesting facts about the subject
Another way to start an essay is giving some facts about the topic that are not known to many people. In order to make the introduction compelling, you should identify facts that readers should know but not likely to access. Find something out of the obvious to tell your audience in the introduction, ate least that would compel them to finding out more from the rest of the paper.
The facts presented in the introduction of your essay should be surprising and related to the problem that the paper seeks to address.
Starting an essay paper by highlighting something or a point that you disagree with can be another way of introduction. For instance, you can begin by giving the long-standing belief about an idea, then transition to the different conclusions that your discussion will present. This approach is mainly recommended for argumentative essays.
You can also start an essay paper by posing a question to the readers. Rhetorical questions are often used but you can as well just ask one that deserves an answer. The question should be short and well linked to the topic of discussion.
Generally, an ideal way to start an essay paper should be one that can enable you to easily formulate a brief, topical and compelling introduction.
Writing an essay introduction
Depending on the way that you choose to start your essay, there are other elements of an introduction that you should also keep in mind. In fact, the good ways to start an essay highlighted above should mainly be used as the hook or ‘’attention grabber.’’
Other elements that should also be included in the introduction of your essay include:
- Brief relevant background information about the subject
- Thesis statement
- Plan showing how the essay is organized
All these should be presented in the first paragraph of your essay to portray a typical introduction. However, you should always try to make the paragraph short so your readers can have a quick grasp of what the essay is all about.
A good essay introduction should start in the following order:
- Attention grabber or hook: Among the various ways highlighted above, choose one to use in formulating the opening statements.
- Background information: In order to put the paper into context, you should also give a brief description of the issue or problem that your essay seeks to address. The points given here should reflect general information about the topic.
- Thesis statement: The introduction of an essay paper should also make a clear statement of the specific issue or claim that will be discussed in the body paragraphs and conclusion. The overall point should be coined into one or two sentences long for clarity.
- Plan: Lastly, the introduction paragraph should end with a ‘road map’ to illustrate how you will prove or defend your thesis.
On a final note, the introduction should smoothly lead your readers into the rest of the paper. This implies, you should use a few connecting phrases to enhance cohesion and proper flow of ideas.
Although essay introductions should be short; just one paragraph long, certain longer or complicated essays may require two opening paragraphs.
Examples of Essay Introductions
By reading well written samples of essay introductions, you can also get ideas on how to easily select good ways to start an essay paper on just any subject. Below are some samples to refer to for more on how to introduce an essay.
Sample Introduction for an Essay about Five Important Economic Factors Affecting Banks
‘’How Important is the banking industry?
Since the 17th century, the banking industry has marked its niche as one of the most important financial sectors in any economy. Indeed, a country’s economic prowess can progress or slow down depending on the performance of its banks…’’Read the rest of the introduction here.
Introduction for an Essay on Human Sex Trafficking Around the World
‘’Economic and social imbalances as well as different kinds of conflicts that are as a result of politics have led to migration of people internationally and domestically throughout the globe. Technology mobility, sex tourism and capital has received a boost as a result of globalization…’’ Continue reading the sample introduction on this link.
Introduction for Personal Statement Essay
‘’From the time that I was a child, I have grown an intense desire in the nature around me. I originate from a household of three with revenue of about $30,000. The household chiefly relies on my father who is a businessman. Looking at the exceptional impact he has on my life, I believe this is the motive I picked a desire in economics primarily…’’Click here to read the whole sample introduction.
In case you may need more advice on good ways to start an essay paper, simply talk to us. Our writers are always ready to offer you professional help with all essay papers. Besides, you can also check out our homepage for high quality essay writing services.
Examples of Thesis Statements for Essays
It is always advisable that you refer to examples of thesis statements for essays when writing essay papers. Examples are excerpts from essay papers and can give you a clear illustration of how thesis statements should be crafted. However, it should be noted that unless you use high quality examples, writing a good thesis might not be easy. Read on for insights on how to determine strong examples of thesis statements for essays.
A thesis statement refers to the main idea or argument in an essay paper. It is the claim which you intend to support or prove in the rest of the paper. The statement is usually written in the introduction part of the essay. However, it should always come towards the end of the first paragraph, and clearly give a plan for the paper. The discussion tabled in the rest of the essay should always revolve around the thesis statement.
Qualities of Good Thesis Statement Examples
When obtaining examples of thesis statements for essays online or from other sources, it might be challenging to determine the best ones to refer to. The best way to overcome this is by knowing the features of a good thesis statement. The following are some of the main qualities of a top notch thesis statement.
- Specific to the subject of discussion and clear to the point
- Makes a strong unified point
- Present an argument and not re-stating the topic
- Brief, about one or two sentences long
- Relevant to the topic and accurately captures the discussion in the paper
A good thesis statement should also be based on something that is of importance to the audience in order to make the paper interesting. Although thesis statements should generally be short, the lengths may sometimes vary depending on the topic of your essay, scope of the study among other aspects.
Knowing how to determine high quality thesis statement samples will make it easier when choosing examples to refer to. Besides, it can also help you in gauging your writing skills for better points in assignments and term papers.
Where to find examples of thesis statements for essays
Finding examples of thesis statements for essays to use should be easy and fast when you know how to distinguish between a well and poorly written thesis statement. There are various places that you can check out for examples of thesis statements. However, not all can always offer you top notch samples to refer to.
The following are some of the key places where you can be sure to acquire well written samples of thesis statements for essays.
School Writing Centers
Today, almost every school has a dedicated writing center which is tasked with offering academic help to students. The benefit of such sources is that their materials are available online so you can always get the samples that you need conveniently. Whether you are high school, college or university, there is a school writing center that you can visit for sample thesis statements.
From school writing centers, you are able to acquire examples of thesis statements for past papers written by other students. In fact, a writing center is more like a library and can always offer you a wide range of reference materials for essay writing.
Essay writing takes a similar approach, therefore, you can always acquire and use samples from the writing centers of other institutions. Texas University Writing Center is one of those that you can visit for good thesis statement examples. Besides, the center also offers guidelines for formulating thesis statements to motivate you in writing.
Online essay writing services
Online essay writers can also be a good sources of sample thesis statements. In fact, professional essay writing service providers have blogs from where you can obtain examples of thesis statements for essays and other academic papers as well. The samples offered on the sites are originally created and can guide you in writing good thesis statements for essay papers.
Essay Experts is one of the best academic writing service providers that you can get in touch with for examples of thesis statements. One of the unique features of online essay writing services is that you are able to order for a custom written thesis statement for your essay.
Although blogs are all over the internet today, you should always be keen to identify those that can offer useful educational materials. If you can find those blogs that are operated by professionals in your area of study, it would be ideal to get thesis statement examples from them.
Blog Hoshida is one of the many academic blogs that you can check out for examples of thesis statements. The blog also offers tips and elaborate guidelines to be followed in writing thesis statements for essays.
Apart from the above listed sources, there are still numerous others that you can also access for sample thesis statements. However, the internet is always the best considering its efficiency and convenience.
Tips on how to use examples of thesis statements for essays
Finding the best quality examples of thesis statements for essays alone does not guarantee success. You should know how to properly use the examples when writing thesis statements in order to deliver good essay papers. The following are some of the points to consider when using thesis statement samples to write.
Examples are specifically for reference
Sample thesis statements or academic papers offered online are mainly aimed at helping students to know how to write thesis statements on their own. The example that you have acquired should only guide you on how a thesis statement should be written.
Therefore, it would not be advisable to directly copy the example and paste onto your essay paper. You can borrow ideas from the sample but do not copy or lift materials and insert into your paper since that would amount to plagiarism.
Know the type of essay that you are writing
Although thesis statements play the same role of presenting the main argument of the essay, there are slight variations depending on the type of essay. For instance, a thesis statement for an analytical essay may not be crafted in the same way as that of an argumentative paper.
Besides, there are also various kinds of thesis statements, including those that advocate for cause of action, make comparisons and evaluations, attribute causes among others. In order to get proper guidance in writing thesis statements, it is advisable that you look for samples which are related to the subject of your essay.
Consider the terms of using the examples
There are lots of sample thesis statements and academic papers offered free of charge for downloads and use online. However, there are also cases whereby you may find that the samples are offered at a fee. This usually occurs in cases whereby you are placing an order for custom essay writing services online.
It is advisable that you know the terms and conditions of using samples obtained online in order to avoid inconvenience. Besides, it is also important consider obtaining sample thesis statements from reliable sources.
Samples of thesis statements for essays
Perhaps, you may still not be able to easily determine a good thesis statement example. Reading professionally crafted examples of thesis statements for essays is another way through which you can easily know how to spot top notch thesis statements. In fact, reading well written samples is an easier way of knowing how to write good thesis statements for essays and other papers too.
The following are well crafted examples of thesis statements that you can read to gain more insights.
Sample thesis statement for Essay about Organ Donation
‘’People who sign up for organ donation freely give their hearts and other organs, but this free system limits the number of available donors and makes it difficult for recipients to access lifesaving transplants. Therefore, organ donor should be financially compensated to produce more available organs and, at the same time, to decrease profitable, illegal organ harvesting activities in the black market.’’Find the thesis statement example here.
Thesis statement example for an Essay about Technology Dependence
‘’Our school’s dependence on technology has caused students to lose the ability to think independently. This dependence has caused a greater prevalence of mood disorders, memory loss, and loneliness. Educators should combat these issues by requiring students to take part in regular technology detoxes.’’ Simply click on this link to read the above example and many others.
Thesis statement example for an essay on Cyber Bullying
‘’Bullying has extended far beyond school and into cyber space. Even though these acts of aggression take place outside of school boundaries, school officials should have the authority to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying without fear of reprisal. Doing so will help improve the online behavior of students and decrease incidences of cyberbully-related suicide attempts.’’Click here to get the example.
In case you may need more professionally crafted examples of thesis statements for essays, simply get in touch with us. Alternatively, you can also refer to our homepage to find out more on how to get the best custom essay writing services online.
The term genetic drift is applied in the genetics of population and it refers to statistical drift that is noted with time of gene frequencies within a population which is as a result of random sample effects in successive generations’ formation. This evolution mechanism occurs as a result of random chance and not natural selection.
In the case of genetic drift, the population experiences changes in frequency of a specified allele which is triggered by arbitrary luck instead of adaptation need. Consequently, it is different from natural selection through which allelic frequency gets altered on the basis of the fittest genes which survive while the weaker genes die off. The phenomenon of genetic drift usually occurs among small populations while larger populations are often subjected to natural selection.
A genetic variant or allele is the gene component that produces a particular trait. A good example is the existence of both white and red worms within the same population. If these two worms mate, each passes an allele to the offspring white or red forming a gene. The strong or dominant allele determines which traits the new born worm is going to have. In the event the white one is dominant, then the new worm is going to be white as well and vice versa.
During instances when the worm gets two similar recessive alleles, then it exhibits recessive features. Note that while genetics is complex compared to this example, it provides the general concept of what genetic drift is all about. Often, genetic drift causes gene variants to completely disappear and can also cause genetic variation. Whenever there are a few allele copies, genetic drift effect is larger and whenever the copies are more the effect is less. Debate has always been rife on the comparative importance of natural selection versus that of neutral processes such as genetic drift.
The view held by Ronald Fisher was that genetic drift plays a crucial role in evolution and for decades, this view was held as the dominant one. The debate was however rekindled by Motoo Kimura when he came up with the neutral molecular evolution theory which states in most cases where there is a change in genetics spread across the population, the cause if genetic drift.
Genetic drift also occurs as a result of random sample errors. An error arises when the sample exhibits results that are different from what the entire population exhibits. For instance in the case where scientists have 50 red and white forms then they select 10 randomly, the sample is small and hence, the alleles that are passed in the group does not even out as would be the case in a group consisting of 100 worms.
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Genetic divergence refers to the process through which 2 or more populations of the same ancestral species amass genetic changes or mutation over time. This often occurs once the populations are reproductively secluded for certain duration. There are instances when subpopulations living in environments that are ecologically distinct show signs of genetic divergence from the rest of the population especially in cases where the population is very immense.
Some of these genetic differences among populations might include silent mutations which don’t have any effects on phenotypes or lead to significant changes whether physiological and/or morphological. At all times, genetic divergence is accompanied by reproductive isolation which can be as a result of novel adaptations through selection and/or as a result of genetic drift. This is in essence the major principal that underlies speciation.
The technique of detecting and directing two or more desirable genetic traits artificially is known as genetic divergence technology. Genetic divergences that occur naturally are often seen in high character levels of function and structure that can be observed readily in different species. For instance the limb of the vertebrate is a classic example of genetic divergence that occurs naturally. In numerous varying species, the limb can be traced back to an origin that is common.
While this is the case, it has diverged not only in its overall function but the structure as well. The technology of genetic divergence is applicable in the biology of molecular characteristics. Ideally, this is applicable to the pathway of two or additional cell types of organisms for instance, it is applicable to proteins and genes like nucleotide sequences or those of protein sequences which are derived from two or additional homologous genes.
Orthologous genes which result from speciation event as well as paralogue genes which result from the duplication of genes within the population are said to showcase natural divergence. This is attributed to the fact that the paralogous genes are likely to undergo genetic divergence when there are 2 genes within that species.
There are different factors that contribute to genetic divergence and some of these are as highlighted below:
These are genetic changes which occur as a result of two processes which include mutations and sexual recombination. Chromosomes carry genes and each cell body has identical pairs of chromosomes known as diploid state. Sexual production requires gametes pairing from 2 individuals hence each gamete should have one pair of chromosome each known as haploid state.
This is yet another contributor of genetic divergence. Genes are comprised of DNA while DNA is comprised of nucleotides. Whenever there is a change in nucleotides sequence, there is also a change in the DNA and this leads to genes changes.
Other factors that lead to genetic divergence include allopatric speciation, sympatic speciation and natural selection.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper
Knowing how to write a reflection paper enables you to organize thoughts methodically so that you can gain more from your practical experience. A reflection paper is a paper that gives you an opportunity to add your analysis and thoughts to what you experience or read. It enables you to tell the reader how your comprehension of a class-related material is shaped by a specific lesson, article, experience or lecture. A reflection paper is usually subjective and personal. However, it contains a tone that is somewhat academic and it has to be cohesively organized and thorough. While writing a reflection paper, you should integrate the main themes of the work with classroom experience then indicate how they affect your thinking and practice.
Importance of knowing how to write a reflection paper
Sometimes, you attend lectures but at the end of it you do not get comprehensive experience until when you sit down to analyze what was taught. A reflection paper can have a significant impact in your learning process because writing it entails evaluating your experience analytically. While writing a reflection paper, you must deconstruct and analyze. This enables you to dig deeper into the work that you are reflecting on and discuss its specific aspects. For instance, you may be required to reflect and explain how a task that you performed during a class session will assist you later in life. Although the reflections that you express in a reflection paper are based on your opinion, that opinion is built on personal experience from a lecture or coursework at the university, college or school.
How to write a reflection paper in two major steps
Step 1: Brainstorm
- Select the major themes
Start by listing down your reflections or experiences from your notes, readings or even lessons. You can do this using a few descriptive but straight sentences.
- Highlight the major materials
Some materials will stand out once you list down your main themes. Come up with another list of these materials explaining what makes them stand out. For readings or lectures, highlight specific quotations or passages. For experiences, note down the specific sections of the experience. You can even come up with a story or a summary of the event that happened, sounds or images that came out in a clearer way.
- Organize your ideas
You can come up with a table or chart that will enable you to organize your ideas. For instance, you can do this by creating three columns. Include the key experiences or main points in your first column. The points may be anything that the speaker or the author highlighted as important or the specific details that are important. You can include each point in a separate row. In a second column, indicate your response to what you listed in your first column. Explain how your response is influenced by your experiences, subjective values as well as beliefs. In the final column, describe the amount of personal response that you will share with readers through a reflection paper.
- Present a guided response
Pinpointing responses or gauging personal feelings can be a challenge while writing a reflection paper. In that case, you can ask questions that will help in guiding your response. For instance, you can ask yourself these questions:
- Are you challenged culturally, socially, theologically or emotionally by a lecture, experience or reading? If so, how and in what way? Why does it capture your attention or why are you bothered?
- Does the experience, lecture or reading raise questions in you? Did you have these questions before the experience, lecture or reading or did you develop them after?
- How was your thinking changed by the experience, lecture or reading? Is it in conflict with your previously held beliefs and is there evidence that made you change your perception of the topic?
- Did the speaker, author or the involved parties leave any critical issue unaddressed? Was the conclusion or impact of the experience, lecture or reading changed dramatically by a certain idea or fact?
- Do the ideas or issues raised by the experience, lecture or reading mesh with your past readings or experiences? Do they support or contradict each other?
Step 2: Organize and write the paper
This is a very important step in a guide on how to write a reflection paper. The length of reflection papers ranges from 300 to 700 words. Therefore, you must organize your reflection paper properly so that it can lie within this range. Generally, a reflection paper should be organized like any other paper with an introduction, the body and the conclusion.
- Keep your paper short
Start by verifying whether the instructor specified the word count instead of trying to fit your paper within the range. If there is a specific word count set out by the instructor, organize your paper in a way that enables it to include all relevant information without exceeding or falling below the specified word count.
- Write the introduction
In the introduction, tell readers what your expectations were before the experience, lesson or reading. While writing a reflection paper on a lecture or reading, indicate your expectations on the basis of the abstract, introduction or title. If the reflection paper is about an experience, tell readers what your expectations were on the basis of your prior knowledge from the information acquired from other sources or similar experiences.
- Create a thesis statement
Your introduction should end with a single sentence via which you explain transition from the expectations that you had to the final conclusion. A thesis statement should be a simple explanation of whether the expectations that you had were met or not. It should also provide cohesion and focus for your paper.
- Write the body
In the body of your reflection paper, include paragraphs that explain your understandings and conclusions that you made after the lesson, experience or reading. Explain the conclusions by giving concrete and logical details of how you reached them. Focus your paper on not just summarizing the text that you read but also drawing specific, concrete details from the experience or text so that you can provide conclusions from the context. Each idea or conclusion should be presented separately in one paragraph. Provide a topic sentence for each paragraph which identifies the main points, understandings and conclusions.
- Write the conclusion
Conclude your reflection paper with a conclusion that succinctly describes your overall understanding, feeling or lesion that you got after the experience or reading. The overall conclusion should be supported by the understandings and conclusions that you explained in the body paragraphs. You may have some conflicting understandings and conclusions but most of them should support the final conclusion.
Additional tips on how to write a reflection paper
- Maintain an academic or a professional tone
Although reflection papers are objective and personal, you should keep thoughts sensible and organized. Therefore, avoid being carried away by the use of the personal pronoun ‘I’.
- Use a theoretical concept to analyze experience
Illustrate how the experience that you got diverged from the expectations of a theory or how it conforms to the expectations of a theory. Discuss your reasons for feeling that your experiences where not described or they were described by a theory.
- Be careful while choosing the information to reveal
A reflection paper includes subjective opinions and feelings. Therefore, before you reveal any information, determine whether it is appropriate. If there is an issue that you cannot avoid yet you are uncomfortable sharing it, use general terms to write about it.
- Maintain an academic mix
Ensure that your reflection paper relates your reading or experience with relevant classroom details or information. Incorporate the information that the experience, lecture or reading addressed with what you have learned in classroom.
- Use transitions
Transitions introduce details while shifting arguments in a paper. Use them to show how one detail or experience links to your understanding or conclusion directly. In a reflection paper, you can use transitions like, “for instance,” “an opposing view is,” “a differing perspective is” and “for example” among others.
- Edit your paper
Before you submit your reflection paper, edit it. Revise your paper at the sentence level. Make sure that your paper is consistent with the stated thesis statement. Also ensure that your reflection paper is free of stylistic and grammatical errors.
- Use sample reflection papers
To know how to write a reflection paper with ease, read reflection paper samples for more hints. Click here to read a sample reflection paper.
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The basics of how to write a conclusion for any academic paper
Concluding your essay could be a tricky affair. What else do you need to tell the readers when you have presented a good introduction and excellent body? Do you repeat you have just said in previous sections? You will face this dilemma whenever you are working on writing assignment. Do you want to avoid these mindboggling worries? Then you should have the secrets of how to write a conclusion at your fingertips. This will ensure that piece together a final paragraph that will leave readers wanting more of your stuff.
Look out for the following sections in this guide:
- Writing a good conclusion
- Elements of a good essay conclusion
- Errors to avoid when concluding an essay
We have made these tips flexible because every academic paper requires a unique conclusion. You are free to adjust where necessary to fit your assignment needs. Come on! Put on a big smile as you go through this knowledge enrichment process. Here we go…
The principles of how to write a conclusion that you should know from now
The conclusion is that final part of your academic paper. It is probably the impression that the reader will carry for the rest of their lives. It is true that you probably remember a thrilling movie you watched, a fascinating book you read, or a moving speech you followed because of the concluding remarks of the author. This is a pointer to the important role of this tiny but determining part of an essay.
A good conclusion should clear any doubts and convince the reader that they did not waste their time; the piece was worth reading. Without a proper conclusion, you are likely to devalue all your points in the paper and discourage the reader.
Generally, here are some hints on how to write a conclusion:
Restate your topic – Do not tire going back to your topic. After all, you might be shocked to learn that the reader does not recall your topic by the time he or she is getting to the last paragraph.
State the importance of your topic – Remind the audience the significance of your topic. This convinces them that it was a good idea to spend time going through your essay. No one wants to waste time on something that has no value. Time is money!
Restate your thesis – Go back to your introduction and synthesize your main idea for your readers once more. Do not copy paste, your argument. Reword it to make sense to the person looking at your work. You do not want anyone to know that you are a lazy writer.
Capture the counterargument – Every argument has rebuttals. Address these negative views and emphasize why your audience should agree with your opinion.
Call for action – You want your audience to act. Go ahead and challenge them to do something. In addition, you may make recommendations for future researches to improve on the findings.
Practical strategies of how to write a conclusion without repeating yourself
Mastering how to write a conclusion ought to be an easy task because you already know the main argument of the paper, thesis, evidence and counterarguments. However, the challenge is making it the best part of your essay since it is what the reader remembers at all times even after putting aside your piece.
Here are suggestions that should clear your way and make conclusion writing as easy as putting down your name.
TIP 1: Provide answers to ‘so what question’ – You have not done your homework, if you cannot justify the importance of your paper. As you conclude your essay, show them its significance.
TIP 2: Do not give a summary – Conclusion is not time to repeat everything you can recall or all you have said in your paper. As you put together this paragraph, remember that the person looking at your work has already read your paper. Show them how your points and evidence harmonized to support your thesis throughout the text.
TIP 3: Redirect your audience – Do not end on a flat and boring note. Leave the reader with something to do, perhaps applying the paper in the real world. Since most introductions move from general statements to specifics, your conclusion should be the opposite. Go globally.
TIP 4: Generate new meaning – As you think of how to write a conclusion, focus on bringing out something new for your audience. Use whatever you have to create new meaning. Achieve this by demonstrating how your ideas work together.
How to draft your conclusion and end your essay in style
Renowned writers in the world understand the secret of making impact with a piece of work; have a strong conclusion. Why do you want the reader to remember your work? This is the time to prove that you are worth residing in their memory.
An effective conclusion is beyond summarizing your argument. Instead, it should appreciate your ideas by emphasizing the significance of the work. Do not lose the energy you injected in your introduction, pump it in your concluding remarks and end strong. Ask the following questions as you prepare to do your conclusion
Guiding questions when writing a conclusion
- How does your idea connect with class discussion?
- Have you added any new ideas to your conversation?
- What are the limitations of your research?
- What is the effect of your strongest argument in the paper?
- How do you get back to the situation in the paper?
These questions give a sense of closure to your idea. While you may not have the answers down, keep in mind the responses and use them to fine-tune your concluding paragraph.
Below is a good example that shows you how to a write a conclusion. Examine it before we proceed to other segments of this guide.
Example: A good Conclusion
In this example, We Can Live without Petroleum, the essay discusses the pros and cons of petroleum that can help the reader make a decision on whether or not man can live without petroleum. Here is the conclusion:
There is enough evidence to show that petroleum has a range of advantages and disadvantages. For example, petroleum boosts social, economic and political development all over the world. However, petroleum is a major environmental pollutant threatening human life. From global warming to land degradation, petroleum does not offer a safe haven for human beings. As a result, the world should explore alternative sources of energy like the green energy to overcome man’s overdependence on petroleum…
In this conclusion, the writer recaps the main issues in the essay, reminding the reader the pillars of his argument. The paragraph also gives recommendation on what the world should do in weighing whether we can do without petroleum or not.
This example captures the fundamental principles of how to write a conclusion. With practice, you too can master the art of warping up an essay just as experts do.
Final thoughts on how to write a memorable conclusion
Among other reasons, remember that a conclusion is your last chance to woo your audience to agree with you. You have your excellent opportunity that you are a scholar, thinker and professional writer. You want them to spread the word and probably recommend you as a top writer on the topic or field. If this is the case, nail that final paragraph as if you have never done before.
Convey a sense of closure by signaling the reader that your discussion is closing. However, remember not close off the discussion. The following thoughts should work in your favor. Apply them and see the magic of having an appealing conclusion:
Return to your introduction- A good research paper is always circular in argument. As you wind up, revisit your first paragraph, by moving from what you already know to the unknown.
Provide a solution to a problem – The purpose of a research paper is to offer an answer to an existing problem. The reader wants to know the solution you have for a problem you captured in the thesis statement. State how your findings can be applied in a larger concern in the real world.
Final points – With your conclusion, tie together all the points in your essay and suggest the way forward. As you do this, refrain from introducing new ideas in your paper. If you have not captured it anywhere in your paper, then you probably do not need it.
Keep it brief. The last rule of how to write a conclusion is keeping it short. A standard conclusion should be 10% of your paper. Do not give a long and unwinding end. Go for what matters.
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Tumor Suppression Gene
Tumor suppression gene also known as antioncogene refers to genes regulating cell growth. This gene protects the cell from been cancerous and when it mutates causing reduction or loss of function, the cells then progress to cancer. This occurs when other genetic changes are present as well. Loss of the tumor suppressor gene is more important than oncogene/proto-oncogene activation in the formation of different kinds of human cancerous cells. There are different kinds of tumor suppressor genes and they include the following:
- Gatekeeper genes
- Caretaker genes
- Landscaper genes
As medicine continues to evolve, classification genes also evolve and adapt from fields such as genetics, epigenetic and molecular biology.
Unlike the case of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes follow “two-hit hypothesis”. This implies both alleles coding for a certain protein must first be affected before any effect is noted. This is attributed to the fact that just one allele for that gene gets damaged while the second still produces the appropriate protein. In other terms, this means distorted tumor suppressor alleles are recessive while mutant oncogene alleles are dominant.
A.G Knudson was the first one to make the proposal of two-hit analysis. He made the observation that onset of retinoblastoma follows the second order kinetics which implied that 2 self-determining genetic events were a necessity. He also made the recognition that it was consistent with recessive mutation which involved one gene but required biallelic mutation. In contrast though, oncogene mutations involve single allele since they are the gain of mutation functions.
There however exist exceptions to the rule of “two-hit’ for tumor suppressors like particular mutations in p53 gene product. Such mutations are known to function as “dominant negative” which means if there is a p53 mutated protein, it prevents the functioning of normal protein from an allele that is un-mutated. Other suppressor genes that are also an exception to the “two hit” rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as:
- NF1 in neurofibroma and
- PTCH in medulloblastoma.
A good example in this case is p27Kip 1 cell inhibitor cycle in which a single allele mutation leads to an increase in the susceptibility of carcinogen. Tumor suppressor genes functions fall into different categories some of which include:
- Gene suppression which is important for continuation of cell cycle. When the genes aren’t expressed, then there is no continuation of the cell cycle hence cell division is inhibited
- Coupling of cell cycle to damage of DNA. If there isn’t damaged DNA then the cell shouldn’t divide. In cases where the damage is repairable, the cycle of the cell continues
- When the damage isn’t repairable, the cell initiates apoptosis and gets rid of the threat posed for the organisms good.
- Proteins involved in division of cells prevents tumor cells from dispersing, block contact inhibition loss and also inhibit metastasis
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Inbreeding is a term that defines production of offspring from breeding or mating of organism or individuals that are genetically related which is the contrast of outcrossing which is mating of individuals that are unrelated. By analogy, inbreeding is used in relation to human production but often refers to genetic disorders as well as consequences that might arise from consanguinity or incestuous relationships. Inbreeding can lead to homozygosity which increases the possibility of the offspring getting affected by deleterious or recessive traits.
As a result of this, the population is exposed to a decreased level of biological fitness (known as inbreeding depression) which is the ability of the offspring to reproduce as well as survive. Individuals inheriting deleterious traits are referred to as inbred. The technique of inbreeding is often applied in selective breeding and is often used in the case of livestock. For instance, majority of breeders try to create a desirable, new trait in livestock but they also have to keep an open eye for characteristics that are undesirable so they can be eliminated by carrying out further culling or selective breeding.
In plants, inbred lines are often used as the stock for creating hybrid lines and make use of heterosis. In plants, inbreeding will occur naturally as self pollination. Note that inbreeding in humans can lead to congenital birth defects and this is because there is a likelihood of the homozygous zygotes level been very high in offsprings.
Individuals with 2 gene copies are likely to suffer from disorders such as autosomal recessive for recessive genetic mutation. Except in extremely rare cases, like uniparental disomy or new mutations both parents of the individual with the disorder are carriers of that gene. Such carriers don’t display mutation signs and in some cases they are often unaware of the fact they have a mutated gene. Since relatives have a high proportion of the same genes than is the case in unrelated people, it is likely related parents have similar recessive genes hence the children they have together are placed at a high risk of suffering from a genetic disorder. The risk of the disease been worse will depend on the parents’ genetic relationship.
Children of sibling-sibling or parent child relationships are at a high risk of such defects compared to those of cousin to cousin relationships. Inbreeding also results to higher phenotypic expression of recessive genes in a population than would be expected. Consequently, the first generation of inbred individuals re likely to have health and physical defects which include:
- Reduced fertility in the viability of sperm as well as litter size
- Increase in genetic disorders
- Facial asymmetry that is always changing
- Low birth rate
- High infant mortality
- Facial asymmetry that is always fluctuating
- Immune system loss function
- Small adult sizes
- Depression on the rate of growth which includes weight, height as well as body mass index.
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How to Write a Critical Analysis of an Article
Knowing how to write a critical analysis of an article is very important because your university professor will most probably ask you to critique a journal or newspaper article at some point. A critical analysis is a subjective form of writing in which a writer expresses personal evaluation or opinion of a text, which in this case is an article. This can be a journal article, a magazine article or a newspaper article. While writing a critical analysis, you should read an article and think about it critically. It is important that you start by understanding the prompt or assignment question. This will enable you to understand the angle that you are required to take in your critical analysis.
A step-by-step guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article from a newspaper
- Know the event that led the author to write the article
Before you start analyzing the article, know why the author wrote it. This can be an event that happened or an event that is about to happen. When you know the reason why the author wrote the article that you are required to analyze, you can understand the purpose for writing it or the goal that the author wanted to accomplish by writing the article.
- Read and analyze the title
You can know the main idea of the article by reading its title. Before you start reading the body of the article, think about the title of the article and write a subjective opinion about it. You can also form basic points that you would include under the title in your mind if you were to write an article on that title. This will give you the first impression and help you in forming a critique of the article.
- Read and analyze the body of the article
After analyzing the title of the article, read the body to find out how the author supports the main idea as expressed by the title. To analyze the article critically, read it several times. Take notes while reading. Come up with a list of the analytical questions that will guide you in your analysis. Use these questions to form your critical analysis of different aspects of the article. For instance, what words does the writer uses in the title and the body of the article? Why does the author use these words? Is the author biased or objective? Does the author make and substantiate claims with valid arguments in article? This is a vital step of a guide on how to write a critical analysis of an article because it determines what forms the basis of your critique.
- Consider how the author supports claims in the article
In this step, analyze the article carefully to determine whether the author has provided adequate factual material which supports the presented ideas. The author can quote witnesses, state information sources or provide statistics in supporting claims. An author of an article can also be an eyewitness to an event or the author can obtain information via a news service.
- Consider your opinion about the reportage
Since critical analysis is subjective, you should give your opinion about the reportage. Is the reportage true, biased or balanced in your opinion? Explain your opinion while citing examples of instances that support your claim from the article.
- Explain how the author presents different points of view
For instance, tell readers whether the article under analysis is an editorial, a balanced article, an informative article or a convincing article. Again, support your stance with evidence from the article that you are analyzing.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Wrap up your analysis with your final view or opinion of the article. Tell readers about the tools that the author used to pass the message, the goal of the article and whether the author accomplished that goal. Also tell readers about the target audience and whether the article had impact on the intended audience in your opinion.
How to write a critical analysis of an article from a scientific journal
A scientific journal article is different from a newspaper article. As such, even how you analyze a scientific journal article should be different from the way you analyze a newspaper article.
To analyze a scientific journal article, follow these steps:
- Read the article and the critical analysis prompt
Start by reading the assignment and the article that you are required to analyze critically. Understand what the assignment requires you to do and whether you are required to take a particular angle in your analysis. Find out if there is a theoretical framework on which the argument in the article is based.
- Summarize the article
Summarize the goals or objectives of the article, methods, findings, analysis and conclusions. Explain how they are presented by the author. Show your comprehension of the research that the author of the article presents using one or two paragraphs.
- Highlight the strengths of the scientific article
Characterize the features that you find useful in the article. Tell readers about the aspects that are strong in the article. For instance, tell readers whether the article has sections that are particularly helpful.
- Highlight the weaknesses of the scientific article
Characterize the aspects of the article that you find confusing. For instance, are there apparent weaknesses of the study that come out in the article? Did you find any section of the article confusing and why? Support your claim with evidence from the article.
- Conclude your critical analysis
Conclude the analysis by telling readers how effective or ineffective the article was in presenting the findings of a scientific research. For instance, did the author suggest directions for future studies? Were the findings and analysis presented in a conclusive manner? Leave readers with a sense of completion after reading your critical analysis.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a critical analysis of an article
- Always identify the objective of the author
Before you start your critical analysis of an article, identify the objectives of the author. Ask yourself, what was the motive behind writing the article? What did the author want to achieve by writing the article?
- Identify any theory in the article
Is there a clear theoretical framework in the article? Does the author make vital theoretical assumptions? Are there clearly defined concepts in the article?
Identify the argument of the author in the article. Find out if there are specific hypothesis made and whether the author of a scientific journal article states whether they were supported by the study or not.
- Identify the main points and evidence
Tell readers what the main arguments or points made by the author in the article are. Are there conclusions or inferences made by the author? What information or evidence does the author provide to support the arguments, inferences or points? Is the provided evidence used to measure something? Is the provided evidence factual? Does the author of the article present factual data?
Tell your readers whether the author is reliable. State what the sources of evidence or information are. Are the sources of the provided evidence identified? For instance, can the eyewitness mentioned in the article be reached? Does the author give examples of specific publications, organizations, journals, books or web sites? Are the sources secondary or primary or are they from other sources like textbooks. Does the author site authorities? What are the credentials of the authorities and are they credible or not and why?
- How persuasive is the author?
Tell readers of your critical analysis whether the author presents evidence that is consistent with the presented argument? Does the author present a convincing argument? If yes, tell readers why and if not, explain why. Can the presented evidence in a scientific journal article be interpreted in another way? Do you have adequate evidence to support your judgment? What additional evidence do you consider necessary to judge the made claim’s validity?
- Global view
Tell your readers whether the author makes general assumptions in the article? If yes, state them. Does the author present a world view of the findings presented in the scientific article? Is there a different viewpoint or world view that should be considered on the basis of the presented findings?
Does the author use propaganda words in the article? Does the author use propaganda techniques in the article to make arguments?
- Your take
Do you disagree or agree with what the author says in the article and how they say it?
- Use a sample to write your critical analysis
To know how to write a critical analysis of an article with ease, review a sample critical analysis of an article. You can find a critical analysis of an article here.
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