Electron Transport Chain
Electron transport chain refers to several compounds that are responsible for transferring electrns from the electron donors to the electron acceptors through redox reactions while coupling the electron transfer process with protons (H+ ions) transfer across the membrane. This results in the creation of the electrochemical proton gradient responsible for driving synthesis of ATP or chemical energy generation in form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.
The electron transport chain is used in energy extraction through redox reactions during photosynthesis from the sun or such as the case of sugars’ oxidation, cellular respiration. In inner mitochondrial membrane in the eukaryotes, there is a crucial electron transport chain that serves as the main oxidative phosphorylation site via the use of the adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast in the photosynthetic eukaryotes also has an electron transport chain. Electron transport chain is also found in the cell membrane of bacteria.
Light drives water conversion into NADP+ and oxygen to NADPH with H+ ions being transferred across the chloroplast membranes in the chloroplast. Oxygen conversion into water, NADH to the NAD+ and a succinate to fumerate required for the generation of proton gradient takes place in mitochondria. Electron transport chain is a major site where leakage of premature electron to oxygen and generation of superoxide with potential result of an increase in oxidative stress occurs.
Catabolic processes have FADH2 and NADH as their byproducts. These are in reduced forms. FADH2 and NADH are used by metabolic processes in transporting electrons in form of the hydride ions (H–). The electrons are then passed from FADH2 or NADH to electron carriers that are membrane bound which then passes on to the other carriers until when they are delivered to oxygen which result in water production.
During the process of passing electrons from one carrier to the other, hydrogen ions transfer also takes place in the inter-membrane spaces at the three points in electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions transportation results in greater hydrogen concentration in inter-membrane spaces than in matrix that can be used in driving ATP synthase and production of ATP which is a high energy molecule.
Energy that is obtained via electrons transfer is used in pumping protons from the matrix of the mitochondria into inter-membrane space which creates the electrochemical proton gradient found across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. The electrochemical proton gradient enhances ATP synthase to use H+ flow via enzyme back to the matrix generating ATP from the adenosine diphosphate and the inorganic phosphate.
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Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 2
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] or ATP-binding cassette sub-family C members 2 is a protein that in humans is programmed by the ABCC2 gene. The MRP2 is a known member of the ATP-binding cassette [ABC] transporters. ABC transporters are members of protein superfamily that is one of the largest and oldest in the families with members from extant phyla from prokaryotes to human beings. The term multidrug resistance has been used to elaborate the mechanism of resistance that cells [Eukaryotic and prokaryotic] have in response to the many chemotherapeutic drugs.
ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven unique subfamilies that include ABC1, MDR, TAP, MRP, GCN20, OABP and White. The ABC protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The protein is also exceptionally exhibited in the canalicular [apical] section of the hepatocyte and aids in biliary transport. The known substrate include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine. Thus, the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein was incorporated into the drug resistance scene in 1992 when Susan Cole and Rodger Deeley cloned the Multidrug resistance-associated protein gene, the MRP1. The Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 [MRP2] followed in 1996 and more MRP members followed. The MRP2 was characterized as the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter [cMOAT] from its cloning. Homology is also high in MRP2 as it is in the Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 [MRP1] 3 and 6. On top of this, these MRPs also share the characteristics of TMD0L0 segment. They are also seen in glutathione-drug conjugate [GS-X] and aid pump from eukaryotes like leishmania and yeast.
Within the ABC transporters in mammalians, the MRPs form a group that is clearly defined from the other known groups. MRP2 are able to transport methotrexate. MRP1,4 AND 5 RNAs are widely spread in the body while for MRP2, 3 and 6 mainly appear to function in kidney, liver and gut. While gathering more information on Multidrug resistance-associated proteins, there are a few problems encounter in the study. For instance;
- The MRPs are characterized and so they are organic anion transporters. Most of the substrates for these transporters are extremely charged and do not penetrate the cell membrane.
- Antibodies that work against MRP are often cross-react with another member of multidrug resistance-associated protein family. This issue can be solved by generating monoclonal antibodies against the non-conserved parts of the MRP family.
- The body cells chosen for drug resistance often overexpress multiple transporter genes. The use of certain inhibitors or transfected cells has helped solve this problem.
- It is challenging to get the multidrug resistance-associated protein transfectants giving high expression and products channeled to cell membrane. Most of the cells contain organic anion and this result to background transport activity.
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is helpful in protection against exogenous toxic compounds. The presence of many ABC transporters available offer defense against toxic compounds. The discovery of MRP family has improved the study of MDR in tumor cells and led into interest in the functions of the MRP family members in normal metabolism.
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Le Chatelier’s Principle
Chemistry is one the widely pursued scientific field. There are thousands of principles or laws that are used to explain many chemistry laws or theorems. The Le Chatelier’s principle also known as the Chatelier’s principle or the equilibrium law is a principle used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on a chemical equilibrium. It is a reputed principle named after Henry Louis Le Chatelier and sometimes Karl Ferdinand Braun who discovered the law individually.
Le Chatelier’s principle is easy to comprehend. Interestingly, it states that; when a system at the equilibrium is subjected to change in concentration, volume, temperature or pressure, then the equilibrium readjusts itself to counteract the effect of the applied change and a new equilibrium is established. In 1884 the French chemist and engineer henry Louis Le Chatelier proposed one of the core concepts of chemical equilibrium which explains what takes place to a system when something briefly removes it from a state of equilibrium.
It is essential to comprehend that the Le Chatelier principle is only an important guide when identifying what happens when the conditions are altered in a reaction in a dynamic equilibrium and it does not give reasons for the changes at the molecular level. There are numerous areas to look at and comprehend how the Le Chatelier’s Principle works.
- Effect on change in concentration- Changing the concentration of a chemical will shift the equilibrium to the side that will lead to a reduction in the change in concentration. The chemical system of choice will tend to partially oppose the change affected to the original state of equilibrium. On top of this, the rate of reaction, magnitude and the yield of the chemical products will be changed in response to the impact on the system.
- Impact of the change in temperature- The effect of charging temperature in the equilibrium can be made apparent by, incorporating heat as either a product or a reactant or by assuming that an increase in temperature will increase the temperature the heat content of system. Whether increasing or decreasing the temperature would favor the forward or reverse reaction. Hence, all can be determined by applying Le Chatelier’s theorem.
- Effect of the change in pressure- Changes in pressure can lead to changes in volume. Notably, the equilibrium concentrations of the product and reactants do not directly depend on the pressure that is exposed to the system. Change in pressure due to change in volume will shift the chemical equilibrium.
- Effects of a catalyst- A catalyst has no influence on the equilibrium, but it spends upwards and backwards reactions and equally.
- Impact of adding an inert gas- an inert gas or noble gas like helium is one that does not react with other elements. Adding a noble gas into gas-phase equilibrium at constant volume does not result in a shift. An addition of a non-reactive gas does not impact partial pressures of the other gas in the container.
The Le Chatelier’s principle has unmatched influence not only in chemistry, but also in economics. A similar concept was also introduced in economics by U.S economist Paul Samuelson in 1947. The principle is generalized to apply in maximum condition of economic equilibrium. Factor-demand and commodity supply elasticity’s are theorized to be lower in short term but not on long term basis because of the fixed-cost constraint in the short run.
Hardy–Weinberg Principle or the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium model or law states that the allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of any other evolutionary factors. These influences or impacts include mutation, mate choice, selection, genetic drift, meiotic drive and gene flow. The Hardy–Weinberg equation is a unique mathematical calculation that can be used to evaluate the genetic variation of a population at the equilibrium.
In 1908, G. H. Hardy, an English mathematician and Wilhelm Weinberg, a German physician independently described a basic principle effective in population genetics widely known as the Hardy-Weinberg principle. The principle is crucial concept in population genetics and it helps predict how gene frequencies will inherited from one generation to another within a given set of assumptions.
The Hardy–Weinberg principle is clear in the sense that, it clarifies that a large randomly breeding population allele frequencies will remain the same from generation to generation considering that there is no gene migration, mutation or genetic drift influences. This principle is imperative because it gives biologist a standard from which to measure changes in allele frequency in a population.
In order to make any helpful assumptions on the Hardy–Weinberg principle, it is wise to reorganize that it is a neutral equilibrium meaning that a population disturbed from its Hardy–Weinberg genotype frequencies will have to reach equilibrium after a single generation of random mating; however, it will be a new equilibrium if allele frequencies are altered. This characteristic helps distinguish a neutral equilibrium from a stable equilibrium in which a disrupted system returns to the same equilibrium state. There are certain occurrences when the Hardy–Weinberg principle or law fails to apply. This effect can be attributed to a number of factors and they include;
- Mutation- Here, the frequency of the gene B and its allele b will not remain in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium if the rate if mutation of B -> b changes.
- Gene flow- Many species are made up of local populations whose members breed within the group. Each of these local populations can develop a gene pool unique from that of the other local population. On the other hand, some members of one of the population may breed with occasional immigrants from adjacent population of the same species. This leads to a new flow of genes frequencies in the populations.
- Genetic drift- Interbreeding is usually limited to the members of the residents. If the population is small, Hardy–Weinberg principle may be disturbed. This may eliminate certain number of the populace. Then frequency of an allele may begin to drift towards higher or lower values. Genetic drift will lead to evolutionary change, but it is not adaptive.
- Other issues that will make the Hardy–Weinberg law fail are nonrandom mating and natural selection.
The above-mentioned factors affect changes in allele frequencies and when subjected to more forces, the population of choice will disrupt the Hardy–Weinberg assumptions and evolution will take place. The Hardy–Weinberg principle thus constitutes a null model for the field of population genetics and it is helpful to the study of evolution.
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The genotype is the genetic character of a cell, organism or an individual and it is referenced with certain characteristics being considered. The genotype of an organism is usually the inherited instructions that it carries within its genetic code. Genetic variation in populations can be analyzed and quantified by the frequency of alleles [same genes or same genetic locus]. Population genetics is determined by two great and imperative calculations and these are the genotype frequencies and allele frequencies. Genotype frequency in a population is the number of individuals with a given genotype that is divided by the total number of individuals in the population.
Genotype frequency is the proportion of the genotypes in a population. Although the allele and genotype proportions relate, there are differences to hold in your fingertips especially if conducting research on genetic variation in populations. Genotype frequency has also been effective and it guarantees a bright future when it comes to genomic profiling and making it easy to predict someone is having a disease or a birth disorder. Testing of different gene variants for prediction of diseases such as Type 2 diabetes or coronary heart disease will become easier. More so, genotype frequency can also aid in determining ethnic diversity.
Genotyping is the process of revealing the genotype an individual with a biological assay. The techniques involved include Polymerase chain reaction [PCR], DNA fragment analysis, allele specific oligonucleotide , DNA sequencing, nucleic acid hybridization and DNA microarrays or beads. DNA fragment analysis is a technique that can be used to ascertain certain disease causing genetic abnormalities such as microsatellite instability [MSI], aneuploidy, or loss of heterozygosity [LOH].
When determining genotype or allele frequency, keep in mind that the sum is always less than or equal to one [it is less than or equal to 100%]. The Hardy-Weinberg principle or law is useful in describing the relationship between genotype frequencies and allele frequencies especially when a population is not evolving. There are several factors that are known to affect genotype frequency and they include;
- Selective sexual selection- There are certain genotypes and phenotypes that get choose by mates. The alleles of the chosen mates increase in frequency while the alleles that are not chosen will decrease.
- Differential migration- Here if a certain phenotype moves out of an area, the frequency of those alleles will decrease while those that stay in a chosen area will increase.
- Assortative mating- This is a kind of mating that affects genotype frequencies expected under the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This is because when an individual mate favorably with other individuals that are phenotypically similar, this leads to an overabundance of homozygous individuals occurs since similar phenotypes are likely to share akin genotypes. When mating of similar phenotypes takes place more frequently than random mating, the possibility of offspring receiving two copies of an identical allele increase perturbing the Hardy-Weinberg outlooks.
- Natural selection- certain phenotypes survive and those alleles increase in frequency whereas the alleles of the unsuccessful ones decrease.
- Isolation [Founder effect] – This is a form of genetic drift that affects genotype frequency. Here, if a small group of individuals is separated from main group, they may have a different frequency of alleles in the gene group. As population grows, these frequencies may differ from the main group.
Genotype frequencies and gene frequency are related variables and thus affected by similar factors. Besides the aforementioned factors affecting genotype frequencies, mutation and random genetic drift are the other notable factors. Genotype frequencies are easy to measure and the simplest case is working on a case where you have one genetic locus with two alleles and three genotypes. To learn more on representations of the genotype frequencies, the De Finetti diagram can aid as it is useful in population genetics presentations.
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ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter
Transport of specific molecules across the lipid membranes is quite essential when it comes to living organisms. There are numerous transporters that have evolved to carry out most of these functions. ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC] is the largest transporter gene family that aids perform some of the crucial function in living organisms. ABC transporters are the core members of a protein superfamily made up of one of the largest and oldest families with representatives in extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
ATP-binding cassette transporter [ABC transporters] are transmembrane proteins that utilize the energy of the ATP [adenosine triphosphate] binding and hydrolysis to carry out biological processes. These processes include translocation of various substrates across membranes and non-transport-related process such as the translation of DNA and RNA repair. The proteins aid translocate a wide variety of substances that may include sugars, metal ions, amino acids, proteins and peptides and large amounts of hydrophobic compounds.
The ABC transporters genes are quite vital for many processes in the cell and mutation of these genes is harmful. Mutation of the responsible genes can cause or contribute to several human genetic complications that include cystic fibrosis, neurological disease cholesterol and bile transport defects, anemia and drug response. The ABC transporters make use of energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to transport numerous substrates across the cellular membranes.
These transporters are divided into three main functional categories. The prokaryotes, the importers mediate the uptake of nutrients into the cells while the substrates can be transported into amino acids, sugars, peptides and hydrophilic molecules. For the eukaryotes, they do not possess any importers. The exporters or effluxers which are both present in eukaryotes and prokaryotes aid as pumps that push out toxins and drugs available in the cells of living organisms. In the case of gram-negative bacteria, the exporters help transport lipids and polysaccharides from the cytoplasm to the periplasm.
Understanding the mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporter makes it easy to comprehend how these active transporters can be aid the human cells. These active transporters require energy in the form of ATP to translocate substrates across the cell membranes. These proteins are able to harness the energy of ATP binding or for hydrolysis to drive conformational changes in the transmembrane domain and effectively transport molecules. Alternating-access model is the mechanism that described the conformational changes associated with binding of substrate.
The general mechanism for the transport cycle of the ABC transporters has been fully interpreted. However, the biochemical and structural data has accumulated to support a model through which ATP binding and hydrolysis has been made possible. ATP-binding cassette transporters also aid in the development of multidrug resistance [MDR]. In the MDR, patients who are on medication develop resistance not only to the drug that they are taking but also to several different types of drugs.
Excretion of the drug from the cell b ABC transporters is one of the factors that cause this resistance. Unfortunately, it is not clear how these proteins can translocate many drugs in the cell. ABC transporters are also expressed in the membranes of healthy cells, where they can easily facilitate the transport of numerous endogenous substances as well as substances remote to the body. ABC transporter interactions can be detected through assay types and they are membrane assays and whole based cells allays.
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Body Paragraph Examples
Professionally crafted body paragraph examples are among the best reference materials that are recommended for writing academic papers. In fact, all academic papers including essays, research papers, dissertations, reports among others require you to write strong body paragraphs for the best results. This implies you should know how to select the best body paragraph samples and also where to easily get well written ones. Read on for insights on how to accomplish all these.
Body paragraphs contribute the greatest percentage in an academic papers since they present the discussion of your main points. Therefore, it is very important that you know how to always deliver assignments as well as term papers with logical and compelling arguments. The best way to achieving this is by choosing the best body paragraph examples to refer to.
When you know where to find top notch body paragraph examples with ease, getting the right examples for reference will not be a problem. Besides, it will also save you time that would have been spent searching for samples to use when writing body paragraphs. In fact, you will also not spend a lot of time on research and other related processes since the examples contain several ideas on how to develop strong body paragraphs.
Tips for choosing body paragraph examples
Finding body paragraph examples to refer to when writing assignments and term papers may seem easy to many students. However, you should not just rush into using a particular sample for writing your paper without making sure that it is the right one. The following tips will assist you in choosing the best examples of body paragraphs to use when writing.
Consider the authenticity of the sources
When looking for sample body paragraphs to refer to, it is recommended that you always go for those that are offered by reliable sources. Obtaining sample papers from acknowledged sources is one the best ways of getting high quality examples.
Authentic sources are those with proper references such as website links, which you can easily provide when asked. Besides, it is also required that you provide your sources when writing academic papers, thus, always check the authenticity of the source before using any example.
Know the type of paper that you will be writing
There are various kinds of academic papers that you can be asked to write for example essays, research papers among others. Although there is a general writing format for all academic papers, there are slight differences based on the specific one that you are working on.
In order to have an easy time in writing, always go for examples of body paragraphs for a similar paper to yours. For example, if you are writing an essay paper, do not use research paper body paragraph samples, instead, go for sample of essay body paragraphs.
Narrow down to the subject of your paper
Examples of body paragraphs can offer you lots of ideas on how to craft this section of your paper. In order to acquire relevant ideas, find samples of body paragraphs for papers that are based on the same subject as yours. In this way, you will not be pressed with a lot of research for the body paragraphs of your paper.
Check the style of writing
There are various kinds of formats for writing academic papers including APA, MLA, Chicago, and Harvard among others. In the assignment sheet, you will be instructed on the particular style to use in writing the paper, which will apply to the body paragraphs and other sections. Therefore, you should always know the particular style for your paper and find an example that is written in the same format to use.
Look into punctuation, grammar, flow of ideas
Although many students ignore checking grammatical and punctuation mistakes, it is very important if you want to deliver a paper with flawless paragraphs. A good paragraph should be free from such mistakes and present a logical discussion with well explained points or ideas. Using examples with even simple mistakes like spelling errors can be misleading and badly taint your final paper, so be very keen when selecting the samples.
The organization of the body paragraphs is also another element that you should look into. An ideal body paragraph should be organized in a way such that, readers can easily identify the topic sentence or main point, evidence or example and also how the writer has presented his ideas.
When choosing examples of body paragraphs online, it is also important that you take time to read and understand the terms of using the samples.
Where to find top notch Body Paragraph Examples
Both online and offline sources can be used whenever you are looking for body paragraph examples. However, not all those sources can always offer the best samples of body paragraphs. The following are suggestions on some of the best sources that you can check out for high quality examples of body paragraphs for academic papers.
School Writing Centers
To help students write good assignments and term papers, many learning institutions including high schools, colleges and universities have writing centers. Quite a number of school writing centers provide their resources online, which means you can easily access them at any time and from wherever you are.
You do not have to only use examples from your school’s writing center but also others in order to get adequate information. Aims is one of the good online school writing centers you can visit for examples of body paragraphs to refer to. Besides, the site also offers tips on how to write body paragraphs as well as those for other sections of academic papers.
Academic paper writing services
Professional academic writing services are also among the best sources of body paragraph samples. The services are offered by experienced individuals with expertise in various areas and can always enable you to get the right examples to refer to. The best thing about academic writing service providers is that they can always create custom examples for you based on the given instructions.
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There are also blogs and websites run by experts in various areas of academics that you can obtain examples of body paragraphs from. Since there are a number of them over the internet, choosing the best one to acquire samples from can be a bit tricky. However, you should always try to get samples from renowned academic blogs.
The Writing Café is an online platform that you can also visit for body paragraph samples and proper guidelines on how to develop good body paragraphs for academic papers.
Although both offline and online sources are recommended when looking for examples of body paragraphs, the internet is always the most idea considering its convenience and reliability. But this should not hinder you from visiting the library since it is also another good source of sample papers.
Examples of Body Paragraphs for Academic Papers
By reading well written body paragraph examples, you will be able to effectively know how a good sample should look. In this way, you can always easily choose the right example to use when writing a paper. The following are some examples of body paragraphs that you should read for illustrations on how body paragraphs should be developed.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’While there is little doubt that extracurricular opportunities at University of Texas are a positive and critical component of students’ overall development, providing students with time management skills is equally important. One only needs to look past alumni to see the validity of this claim. As famous alum George W. Bush states…’’ Continue reading the sample here.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’Students who learn how to write well will earn better grades in most classes. This is true because most instructors assign a variety of written assignments, and depending on the class, these written assignments often encompass a large percentage of a student’s final grade. For instance, all college students seeking a degree will be required to take a composition class…’’ Read the other parts of the sample on this link.
Sample Body Paragraph
‘’Perhaps the cheapest and most efficient security method is a so-called Safe Traveler Card or national ID card. A Safe Traveler Card or national ID card would be about the size of a credit card, contain a computer chip, and cost little to produce. In some ways, these cards are like the E.Z Pass devices that enable people to drive on highways, bridges, and tunnels without having to stop and pay tolls (Dershowitz 590)…’’ Click here to read the rest of the sample body paragraph.
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Tumor Suppressor Gene
Tumor suppressor gene is also called antioncogene. It refers to a gene that offers protection to a cell from a single step on cancer’s path. If tumor suppressor gene mutates casing a reduction or loss in its role or function, this can cause the cell to progress into cancer. Usually, this occurs in combination with various genetic changes.
Losing these genes can even be important that oncogene or proto-oncogene activation for formation of different types of cancer cells in humans. Tumor suppressor genes may be grouped in different categories including gatekeeper genes, landscaper genes and caretaker genes. This classification changes as the fields of learning such as genetics, epigenetic, molecular biology and medicine advances.
Compared to oncogenes, the tumor suppressor gene generally follow two-hit hypothesis. This means that the alleles coding for particular protein has to be affected prior the manifestation of an effect. This is due to the fact that if one allele of the gene sustains some damage, the second allele will still produce correct protein. Thus, alleles that suppress mutant tumor are recessive while alleles for mutant oncogene are dominant.
A.G Knudson proposed the two-hit hypothesis for the first time for retinoblastoma cases. Knudson observed the age of the onset of the retinoblastoma and this was followed by the second order kinetics. This implied that it was important to have two genetic events that were independent.
Knudson recognized that two hit hypothesis was consistent with the recessive mutation that involved single gene. However, it required biallelic mutation. In contrast, oncogene mutations generally involve single allele since they are considered as gain-of-function mutations.
When it comes to two-hit rule, tumor suppressor gene has exceptions such as specific mutations in p53 gene product. The p53 mutations are capable of functioning as dominant negative. This implies that mutated p53 protein is capable of preventing function of a normal protein from un-mutated allele. Other tumor suppressors that are considered as exceptions to two hit rule include those exhibiting haploinsufficiency such as NF in neurofibroma and PTCH in the medulloblastoma.
More precisely, tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that either have repressive or dampening effect on regulation of cell cycle or even they promote apoptosis in some cases or they can do both. Functions of the proteins of tumor suppressor genes are usually classified into various categories. These include genes repression, coupling, and initiating apoptosis when damage is irreparable, cell adhesion which prevents dispersing of tumor cells, and DNA repair.
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Sympatric speciation refers to a process by which evolution of new species from one ancestral species occur while inhabiting a similar geographic region. In biogeography and evolutionary biology, sympatry and sympatric are the terms that are used in reference to organisms that have overlapping ranges or ones that are identical making them to occur together even once in certain species.
If the organisms are related closely for instance, sister species, the distribution might be due to sympatric speciation. In etymological terms, sympatry comes from the Greek word together with and fatherland or homeland. Poulton invented the term in 1904 and he explains his derivation.
Sympatric speciation refers to one of the three traditional and geographic categories of speciation phenomenon. Allopatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are isolated geographically into different species. As such, absence of the glow of genes facilitates divergence which tends to maintain similarity in the genetic of the populations.
Parapatric speciation refers to evolution of the populations that are geographically adjacent into different species. In such cases, divergence takes place despite the limited interbreeding in which contact is established between the diverging groups. No geographic constraint hinders interbreeding in sympatric speciation. These are special cases categories of the continuum from sympatric or zero to allopatric or complete spatial segregation of the diverging groups.
In the eukaryotic multi-cellular organisms, sympatric speciation is usually thought of as an uncommon though plausible process where genetic divergence via reproductive isolation of different populations from one parent species inhabiting a similar geographic location leads to the creation of another species.
However, in bacteria analogous process can be more common. This is because bacterial are not constrained by homogenizing effects that sexual reproduction has as well as prone to the comparatively rapid and dramatic genetic change via horizontal gene transfer. Analogous process in bacteria is defined as origin of the new species of bacteria that occupy the definable ecological niches.
In simple terms, sympatric speciation can occur in different instances including when individuals of different species reproduces forming an offspring that is viable such as extra chromosomes coming from different species due to allopolyploid. It can also occur when extra set of the chromosomes in polyploidy comes from the individual due to failure by the gamete to undergo cytokinesis upon the completion of meiosis.
Sympatric speciation may also occur when an individual develops abnormal chromosomes’ number with fewer or extra chromosomes. A species can have an abnormal chromosomes’ number and then interbreed with another member of a population with similar abnormal chromosomes number resulting in the development of a different species.
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Reproductive isolation is also called hybridization barriers. It refers to a collection of different mechanisms, psychological processes and behaviors that prevent members or organisms of two distinct species that mate or cross from generating or producing an offspring or ensures that the offspring that can be produced by the individuals is not sterile.
Reproductive isolation maintains integrity of species with time by directly impeding or reducing flow of genes between the individuals of distinct species. This allows the characteristics of each species to be conserved.
Reproductive isolation mechanisms have been categorized in different ways. For instance, Ernst Mayr, a zoologist classified reproductive isolation mechanisms in two different categories. These are the ones that act prior fertilization or prior mating in animals. These are known as pre-copulatory.
The other category comprises of those acting after fertilization or mating in animals. The mechanisms have been classified as pre-zygotic and the post-zygotic. Various reproductive isolation mechanisms are controlled genetically and this has been demonstrated using experiments that there can be an evolution in a species with overlapping geographic distribution or sympatric speciation or due to the adaptive divergence that usually accompany allopatric speciation.
In regards to population’s biological efficiency, pre-zygote isolation mechanisms of reproductive isolation are very economic. This is because resources are not lost or wasted on production of weak, sterile, or non-viable descendent.
There is also habitat or temporal isolation. This refers to any factor that prevents individuals that are potentially fertile from meeting reproductively isolating the members of that distinct species. Among the type of barriers that may cause this form of isolation include physical barriers, difference in time of flowering or sexual maturity and different habitats. Species often branch off when the factors change. This is commonly seen when physical barrier is altered.
Another form of reproductive isolation is sexual isolation through conduct or behavior. This includes different rituals during mating by animal species which can create extremely powerful barriers to reproduction. These are called behavior or sexual isolation and they isolate similar species in most groups in a specific animal kingdom.
Mechanical isolation can also contribute to reproductive isolation. This occurs when mating pairs are unable to successfully couple because they have incompatible genitals. Evolution which has resulted in the development of organs that are increasingly complex with divergent characteristics causes mechanical isolation among species. Other types of reproductive isolation mechanisms include gametic isolation, hybrid sterility, and fertilization isolation mechanisms among others.
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Inbreeding refers to the process of producing offspring by mating or breeding organisms or individuals that are related closely genetically. The opposite of inbreeding is out-crossing which is breeding or mating individuals or organisms that are not related. Analogically, the term inbreeding is used in reproduction in human although it commonly refers to genetic disorders as well as other consequences that arise from constanguinity and incestuous sexual relationships.
Homozygosity results from inbreeding. This can increase changes of the offspring suffering the effects of deleterious or recessive traits. Generally, this leads to decreased fitness biologically in a population. This is known as inbreeding depression and the ability of a population to reproduce and survive is greatly reduced.
Individuals that inherit the deleterious traits are called inbred. The main reason for selective out-crossing is avoidance of the deleterious recessive traits or alleles that result from inbreeding. For many years, inbreeding has been used as a technique for selective breeding. Breeders, for instance use inbreeding in livestock when they want to establish a desirable and new trait in their stock. However, they always watch for the undesirable characteristics in the offspring that can be eliminated later through culling or further breeding selectively.
Inbreeding is basically used in revealing the deleterious recessive alleles that can be eliminated via culling or assortative breeding. Inbred lines in breeding of plants are used as the hybrid lines creation stocks. This makes it possible to use heterosis effects. In plants, inbreeding occurs naturally in form of the self-pollination process.
In human beings, offspring of persons that are closely related are likely to suffer the effects of inbreeding including congenital birth defects. Chances of the disorders occurring are increased by the closeness of the relationships of biological parents. This can be attributed to the fact that pairing increases proportion of the homozygous zygotes being produced in the offspring, particularly, the deleterious recessive alleles that produce the disorders.
In populations, majority of recessive alleles are not common. It is highly unlikely for marriage partners who are unrelated to carry the alleles. Nevertheless, due to the fact that close relatives have a large portion of alleles, there is a dramatically high probability that such deleterious alleles will be inherited from common ancestor via both parents.
This is contrary to the common belief that allele frequencies are not altered by inbreeding but instead, it increases relative homozygote to the heterozygote proportion. However, its frequency decreases rapidly in an inbred population due to the increased proportion of the deleterious homozygote allele exposed to natural selection.
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Genetic drift is also called allelic drift. It is change that occurs in the frequency of gene variant or allele in the population. Genetic drift is caused by random sampling. Alleles that are found in an offspring are samples of the ones found in the parents. In addition, chance plays a role in determining if an individual offspring survives and successfully reproduces.
Allele frequency of a population refers to a fraction of copies of a gene sharing a particular form. Gene variants can disappear completely due to genetic drift. This reduces genetic variation. In cases where allele copies are few, genetic drift’s effect is larger. When allele copies are many, there is a smaller effect.
Vigorous debates have occurred over relative importance of the natural selection process versus the neutral processes such as genetic drift. Some scientists such as Ronald Fisher are of the view that the entire process of genetic drift plays a minor role in the evolution process. This has remained a dominant view over the years.
Motoo Kimura in 1968 rekindled this debate with the neutral theory of the molecular evolution. The claims are that most instances of genetic change spread across the population. However, these are not necessarily phenotypes’ changes. They result from genetic drift.
Many scientists view genetic drifts in statistical drift in a population over time due to the effects that random sampling have in successive generations’ formation. In a narrower sense, genetic drift can be seen as expected dynamics of a population of the neutral alleles. Neutral alleles are the ones that are defined as comprising negative and positive impact on the reproductive fitness. They are predicted to becoming fixed at 100 percent or zero frequency eventually in absence of other mechanisms that affect the distribution of allele.
Genetic drift can cause a loss of genetic traits in a population. A genetic trait can also become widespread in the population irrespective of the reproductive or survival value of the involved alleles. Random statistical effect of genetic drift can be seen in small and isolated populations where there is small gene pool that is sufficient to allow chance to change its makeup significantly.
In a larger population, specific allele can be carried by many individuals making it almost certain that it will be transmitted by some organisms of the population unless if it is unfavorable biologically. Nevertheless, genetic drift, mutation, migration and natural selection are the basic mechanisms that facilitate evolution.
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When, How and Where to Get a Report Example
Report writing is a common assignment in colleges and universities. Regardless of the course you are pursuing, you need report writing skills at your fingertips. This will help you overcome last minute rush. Besides mastering the art of report writing, you should also have an idea of where to get a report example whenever you are in need. Such sources will always become handy when you are not in a position to work on your homework effectively. Do you want to know these sites, companies, and writers that guarantee you nothing but excellence? Then all you need is this handout.
As you read this guide, you will find the following:
- Recommended sites to get report examples
- Sample reports
- Warnings when sourcing reports
Spare a few minutes and go through a journey that will transform your writing experience. Are you ready? The journey begins now…
Guiding tips when finding where to get a report example
Unlike normal essays, handling a report assignment can be a daunting task. This is because of the groundwork you need to conduct and unwinding sections of most reports. However, with a good writing partner, this should not be a problem at all. This section will help you understand the meaning of as report before you consider looking at an example.
What is a report? An organized document defines and evaluates a subject or an issue. There are different types of reports, depending on the nature of your assignment. If you are looking for where to get a report example, ensure that it contains the following key elements:
Elements of a good report
Introduction – Give background information of the report, including the problem you are addressing.
Sequence of events – A good report is a record of events in a particular order. This order helps the reader to follow the ideas with a lot of ease.
Interpretation and significance – As you work on your report, tell the audience why the facts and events matter to them. Without this, there would be need of doing your report.
Evaluated results – The backbone of any report are the findings. However, bring out the meaning in the figures and statistics through explanation and deeper analysis.
Discussion – This section focuses on the impact of a given decision. Discussion gives an in-depth analysis of your findings for everyone, including non-specialists in the field to understand what you are putting across.
Conclusion – This paragraph gives the deductions of your research. After conducting your survey, collecting data and doing an analysis, give your closing remarks on the subject.
These elements form the basis of standard academic report. However, some lecturers may use different synonyms to mean the same sections. As you look for where to get a report example, go for samples that will enhance your writing skills.
Example #1: Sample Reports
Where to get a report example online
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Importance of online academic help
Saves your time – Even in the 21st century, time is still money. Everyone is looking for a way to create an extra hour or some free time. With urgent and complex assignments from your professors, free time is slowly losing meaning. You can still regain this by having reliable writers.
You get variety – The internet allows you to get writing help from writers with a range of background knowledge and experience.
Can be cheap – While many online writers charge exorbitant prices, there are service providers who mind your welfare and offer reasonable rates. If you are wondering about where to get a report example, consider the following examples:
Example #2: Sources of Report Samples
What to consider when choosing a report example
The challenge you are likely to encounter is finding reliable sample papers to help you as you work on your report. Do not be quick to buy report example from anyone. The following guidelines will help you when selecting a reliable source of writing help.
Cheap is expensive – Do not always go for cheap service providers. Consider other parameters before settling for a particular company.
Go through reviews – You do not want a writer to experiment his or her writing skills on your academic report. Choose writers who are veterans and understand what you want.
Do background check of the writing company– Read more about the service provider before you place an order. This helps you know other services and products that the company offers.
Reliability – Choose reliable writers who are accessible from anywhere in the world. This will help you monitor the progress of your assignment and recommend necessary changes whenever need arises.
Where to find report writing help for your assignment
Different reports have varying requirements. For instance, a scientific report and a business report present unique challenges. Therefore, besides thinking about where to get a report example to help you complete your homework, focus on individuals who can help you complete the task without further straining. Try the following approaches:
Consult your professors – Talk to your lecturer every time you get an assignment brief or notice. Having a chat with your professor over the report assignment will help you make any clarifications. Do not assume anything. Talk about the length of your report, the scope, and sources to use and formatting style among others.
Talk to friends – Do not undermine your classmates. Discussing your topic of research before you write your final report could help you to brainstorm your subject matter. Your friends will help you recall an idea that had escaped your mind or gain a different understanding of the issue, thus giving a unique angle.
Consult libraries – Libraries remain to be resource centers where you can replenish your knowledge on any subject. Talk to your college librarian and find out available publications on your subject.
You may as well visit a public library for further reading. The following libraries can be a good starting point for you. Take a look…
Example #3: Sources of Report Examples
- Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Canada
- New York Public Library, New York
- Seattle Central Library, Seattle, WA
- The Morgan Library & Museum, NY, USA
While some of these libraries charge membership and subscription fee, you will find them to be reliable sources where to get a report example. Do not settle for mediocrity. Remember that the assignment you are working on could be a major determinant in your career life; give your best.
Concluding remarks on where to find a report example
Have you ever wondered why your lecturers always demand written reports? Well, it is a good tool to conduct a written assignment. A report will gauge your understanding of a learned concept and ability to explain what you know.
Thus, a good report is not about the length of your text. In this section, you will discover some of the things that will make your report to stand out from a stark of assignments.
Avoid plagiarism – Plagiarism remains a punishable academic offence. As you work on your report, adhere to the standard writing rules. Avoid plagiarism by:
- Proper citation – acknowledge every source you consult in your report
- Paraphrasing- paraphrase ideas instead of quoting. Avoid very long quotes
- Digest ideas – This will help you to put the ideas in your words
Keep it simple – Do not try to impress your tutor. Use a simple language that allows to you communicate your ideas. Use short sentences and avoid unwinding explanations. Every word you use should advance the purpose of your report.
Use good grammar – A flawed report has no place in the world of academia. Do not commit inexcusable mistakes like punctuation and tense. Take time to proofread your work and eliminate all the errors.
We hope that you now have all the information to help you choose where to get a report example. Let us know how it goes.
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Regulation of Gene Expression
Regulation of gene expression involves a range of mechanisms used by cells for purposes of increasing or decreasing production of specific gene products. In biology, there are sophisticated gene expression programs which are widely observed for instance to trigger developmental pathways, adapt to new sources of food or respond to environmental stimuli.
Any step of gene expression can be virtually modulated from RNA processing to post-translational modification of a protein and to transcriptional initiation. Regulation of genes is essential for eukaryotes, viruses and prokaryotes for the simple reason it increases the adaptability and versatility of organisms by allowing the cell to express protein when it is needed.
The most tightly controlled process in the body is that of gene regulation. When the process is not regulated strictly, the cells don’t produce the correct amount of proteins when they need them and this disruption can cause serious consequences which might include cancer.
Gene expression should be regulated according to the needs of cells. If cells are exposed to an environment where particular gene products are needed, expression of that product is increased. Cells can also produce precise gene products as a way of responding to cellular damage or external signals.
Examples of gene regulation include insulin expression in order to ensure the level of blood glucose is regulated and cyclin expression control in order to ensure normal cell cycle progression. In this manner, gene regulation determines the overall structure of the cell as well as its function governing cell morphology, differentiation and adaptability of the cell to its environment.
Regulation of gene expression can be carried out at varying stages. For instance, transcription step can be prevented in order to stop DNA from been converted to RNA or post translational modification of protein can be stopped.
In this case, regulation can be carried out in three major ways which include:
- Epigenetic-Where non sequence DNA structure changes affect transcription
- Genetic-Where there is a control factor that interests with a gene
- Modulation-Where the control factor interacts with transcription machinery
At this stage, control is carried out by exporting and importing proteins that influence RNA transport out and in the nucleus
Compared to other stages, regulation at this stage is less common and it is used by toxins and antibiotics for instance that inhibit protein translation for purposes of disrupting the usual gene expression f the cell and leading to cellular death and dysfunction.
In multicellular organisms, gene regulation drives the process of morphogenesis and cellular differentiation leading to creation of different cell types that pose different kinds of gene expression profiles and produce different ultra structures that suit their functions though they possess the genotype that follows the same sequence genome.
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Protein biosynthesis is the process through which biological cells build new proteins and is balanced by loss of cellular proteins through export or degradation. Translation which is protein assembly by ribosomes plays an important role in the pathway of biosynthetic along with messenger RNA generation (mRNA), post-translational modification, co-translational transport and aminoacylation of RNA transfer (tRNA).
Protein biosynthesis is regulated strictly at multiple steps and there are mechanisms for error checking in place. This process is initiated in the nucleus of the cell where specific enzymes unwind need DNA sections which make DNA in the region accessible and a copy of RNA is made.
All cells will function through their proteins and the function of protein is defined by molecular function, involvement of a biological process and localization within the cells. All protein components functions are defined by the exact structure, conformation and composition of the proteins encrypted in the DNA region (known as locus) encoding that protein.
The cistron DNA gets transcribed into RNA intermediate varieties and the last version gets used in the synthesis of polypeptide chain. Protein is also often synthesized directly from genes through translation of mRNA.
When there is need for protein to be available within short notice or in larger quantities, there is production of a protein precursor. Proprotein is an inactive protein that contains one or more inhibitory peptides that can be easily activated when inhibitory sequence gets removed by proteolysis especially during posttranslational modification. An mRNA chain is generated during transcription with one DNA strand double helix in genome as a template. The strand is known as template strand. Transcription is divided into three stages which include:
Each of the stages mentioned above is regulated by a high number of proteins like coactivators and transcription factors that ensure the correct gene is transcribed. Transcription will take place where DNA is held which is the cell nucleus. The structure of the DNA cell so made of two helixes made up of phosphate and sugar held together by hydrogen bonds between bases of opposite strands.
The phosphate and sugar in each of these strands are joined by stronger phosphodiester covalent bonds. Synthesis of proteins from RNA is referred to as translation and it occurs in the cytoplasm where ribosomes are located. The ribosomes make up large and small subunits that surround mRNA. The capacity of inhibiting or disabling protein biosynthesis is used by some antibiotics like cycloheximide, anisomycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, puromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin.
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