The usage of electric cars has been greatly cited as avast and ongoing revolution in motor technology.Virtually every big car manufacturing company has a particular type of electric vehicle being developed in the pipeline. Nissan and General Motors Companies have, in fact, propelled some of their merchandises in the United States already(Peace Child International 47). The electric cars have been hyped as significant and are used in monitoring and reducing greenhouse gas emissions hence are considered as an important pace towards the right course for plummeting over dependence on fossil fuels. Many regimes have made great hoards with the aim of promoting the advent of the electric cars. Canada, however, lags behind as the government is yet to make significant levels of investment.
In various ways the electric cars will not be penetrating the Canadian market any time soon unless the regimes help to maintain the automobile industry and at the same time gear operations toward introducing the infrastructure needed for people to effectively control and operate these automobiles (Turnbull 120).With an ingrained automotive manufacturingindustry that involves anexpertlabor force,Canada’s electric carsbuilt-upsubstructure can switch to manufacturing ofelectric vehicles without a lot of trouble.
Many corporations in Canada have previously had the knowledge and capacity to yield the participation for the electric car industry, and all other nine automotive manufacturing stations in the republic have the capability to alter their productions and focus on electric cars. Before this revolution, Canada had several of the basic desirable elements necessary for a state electric car industry. However, without the public funds being forthcoming to assist and inspire this industry given the promising market for these yields, such an extensive implementation of these automobiles and the emergence of a Canadian manufacture base are less likely to occur (Westbrook & Institution of Electrical Engineers 2).
Nevertheless, before any endorsements for public speculation in the electric car industry can be completed, it is imperative to deliberate as to whether or not electric cars are actual or fallacious answers to the adverse impacts of automobile vehicles. The electric vehicles that are exclusively charged or controlled by batteries have factually no tailpipe hence produce no emissions when in action. As a result, this type of technology in vehicles is very encouraging for the aim of reducing greenhouse gas production from tailpipes.
The degree of embracing and implementing the future electric cars is still unclear, yet previously influenced electric grids are becoming progressively implicit. Considerable decisions are necessary, both parsimoniously and in terms of the ecological outlook, from the inevitable electrification of the infrastructure sector (Peace Child International 47). On the other hand, it will be dangerous and an inconvenience for Canada to fully implement operations with customers to monitor the steps and possibilities of electric vehicle procurement and practice, Current pilot platforms indicate that there are significant influences to the electricity dissemination grid that is linked to popularization of electric cars implementation.
It is necessary to understand the advantages of transforming from old-fashioned combustion engines to modern electric drivers. Canadian practicalities have acknowledged these benefits as treasured to their client base, and are taking their part to make it easier to transition to this, low-release veracity, achieved by a step that best matches the car buyers and users. Canadian authorities are intensely engrossed in this stage and the implementation of a range of purchaser electric car (Westbrook & Institution of Electrical Engineers 2). If not properly implemented, the effects of infusing electric cars into the electricity network rapidly develops problems, destabilizing dependence, power feature, and the effectiveness of the power mechanism. These working difficulties make it necessary to develop sound engineering and the ever existent mistake of electric values. It is important to strike a subtle balance between advancement grid in the expectation of consumer electric cars being implemented and over-capitalizing in the unnecessary substructures. This impasse can be best handled by offering returns to the controlling flexibility to stimulate reaction to the market growths in real time.
Hybrid automobiles have been attaining admiration in the open market because of their fuel proficiency. This fuel proficiency is grown by either electric motor supporting the locomotive or offering all the control at low speediness with the interior combustion,mechanically turned off to imply the existence of full hybrid. On the other hand, mild hybrid cars are less fuel effectual compared to the full hybrid. However, the full hybrid is better fuel effective as the interior ignition engines are no longer ideals when clogged. In as much as full hybrid vehicles are changing into more general, it is actually a walking stone on the track to the electric cars (Turnbull 120).
In conclusion, when one dwells in a state or area where most of the electricity is produced from wind power, hydroelectricity, or atomic energy,he or she can easily afford the vehicle upgrade. This may entail buying an electric driven car when it develops to become commercially accessible, and essential acts that will assist in effectively dealing with the matter of Global Warming challenges.It is true that adopting electric cars has been notably quoted as the resultant huge technological growth in automobiles. The electric cars will not be introduced in Canada unless the administrations helps to preserve the vehicle industry, while it remains open towards establishing the substructure essential for people to successfully control and utilize these electric cars.
Peace Child International. Climate Change and the post-carbon future. London: Evans, 2009. Print.
Turnbull, Andy. We need to talk: about the future of Canada. Toronto: Red Ear Publications, 2005. Print.
Westbrook, Michael H., Institution of Electrical Engineers. The electric car: development and future of battery, hybrid and fuel-cell cars. London: London Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2001. Print.
Access to Water
This study seeks to broaden our understanding with regards to the ethical issues associated with water management issue since it has become one of the controversial topics in the current world. The work also feeds into the factors that affect the environmental ethics in view of the interaction of ethics and economics. The work is based on some reflections with regards to water ethics because of the continuous discussions it continues to elicit in terms of both policies and practices of water resource management. The submission of ethical concepts is directly connected to and hence significant to the water resource management. It assists in the process of decision making, which can be a challenging issue as it involves different scientific domains, and requires that the different sources of water use, including the supply and demand side be considered. The paper closely examines some viable or applicable ethical principles to resolve moral dilemmas that involve the management of water. It was argued that as opposed to assessing the ethical issues of water management again, more efforts should have been directed towards promoting the best ethical practices with some pertinent principles identified being the theories of Human Dignity and the Right to Water. The work then concludes that ethics form both the foundation and normative content of certain decisions as it provides the reason and explanation. It is necessary to acknowledge that even though the access to water is crucial, it sometime comes at a cost, yet the procedures used in determining the water price ought to satisfy and meet the operation and maintenance costs. This principle also calls for an impartial explanation of water status reports and the availing as well as ease of access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators ought to be established, not only for the purposes of human health, but also for the protecting the global ecosystems, swampland and their habitats and species.
Environmental, Ethical, and Moral Issues & Themes
The issue of water management has become one of the highly debated that touches on the world resources today. It is becoming more obvious that the water crisis witnessed by the world today is as a result of climate change, rapid, industrialization as well as urbanization, ongoing population augmentation and mismanagement of water resources. For instance, the Asian Development Bank attributes mismanagement of water resources as one of the most significant explanations for the “unprecedented” water crisis being seen in the Asian developing countries. Asian Development Bank further points out that future water crises will not occur as a result of genuine physical scarcity of water, as has been predicted by many organizations, individuals and institutions at present. Instead, the ongoing disregard of suitable wastewater management practices will be the main contribution.
For example, issues such as increased water prices, augmented water cuts owing to unpaid water bills and putting in place the prepaid water meters make it apparent that the existent reform processes based on economic values are in conflict with existing ethical and moral values as far as water is concerned (Gleick 1999). Moreover, scarcity and competition increase pressures to get water now from any available source, irrespective of the long-term ecological impacts that may even affect the water sources. Water markets and trans-basin transfers have been popularized in policy proposals with the aim of meeting the consumer demand. As a result, water has become conceptually and politically delinked from its places of origin, and in particular watersheds, ecosystems and landscapes, with some attempts to protect the environmental features being thwarted.
These management practices ought to ensure a lasting, consistent, and flexible water supply capacity that can meet diverse water consumption, as well as maintain a stable correlation between the practices associated with usage of water and their related environmental outcomes. However, challenges that affect water resources management exist at each stage of the development, usage and management of water resources (Brechin 1999). Such problems that have been attributed to water management include:
- Physical Problems: Physical problems are still commonly experienced in certain parts of the world, for instance, Asia and the Pacific regions. Such problems may take the form of poorly developed water supply and wastewater handling amenities, as well as imperfect water metering/monitoring systems.
- Water Pricing Problems: Low water prices can come about as a result of good water policy or availability of sufficient water resources. Despite its benefits, it has been named as one of the leading factors that contribute to excessive water use, for example in agriculture. The procedures used in setting up the water price should be able to meet both the operation and maintenance costs (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). In China, for instance, the pricing of water is generally based on irrigated land area, or solely based on the electricity that has been utilized. The water prices that are applied for industrial and domestic uses do not therefore include the actual cost of water.
- Organizational Problems: Organizational problems have been attributed as the cause of most of the water conflicts. “Integrated Water Resources Management” is yet to be fully implemented in most parts of Asia and the Pacific. The case study, “A Brief Introduction to the Trans-jurisdictional Water Quality Issues in China”, introduces the overlapped and distributed institutional organizations.
- Achieving conformity on ethical issues appears to be an uphill task, yet, it is not unachievable (Jerome, James, and Ramón). The fact that there are numerous issues linked to water ethical issues necessitates the need to view the matter from a universal perspective.
Jerome, James and Ramón (2004), further state that:
Ethical values take different forms in different cultural groups. In western societies, ethical restrictions tend to take the form of behavioral rules, which ultimately are codified in law. In non-western societies, they may take the form of taboos or rites, which develop into customs of behavior with the social sanction of the community. ( 2004)
From the above text it is easy to deduce that there are major dilemmas in applying the moral values on the society scale which are centered in-between the macro sphere of global norms and the microsphere of inter-personal relationships (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). Even though it is obvious that all three levels are pertinent with regards to water ethics, there has been a problem in distinguishing the ethical interpretation of water and religion viewpoints. For instance, during the International Conference on Water and the Environment that was held in Dublin in January 1992, it was agreed that water has an economic significance in all its competing uses and, thus it should be regarded as an economic good (Al-Jayouroi 2000). However, the Muslim fraternity was against this proposition because this description of water as an economic good differed greatly from the Koran, which describes water as the source of all life and a gift of God. Jerome, James & Ramón 2004 suggests that supposing this problem had been noticed in the beginning of the conference, then it would have necessitated the change of wording of the phrase. After six years, another problem in relation to the prior issue was raised in the conference in which context, Muslims abide by the belief that water needs to be given free to the people instead of being sold for monetary value.
The Context of Environmental Ethics
Despite some pertinent differences in beliefs of different individuals and groups, water ethic ought to be viewed in the context of a general environmental ethic (Mary & Jocelyn 2000). It is essential to use the environmental perspective as a distinct and unique way of dealing with a long-standing controversy in the field of moral development. This means that each individual in the community must be held accountable for water management given the significance of this resource in human life and development. The issue of upstream and downstream interdependence within a watershed, frequently poses the threat for water management hence necessitating the need for an incorporated water management approach.
Roles of Water Ethics
This topic is constantly being discussed in different forums addressing both policies and practices of managing water resource. The submission of ethical concepts is directly connected to water resource management and hence remains relevant to this topic. It helps in the decision making process, which is a difficult subject that involves different scientific domains, and demands the attention of various sources of water use, including the supply and demand sides. In this delicate environment with diverse variables, ethics is mainly charged with the responsibility of providing operational aid and conceptualization of different perspectives, while still focusing on the action, consequences or the motives, which analyze the concepts of rights and duties. Ethics forms both the basis and normative content of particular decisions as it provides reasoning and explanation.
Increased privatization of water and human rights in developing countries can result in massive unrest in most developing countries. Most countries have managed to establish policies that promote private ownership and control of public water supply, which can be seen as a gross violation of human right to accessing water. Basically, public rights and interests in water can be a conjectural basis from which private rights as well as interests in water can be derived. However, as a practical concern, private rights in water are given primacy, subject to a few key public interest restrictions. Given the essential nature of water as a basic element for human life, it is wrong to deny any human being access to water because of their financial capacity either as an individual or group of people. The importance of water makes it essential for human beings to have access to clean water (Gleick 1999). It is fundamentally correct to assert that every person has a right to life in a water source that is at the minimum healthy and functional.
Frameworks for Water Ethics
The World Commission on the Ethics of Science and Technology, UNESCO organized and sponsored working groups that tried to look into the question of water ethics (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004). This led to the publication of 14 essays and 5 case studies which argued that instead of carrying out assessments once again regarding the ethical issues of water management, it would be better to strive to promote the best ethical practices and principles identified which included:
Human dignity: without water life ceases to exist.
Participation: which entails involving all individuals, especially the poor, in water planning and management; with gender and poverty issues being taken into account when nurturing this process.
Solidarity: the upstream and downstream interdependence within a watershed that often poses threats for water management necessitating the need for an incorporated water management approach.
Human equality: all people must be given the basic life necessities equally. Given the importance of water to human life, it is necessary for organizations and individuals to provide water to very person irrespective of their status in the community.
Common good: water is a common good, without which human latent and self-respect can disappear. The description of water as an economic good is in contradiction with the Koran, which describes water as the source of life and a gift of God (Jerome, James & Ramón 2004).
Stewardship: It is necessary to safeguard and carefully use water resources for intergenerational and intra-generational equity and the promotion of the sustainable use of life-enabling ecosystems (Craig 2009).
Transparency and universal access to information: the lack of data that can be accessed in a form that is understood by all, promotes the exploitation of others by some parties that understand this data.
Inclusiveness: water management policies ought to address the interests of every person who resides in a water catchment area. In this case, the interests of the minority, the poor and other disadvantaged in the society must be indemnified.
Empowerment: There is need to facilitate participation in planning and management, and there is need to create opportunities and platforms for discussion. Communities and individuals must be involved in such debates so that they can make pertinent decisions regarding their water (Horowitz 1996).
Theories of `Human Dignity and the Right to Water
Article three on human dignity and human rights stipulates that human dignity, human rights, and freedom must be respected, while article 14 on social responsibility and health advocates that the central purpose for governments should be the promotion of health and social development for their people. These touch on the ethical principle of human dignity, which has continuously arisen in many reports on ethics (Craig 2009). It is also depicted in many reports that address the use of water. The vital test lies in finding the right balance between the interests of individuals, society, and other non-human users of water.
Principle of Equity in Availability and Applicability of Water
This is very important at all levels and should start from the local communities to the universal scale. It is not right for one individual to have access to too much water in excess of what he/she needs, while another absolutely lacks access to water. It is necessary to practice equity for water rights and apply a policy that provides an equal amount of clean healthy water for human use while avoiding any extravagant water usage.
Ecosystem Requirement and a Healthy Environment
The deep and endless affiliation with water is first proven by the biological dependence whereby our body weight is made up of nearly 95 percent water (Gleick 1999). The other is socio-biological affiliation to water, together with other parts of the environment where the common themes brought out in the comments and pictures of nature and life was water, most fundamentally rivers and oceans with ponds having birds, fish and other animals. Most religions also use water for cleansing purpose and all these factors combined confirm the frequency of water as an image of the environment.
Principle of Vicinity
There is no doubt about the irregular distribution of freshwater resources that make it challenging to access dependable freshwater resources. Legal barriers also make it difficult to access these because of legal barriers, for example in cases where an upstream land is privately owned or under the authority of another country. Under the principle of vicinity it is implied that in case the need for water arises, the first alternative will be to utilize the closest water resources. This principle therefore gives first priority and consideration to those people living closer to water when it comes to usage in comparison to those that are far away. Nevertheless, it should be noted that such consideration is not a privilege, but is only dependent on their approval of the situation. Those who are close to the water sources ought to utilize such sources carefully, bearing in mind to avoid any contamination.
Principle of Frugality
This principle directs that people living close to the water sources should avoid wastage and using the water beyond their genuine needs. People ought to only consume the amount that meets their essential living needs, comfort and for sustaining the local ecosystem. This is to enable water not to be misused by other communities in different regions that lack the essential commodity. Water can also be stored for future usage and to this effect, the government needs to set up a policy to adjust the levels between the areas that have a good supply of water and those that face water shortage challenges so as to balance water utilization.
Principle of Transaction
This principle calls for the trade of saved and surplus water that is gotten from the located source as a product in the water market using water banks, water exchanges or transfers. Such trade should, however, bear in mind the private right of users to use and own water resources. In many parts of Asia Pacific countries, water resources are considered public properties with the exception of those used for household purposes. The state therefore grants the permits that are utilized in facilitating water appropriation.
Principle of Multiple and Beneficial Use of Water
The involvement of an all inclusive approach in running water resources, makes it essential for multiple usage. Since humans heavily depend on water, no other water use should be prioritized, even if it is considered equal. While considering this point, it is important to note that the beneficial use of water resources entails the multiple uses over different sectors. For instance, it is advantageous to build a multipurpose hydropower that promotes irrigation and the generation of electricity as opposed to putting water sources to a single use. However, if the multipurpose use of hydropower will affect the extremely important human needs for water, the criteria of selecting beneficial use should be the one which satisfies the higher utilization of water. Nonetheless, this should not be interpreted to imply that minorities should be sacrificed in favor of majorities when addressing the human needs for water.
Principle of Mandatory Application of Quantity and Quality Measures
This emphasizes that both supply and allocation should be viewed as both scientific and ethical responsibilities. Precise, dependable and up to date data on water sources can facilitate monitoring the status of all water bodies and help to establish definite lasting strategic policies that will attain and sustain the preferred status of water situation that promotes healthy environments. Such data can also provide the appropriate responses and intervention mechanisms that can be used to address the negative trends and changes such as pollution or any other problem (Orlando And Peter 2002). This principle also calls for an indiscriminate and clear explanations of water status reports as well as availing and easing access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators need to be established not only for the purposes of human health, but also for protecting the global ecosystems, swampland as well as their habitats and species.
Principle of Participation
The interests of all groups, and especially those of the poor and the underprivileged, ought to be considered in all policies that govern water management. These can be attained by providing education, open journals of water data, community hearings, virtual forums and deliberations. All individuals should be compelled to participate whenever any issues arise that affect the management of water. For example, many concerns have been raised by the opponents of aqua fluoridation who consider it as a form of an obligatory mass medication and assert that while obtaining approval from all water consumers is desirable, it is not an easy thing to achieve. On the other hand, the suppliers precisely manage the exact concentration of fluoride that a population can receive and this goes to show that if all stakeholders would be involved in policymaking, it would have been easier to make the concerned parties to comprehend the concepts behind fluoridation.
Two conclusions can be drawn from the current situation being witnessed and that has elicited strong debate regarding the controversial resources in the globe today. Despite the fact that today’s world is witnessing water crisis caused by climate change, rapid industrialization as well as urbanization, ongoing population augmentation and mismanagement of water resources, the situation can be managed or controlled (Craig 2009). Management practices should be set in place, so as to foster a lasting, constant, as well as flexible water supply capacity which will be able to meet versatile and diverse water consumption, in addition to maintaining a stable correlation between water usage practices and their related environmental outcomes. It is necessary to practice equity for water rights and apply policies that provide an equal amount of clean healthy water for human usage without any extravagance and wastage.
In addition, even though in this delicate environment with diverse variables, the main objective of ethics is to provide operational assistance and conceptualize the different perspectives, the focus should remain on the actions, consequences or the motives, that analyze the concepts of rights and duties. Ethics forms both the basis and normative content for the decision making process given that it provides reasoning and explanation. It is necessary to acknowledge that despite being crucial, the access to water it may come with a price. Yet, it is important to ensure that the procedures used in setting the water price must satisfactorily meet the operation and maintenance costs. This principle also calls for an impartial explanation of water status reports and availing as well as easing the access of such reports to the public. Measures, standards and indicators must be developed in order to protect human health, and also for the indemnify the global ecosystems, swampland and their habitats and species.
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The markets for secondary tickets have become popular in the contemporary ticketing industry. These markets involve the resale of the tickets acquired formally. However, the vendor has no official association with the league, the event or the team. The market for derivative tickets has now grown to become a 10 to 15 billion dollar market. This market offers great opportunities and challenges to the modern ticketing industry. The league, the team as well as the event managements can access more people who buy tickets in the markets of the secondary tickets.
Nevertheless, the main problems that are faced by these markets impact on the entire ticketing industry. An example of the problems of these markets is counterfeit vouchers sale. Business levels as well as the operations of events, teams and leagues are affected by these vouchers. Although the markets for secondary tickets bring opportunities, they also face challenges that requite urgent attention from different stakeholders.
The fraud tickets’ problem impacts on the credibility of the markets of the secondary tickets directly. The league management, event organizers and the teams are also affected indirectly since they are required to handle complaints that people who purchase fraudulent tickets raise. As such, the causes of this problem should be addressed by secondary markets in order to gain credibility and trust from the customers. Nevertheless, the markets for secondary tickets ought not to be removed from this business since their activities support the primary markets by enhancing their reach for more people. These markets also offer feedback in terms of performance and value of the primary markets. The markets for secondary tickets also assist event organizers and teams in determining the prices of the tickets by providing market information.
According to this study, the major problem is conflicting interests between the main stakeholders. The markets for secondary tickets offer great opportunities in the modern ticketing industry. Nevertheless, there are flaws in the market that impact on the industry performance and other major stakeholders including the league, event organizers and the teams.
The fans and the teams are the major stakeholders who are the beneficiaries of the services of the secondary markets. However, they also suffer more when there are malpractices in the secondary markets for the tickets. Fans lose money through fraudulent activities while the teams are blamed by the customers. Some fans may think that the team management was responsible for the fraud. This implies that the image of these teams will be affected negatively.
There are different techniques that can be used by the stakeholders in solving this problem. For instance, the distributors of the primary tickets can come up with non-transferable tickets. This way, it will be hard for people to transfer their tickets without appropriate confirmation and authorization. Tickets should include the identification number of the persons who buy them as well as their full names. In addition, unique computer chips will be included that will link the tickets to original buyers. In the event that there is a need to resell the tickets, then there will be reduced chances of reselling fraudulent tickets.
Another technique that the teams can use to solve this problem is developing and maintaining partnership relations
with distributors of secondary tickets. Teams are blamed the most by their fans when there are fraudulent tickets in the market. As such, they should implement such strategies to safeguard their image from the blame by the public. Additionally, such an arrangement will be beneficial to the markets for the secondary tickets as well since their personal relations with the buyers as well as with the teams will be on long term basis.
The final technique that can be used to solve this problem is implementing restrictions on the distributors of secondary tickets. Even league and event organizers have considered such a move. The move entails promoting tickets’ sale via the internet by the markets for primary tickets.
The markets for secondary tickets are important in this industry. Their operations entail handling luxury suits, season tickets and premium seating. These markets promote the teams’ interests by selling more tickets. As such, the markets for secondary tickets should not be eliminated. Partnership relationships between ticket distributors and the teams are the best solutions to this problem. Research indicates that the markets for secondary tickets allow for changing of tickets. This implies that many tickets would be wasted if these markets did not exist. Therefore, the team management ought to come up with policies for detecting and eliminating the distributors of fake tickets. This way, satisfaction will be ensured for all stakeholders and the entire industry will be streamlined.
My recommendation is that the event organizers, the league and the team appreciate the role of the secondary markets. They are prevalent and restricting them is not necessary because they bring more opportunities in the modern industry. As such, their operations should be coordinated and controlled in order to reduce fraud cases. Licensing all distributors of secondary tickets is one way of doing this by ensuring that all purchased tickets can only be resold by authorized distributors.
I would also recommend that the management create avenues via which buyers can resell tickets online. This way, sellers and buyers will have better opportunities since they will be able to choose whether to resell tickets or to engage services of the secondary markets.
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Cyber Law in Saudi Arabia
Cybercrime refers to an illegal act that criminals carry out using computers and the internet via web defacement, hacking, fraud, scams, copyright infringement, as well as service denial attacks. Cyber laws in the Middle East face different types of cybercrimes that include hackers, computer viruses, cyber stalking, phishing, information ware, identity theft and malware among others (Saad 1). Paul Dwyer notes that the main targets of cybercrimes in the Middle East are large financial companies and organizations. This is because criminals achieve great financial gains and prestige, pride and accolades for attacking such organizations. Organizations that lack skills and internal structures for curbing cybercrimes experience great losses. This is usually the case when internal attacks occur combined with the company’s mails phishing (Paul 1).
In the list of the countries that have high vulnerability for cybercrimes, Saudi Arabia tops the list with the United Arab Emirates following it. In Dubai, police officers acknowledge that innovation, revolution as well as advancement in technology combined with population increase and diversity of the educated persons are among the causes of increased cybercrime. More than 700 incidents of computer crash are reported within Saudi Arabia within duration of 9 months. These are usually attributed to the attempts of hackers to get data or valuable information illegally more so credit cards’ details. For instance, in Saudi Arabia some individuals who citizens suspected to be religious cleric’s supporters hacked a newspaper (Paul 5).
On the basis of these statistics, laws and regulations that are aimed at curbing cybercrime were approved by the government of this country. The Bureau of Experts Council of Ministers in the government of Saudi Arabia issued the Anti-Cyber Crime Law. The Royal Decree approved this law later under the Act that the Communication and Information Technology Commission officially published. Cybercrimes are also called electronic crimes and they are global challenges and issues. Over the past years, these crimes have increased in the Middle East. According to Paul, the increase can be attributed to several factors that include increase in the population of this area as well as lack of security awareness and regulations.
Law enforcers do not have the right training on how to fight cyber crimes. People can also access technologies with ease and this has led to sophisticated attacks. The educated population is also diverse. Additionally, there has been an increase in social networks most of which are unsecure. Consequently, terrorists and criminals are using them with eased to find paths that lead to financial organizations making it easy for them to steal financial valuables, data, identities and passwords. Terrorists are consequently using the finances and identities that they steal in committing terrorist attacks. The United States is the main target of terrorists (5).
For successful execution of terrorist attacks, some internet infrastructures are required. They include a line of communication that can be accessed with ease via social networks that are unsecure, a weapon that is usually acquired by internet service denial, recruitment, propaganda that is carried out through the internet, and fundraising, psychological welfare as well as coordinated activities. Modern technology facilitates all these (Paul 6).
Due to technological advancement, there has been an increase in the production of highly sophisticated tablets, iPads and mobile phones within Saudi Arabia. These and other equipment make it easier for terrorists to successfully coordinate and execute terrorist attacks. For instance, Al Qaeda uses modern techniques and technological machines that include steganography to pass hidden messages in form of simple images on the public and open websites to organize attacks. The Saudi Arabian authorities acknowledge that the internet has been used to learn how bombs are built and constructed and how attacks are coordinated. Suicide bombers also called the Jihadists use cyberspace with advanced technology to enhance encryption. On the basis of these facts, the government of Saudi Arabia acknowledges that criminals commit cybercrimes with a desire and the will to hurt the innocent citizens. Professional and experienced terrorists are a serious challenge since they employ advanced technologies in their operations (Paul 8).
The Saudi Arabia cyber laws are under Anti-Cyber Crime Law that published different articles that address specific cyberspace issues. The article 2 of this law aims at combating cybercrimes by identifying criminal activities to make determining the applicable punishments possible. Via this article, the aim of cyber law is to enhance security of information while protecting the rights of legitimate information networks and computer users, public interest, morals, national economies and values in the country (Royal 5).
In article 3, the law asserts that a person found guilty or caught committing any cybercrime should be jailed for a term that does not exceed one year. The individual should also be fined an amount that is not more than 500,000 riyals. Nevertheless, the law allows the authorities to subject cyber criminals to a fine and a jail term. Going by this article, the aim of the cyber law is to offer protection to people from spying, unlawful access of computers for blackmailing and threat purposes, illegal website access via hacking, destruction and/or modifications, invasion of the privacy of another person through camera equipment and mobile phones access and defamation through the use of modern technology devices (KSA 3).
In article 4, the law further asserts that cyber criminals should undergo imprisonment that exceeds 3 years. A fine of less than 2 million riyals and the aforementioned imprisonment can also be applied if the following cybercrimes are committed: stealing bonds and/or property via fraud or by using false identity while appending a signature as well as accessing the bank account of a person or credit data with an aim of stealing data, securities, information, funds and/or services rendered. As such, Saudi Arabia has various cyber laws that aim at curbing cyber crimes within this country while ensuring the safety of the public (KSA 4).
On the basis of the articles of the cyber laws, it is apparent that Saudi Arabia experiences different types of cyber crimes. These include occupying and/or copying website’s URL, website distortion, stealing information of or credit cards in order to access the bank data of another person via false identity or fraud, hacking and using the cyberspace in coordinating domestic or international terrorist attacks (Saad 1). Norton Symantec came up with a report on cybercrime in 2012 that touches on 24 countries that include Saudi Arabia. The report listed different types of cyber crimes including consumer cybercrime, password infringement and security as well as illegal access via technological devices.
This report indicated that over 1.5 million citizens of these countries become victims of different types of cybercrimes on daily basis. They lose more than 100 billion dollars within a year. Modern and traditional cybercrimes are a threat to consumers. Most of them do not know different risks that include the possibility of email password loss to cyberspace criminals (Marco 141).
According to this report, two out of three people access different sites on the internet using mobile phones. The crimes that were committed in 2011 via mobile phones were doubled. Some users were sent text messages by anonymous individuals who requested them to visit embedded links. Others were requested to dial anonymous numbers in order to listen to voice messages (Adam and Marian 4). More than 30 percent of the population has lost mobile phones or they have been stolen. Most people claim that their devices are not secured. Since the implementation of cyber laws, more people now use Wi-Fi connections via mobile phones to access emails and they are concerned about their security as well as that of their personal data. As such, people are keen to use secured Wi-Fi. Most people use secure Wi-Fi connections in accessing social networks, emails, bank accounts and even shopping online. These activities usually involve private and highly sensitive data (Adam and Marian 9).
A Price Water House Coopers (PWC) survey on cybercrime also indicated that more individuals now know about cybercrimes that in the past 10 years. CEOs, HR managers as well as organizational staffs now pay more attention to cyber security. Experts attribute this to the formulation and implementation of the cyber laws and after cyber crimes were defined by different authoritative bodies and agents which also highlighted different ways through which people become vulnerable to cyber crimes (PWC 28).
Systems, strategies and expert groups that focus on fighting crimes that include cybercrimes were established by the Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Commission under the guidelines of the General Assembly. As such, the legal measures that have been employed in the fight against cyber crimes and the vital role that they have played in the prevention and handling of the illegal acts of criminals over the cyberspace are acknowledged by the United Nations (UN 20).
The Saudi Arabian agents are responsible for ensuring that the country’s cyber laws are implemented fully so as to combat and to prevent cybercrimes. Among these agents is the United Arabs Emirates Cyber Crime group that is headquartered in Abu Dhabi. This group ensures full implementation of the Federal Law, the UAE Cyber Crime Law under the leadership of Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the president. This law relates to the protection of credit cards, bank accounts and internet materials’ information as well as other printed information, data and material that may be used in committing fraud (Marco 141).
Under the Penal Code of UAE, there are tougher penalties for individuals who commit cybercrimes. This is due to the fact that the Penal Code includes eavesdropping of private conversations, information and data that is sent via the internet, intervening messages, high-tech systems and electronic devices in cybercrimes. The terms of punishment for these cybercrimes and terrorists’ information publication as a way of communicating with leaders as well as promoting illegal ideologies and/or making explosives and bombs attract the jail term that the law dictates (Marco 14).
In terms of defining cybercrimes as well as listing different types of cybercrimes and how to combat them, the Computer Emergency Response Team played a very significant role. The Federal Protective Service (FPS), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) and the U.S Customs Service (USCS) which are all found in the US have participated in highlighting challenges and issues that relate to cybercrimes. Different countries including Saudi Arabia have known about cybercrimes and the risks that they pose to the entire country and to the citizens through these agencies.
Although sexual crimes that result from cyberspace issues have not been documented properly, it ought to be noted that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in the United States listed sexual exploitation more so among the young children as an act that should raise concern in relation to cybercrimes. According to the FBI, there are programs and initiatives that use websites in targeting young children and exploiting them sexually later. These programs and initiatives can be by organizations or individuals and their aim is to enhance child pornography on commercial basis. They produce, create, publish and distribute pornographic materials that include children via websites, social network sites and other online platforms. In Saudi Arabia, cyber laws are implemented for purposes of avoiding these cases in a country that is religious and one that does not allow sexual abuse and child exploitation (USDoJ 14).
On the basis of the data that is available in the sources where the information for writing this article was retrieved, the implementation of cyber law is aimed at preventing and combating computer crimes in Saudi Arabia which are happening all over the world. Cyber crimes are illegal activities that criminals commit using internet connectivity and computers. This implies that Asia, the United States, and the United Kingdom as well as other countries are facing the same challenges. In terms of Saudi Arabia, the implemented cyber laws are important because the government realized that terrorist attacks are coordinated using the internet. These attacks have led to loss of many lives, valuables, properties, morals as well as trust among the citizens of the affected countries.
With an increase in the use of information technology, email abuse, service denial attacks, virus attacks, unauthorized access and data theft have also increased. As such, it was highly important for countries with increasing cases of cyber crimes such as Saudi Arabia to formulate cyber laws, gazette and also implement them so that they can combat, prevent and also eliminate cyber crimes.
Adam, Palmer and Marian Merritt. 2012 Norton Cyber-Crime Report, A Report by the Norton Symantec, 2012.
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). ICE Investigations: Missions Roles in Multi Agency Areas of Responsibility, U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement Report, 2007.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Anti-Cyber Crime Law, Bureau of Experts Council of Ministers Official Department Saudi Laws, 2007.
Marco, Gercke. Understanding Cybercrime: Phenomena, Challenges and Legal Responses, Telecommunication Development Bureau Report, 2012.
Paul, Dwyer. Cyber Crime in the Middle East, Security GRC & Cyber Crime Report, 2010.
Price Water House Coopers (PWC). Cybercrime: Protecting Against the Growing Threat, Global Economic Crime Survey, 2011.
Royal, Decree. Electronic Transactions Law, A Royal Decree Report No. (M/8), 2007.
Saad, Shwailah. Campaign Crimes and Abuse, Computer Engineering Department Saudi Arabia Report, 2008.
U.S Department of Justice (USDoJ). The Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Efforts to Combat Crimes against Children, U.S Department of Justice Audit Report, 2009.
United Nations (UN). Comprehensive Study on Cybercrime, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Report, 2013.
This disease is also known as hepatolenticular degeneration disease, which can be fatal is not acted upon. According the revelations from medical research, this disease affects an estimated one person in every thirty thousand people. It develops as a result of copper poisoning of the body cells and organs. According to medical experts, the disease should be contained at an early stage instead of waiting until it reaches a lethal quantity. This disease usually affects organs like the liver and brain. In normal conditions, the body accumulates excess copper than it can actually accommodate, thereby causing an attack on these sensitive body organs. The presence of copper in the brain and liver can cause serious medical conditions that require immediate attention, otherwise lives can be lost. Copper belongs to the category of trace elements that are required by the body in small quantities so as to undertake various biological operations. However, a lot of the element should be released through body cells and organs by excretion.
This is the concept that helps in differentiating normal people from those suffering from Wilson’s disease, since they are usually unable to excrete excess copper compounds from their bodies. As mentioned earlier, this health condition is genetic and is caused by the presence of excess accumulation of copper in the body, which eventually attacks vital organs. The presence of this disease is noticed right from the time that a child is born, and the patient develops uniqueness in terms of physical and psychological behaviors (Sang, Hee, Sun Ho & Dae Ghon, 2013, p. 500). Excess copper in the body makes the conditions of the body to worsen, and mostly ends in death if not attended to. The symptoms of this condition are evident in the liver right from the time that one is born, however, it is more pronounced during adolescence. At this stage, excess copper in the body begins to acquire a new state and consequently generates adverse effects on the liver. The condition of the liver is only visible through microscopes and upon testing its physical states are determined based on the condition.
Causes and Inheritance of Wilson’s Disease
The cause of Wilson’s disease is directly linked to the failure of a certain gene that is found in the chromosome. The failure of gene 13 is what results into the severe symptoms that later turn into Wilson’s disease. The gene is commonly known as ATP7B, and primarily meant to control the copper levels in body organs. In the event that the gene fails to function as required, the liver is among the first organs to be adversely affected. As a result of this, there is a low volume of copper excreted, thereby leading to accumulation of bile within the bile glands that are found in the liver. This may end up in death. The excess bile that has high levels of copper piles up in the liver, and the compounds of copper seep outside the liver into the bloodstream and finally the brain. Once the copper elements get into the brain, the condition of the body deteriorates. Based on the poisonous nature of these compounds they usually pose great danger to the body organs.
This disease is inherited depending on the gene composition and alignment. The condition is a case of autosomal recessive disorder. This term is related to gene alignments behind its inheritance. For example, a person develops Wilson’s disease upon inheritance of the two abnormal ATP7B genes in the body. This pair of abnormal genes originates from both parents; father and mother (Tamura, Sugawara, Kishi, Hamamatsu, Kaneko & Makuuchi, 2005, 485). The simplest explanation of the occurrence of this disease can best be shown through a diagram. Based on the diagram of this gene, both parents must be carriers of the Wilson’s disease and the gene combination must be that the pair of abnormal genes constitutes the gene composition of the child.
The inheritance of a single abnormal gene by an individual makes him or her become a carrier. Carriers do not have the disease since one of their genes has the ability of controlling the function of copper within the organs. However, two carriers have higher chances of passing on the disorder to their offspring. These cases are established by chance and only take place in special circumstances. According to statistics on the review of the inheritance of Wilson’s disease, there is one case of the disorder in every 100 people. Looking at the cases whereby two people bearing abnormal genes have a child, certain conditions are impacted.
The first case according to the Wilson’s inheritance probability diagram is that there is one out of four chances that the offspring will have the condition. This is an implication that the child inherits the two abnormal genes from the mother and father. This results into the development of the disorder that can eventually be fatal. The second case involves the inheritance of just one abnormal ATP7B genes from both parents. The probability gene diagram indicates that only two chances out of four are available for this disorder to occur. The inheritance of a single gene from the parents is an implication that the child is a carrier and may not necessarily suffer from Wilson’s disease.
The other case is whereby the child has neither the disorder nor a carrier. This means that the child born will not suffer the defect of his or her parents. This rarely occurs since it amounts to only one of the possible four chances. In this case, the offspring inherits normal genes, hence, is free from the condition. The discussion of the occurrence of the mapping and implications on the child is basically behind all the diseases that are genetically induced.
Symptoms of Wilson’s Disease
The symptoms of this disorder can be experienced as early as six years in some people and also as later in life as forty years old. However, there are certain cases whereby the symptoms show in adolescence. Despite all these, Wilson’s disease is inherent in an individual right from birth. The symptoms vary depending on the target organs that are attacked, and the stages of development. The first category of symptoms is impacted by liver attack. The liver starts to develop problems once excess bile is accumulated in the liver. The toxic elements of copper deposited on the liver makes the organ to begin swelling. This condition is usually called hepatitis or simply liver inflammation. Hepatitis is a mild condition, but can adversely incapacitate parts of the body. For instance, existence of hepatitis may result into adverse conditions like jaundice, vomiting and severe abdominal pain. If this condition persists in the liver, it can cause other consequences like liver cells damage called cirrhosis (Brewer, 2005, p. 187). These problems can further impact fatal situations, and usually result into liver failure.
There is also another problem that is caused by severe case of excessive concentration of bile in the liver. With the restricted control of copper in the form of bile, the elements are absorbed into the bloodstream where they accumulate and end up in the brain. The presence of bile in the brain can generate adverse results that may cause physical imparities. For instance, the victim may experience tremor in the arms, general slowdown in speech, difficulty in swallowing food and in extreme cases lack of saliva. Other symptoms of presence of bile in the brain include unsteady walk, seizures and problems in writing.
These physical problems can torment the patient psychologically and even end up in psychological trauma. Some of the signs of psychological syndromes include depression, mood swings and inability of the individual to concentrate on his or her endeavors. Such symptoms make the person to become argumentative and at times even develop strong emotional reactions and vulnerability to anger. Poor state of self control is among the justifications of Wilson’s disorder in the later stages. At this stage, the high concentration of bile in the brain may cause severe conditions if not addressed on time. For instance, persistent accumulation of copper elements in the brain may become a chronic condition causing severe weakness of the muscles, development of dementia, and undue rigidity in the body organs and even joints.
Besides, copper build up in the liver may also be translated to other organs in the body. For instance, excessive concentration of copper in the eyes can lead to severity in the cornea and characteristic feature usually known as Kayser-Fleischer rings (Svetel, Pekmezovic, Petrovic, Tomic, Kresojevic, Jesic & Kostic, 2009, p. 855). This can be portrayed by the development of a brownish pigment in the cornea. Secondary impacts of the accumulation of excess copper is not limited to just the above symptoms but also extends to other body problems like pancreatitis, kidney damage, anemia, development of heart problems, menstruation defects among others such as miscarriages in women.
Diagnosis of Wilson’s Disease
There are various kinds of ways of diagnosing the Wilson’s disorder to make sure that its presence in the body is determined and the quantity ascertained rightfully. This entails the administration of several tests that are varied based on the level of suspicion, and the extent of prevalence. The first test is conducted through blood tests to measure the element known as caeruplasmin. The element is general a protein factor whose role is binding of copper within the human bloodstream. The ability of the body to excrete excess copper is determined by the level of caeruplasmin. In normal body conditions, it is ideal that the substance levels remain high. People with lower levels of it highly suffer Wilson’s disease.
The blood tests will help in establishing the quantity of caeruplasmin in the body. This will ascertain whether one has the disorder or not. The test forms part of the most effective way of determining the presence of Wilson’s disease in the body. Through the measurement of the protein that binds copper in the bloodstream, a conclusion is made on the level of the disorder (Da Silva-Junior, Carrasco, Mendes, A Lopes & De Bruin, 2008). Besides, extremely low levels of caeruplasmin are linked to the high rate of copper loss and consequently adverse conditions. Apart from the blood tests, there are several other tests that are also performed to establish the levels of copper within the body. For instance, other tests on kidney and liver function can also be conducted.
These organs are the most vulnerable to Wilson’s disease, and tests done on them can provide their corresponding states. Hepatitis test among other infections can also be conducted to determine whether the organs are affected or safe. In consideration of tests on the kidney, a brief examination provides detailed results on its status in relation to this disorder. The infection equally affects kidneys and they can at times even fail to effectively carry out their functions when attacked by Wilson’s disease.
The other test that can also be done to ascertain whether one has the disorder is urine test. Urine test is among the most viable means of establishing the contents of copper elements in the body. For instance, optimal levels of copper in the urine translate into a high level or abnormal presence of Wilson’s disease. According to the results of the test, low copper levels in urine may give the implication of lots of copper help up in the kidney, something that can cause severe kidney damage.
Besides, high level of copper in the urine may also mean over concentration of copper in the body. This test is conducted on all urine produced by a person in one day. This disorder can be determined by the presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings. Based on this test, the eye cornea is examined by an optometrist or eye specialist. Liver related tests can also be done to ascertain the level of copper and extent of infection. One of those tests is known as biopsy, which entails examination of a liver sample under a microscope. The results obtained from the test will indicate the extent of cirrhosis and copper levels in the liver.
The specialist can also request for other significant tests like MRI scan of the brain and kidney. These tests can compound the extent of damage in tow organs as impacted by Wilson’s disease (Merle, Weiss, Eisenbach, Tuma, S Ferenci & Stremmel, 2010, p.108). MRI scans provide detailed information on the state of the brain, in relation to the consequential impact of copper deposits. Confirmation of the disorder in the body should be complemented by other secondary tests on an individual’s brothers and sisters. Medical research shows that the brothers and sisters of the victim have one out of four chances of having the disease. With such information, the medical practitioners can generalize that the victims must have higher prospects of Wilson’s disorder. Based on this probability cycle, at least one or more of the victim’s brothers are carriers.
Treatment of Wilson’s Disease
This disease adversely affects the brain and liver respectively, thereby calling for an earlier treatment for the mitigation of the impacts. The first set of treatment method is oral ingestion of drugs. Penicillamine is among the drugs that can be used in reducing copper levels in the body. The drug can shoot down levels of copper that are linked to the inability of the liver to control and maintain the body Ph. When this drug is taken, it ensures that excess copper is expelled from the body in the form of urine. The administration of penicillamine can significantly reduce the concentration of copper in the bloodstream. For instance, it is lowered in cases whereby copper build up in the body becomes less. The drug is an essential preventive measure, and its use must be continued for a period of up to one year. Apart from penicillin, copper levels in the body can also be reduced through the administration of Trientine. This drug is a chelating agent that helps in removing excessive concentration of copper from the body (Okada, Shiono, Kaneko, Miwa & Yamagishi, 2010, p. 1238).
Wilson’s disease can be treated in several ways that may also involve the introduction of zinc into the body. The presence of zinc in the body is critical since it aids the blocking of the gut from the absorption of copper that may impact an excess quantity in the body. Zinc plays a preventive role by blocking the gut, thereby hindering future buildup of copper in the body organs. Apart from shielding the gut, zinc has another advantage over Penicillamine and Trientine, in that it shows no side effects after use. Zinc has a mild effect on the body and normally has no negative effects on the usual operations of the body. Ideals of zinc are related to the state of early signs of the disease. The early stages of infection can be prevented by taking of zinc. Other case where zinc intake is also appropriate is whereby the victim was initially treated using Penicillamine or Trientine, and the accumulation of copper in the body has already started going down. Zinc is also ideal for pregnant mothers since it helps in the proper development of the fetus.
Wilson’s disorder is quite hazardous to the normal functioning of the body, and treatment for life is considered the most viable way of wiping out the effects. This process occurs in sequences and starts from the clearance of excess copper in the body before embarking on mechanisms for stopping future accumulation. Preventive measures can eliminate the chances of re-buildup of copper in the body, completely controlling the future occurrence. Other cases of this disorder may end up in death, especially when determined at later stages of the infection. Such adverse conditions or organ damage may at times not respond to treatment through medication. Thus, the ideal treatment is organ transplant which happens in circumstances whereby the organs are completely damaged.
For instance, destruction of the liver requires liver transplant, to serve the purpose of the liver in the human body. However, this method is quite expensive such that many cannot afford it. Another simple means of ensuring that the body retains its stability is intake of adequate diet. The right diet helps the victim to stay safe from food related conditions, which can deteriorate the physical body. The recommended diets should not contain copper rich foods that may elevate the copper levels in the body (Martin, Bartels, Redlich, Hauss & Fangmann, 2008, p. 218). Every effort is aimed at reducing the copper levels in the body, which can be achieved through the consumption of foods with low copper contents. Some of the main foods to be avoided include liver, nuts, chocolate, legumes, mushrooms, shellfish and lobsters. It is essential for the individual to eat appropriate diet and also adopt correct eating habits in order to control the disorder.
In conclusion, Wilson’s disease is a severe condition that requires thorough diagnosis and treatment. If one gets ideal treatment, the effects in the body will be kept low. Early treatments are ideal for controlling the condition and preventing its future occurrence. This concept is the baseline of controlling the disorder.
Brewer, G. J. (2005). Neurologically Presenting Wilson’s disease: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology and Treatment. CNS Drugs, 19(3), 185-192.
Da Silva-Júnior, F. P., Carrasco, A. B., Mendes, A., Lopes, A. T., Souza, M. E., & De Bruin, V. S. (2008). Swallowing dysfunction in Wilson’s disease: a scintigraphic study. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 20(4), 285-290. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2007.01036.x
Lai, C. H., & Tseng, H. F. (2010).Population-based epidemiologic study of Wilson’s disease in Taiwan. European Journal of Neurology, 17(6), 830-833. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02946.x
Machado, A., Deguti, M., Caixeta, L., Spitz, M., Lucato, L., & Barbosa, E. (2008).Mania as the first manifestation of Wilson’s disease.Bipolar Disorders, 10(3), 447-450. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2007.00531.x
Martin, A. P., Bartels, M., Redlich, J., Hauss, J., & Fangmann, J. (2008).A single-center experience with liver transplantation for Wilson’s disease.Clinical Transplantation, 22(2), 216-221. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2007.00777.x
Merle, U., Weiss, K., Eisenbach, C., Tuma, S., Ferenci, P., & Stremmel, W. (2010). Truncating mutations in the Wilson disease geneATP7B are associated with very low serumceruloplasmin oxidase activity and an early onsetof Wilson disease. BMC Gastroenterology, 108-13.doi:10.1186/1471-230X-10-8
Okada, T., Shiono, Y., Kaneko, Y., Miwa, K., Hasatani, K., Hayashi, Y., & … Yamagishi, M. (2010).High prevalence of fulminant hepatic failure among patients with mutant alleles for truncation of ATP7B in Wilson’s disease.Scandinavian Journal Of Gastroenterology, 45(10), 1232-1237. doi:10.3109/00365521.2010.492527
Sang Youn, L., In Hee, K., Sun Ho, Y., & Dae Ghon, K. (2013). Brief communication: A Case of Colonic Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Wilson`s Disease. Gut And Liver, 7(4), 500.
Svetel, M. M., Pekmezović, T. T., Petrović, I. I., Tomić, A. A., Kresojević, N. N., Ješić, R. R., & … Kostić, V. S. (2009). Long-term outcome in Serbian patients with Wilson disease.European Journal Of Neurology, 16(7), 852-857. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2009.02607.x
Tamura, S., Sugawara, Y., Kishi, Y., Hamamatsu, N., Kaneko, J., & Makuuchi, M. (2005).Living-related liver transplantation for Wilson’s disease.Clinical Transplantation, 19(4), 483-486. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2005.00371.x
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Company History and Growth
Ritz-Carlton Hotel was founded in 1983 in Atlanta Georgia after the sale of Ritz-Carlton Boston and the United States trademark. The company has been able to expand over time to establish its brand in 26 countries so far with more than 81 hotels and resorts. The founder of the organization, Cesar-Ritz took luxury accommodation a notch higher though his distinct management in the hotels’ branches in Paris and London.
The mission of the company, ‘’we are ladies and gentlemen serving ladies and gentlemen’’ enhances a close relationship between the workers and customers, and also indicates the perception and appreciation of development in the company.
The company’s credo is offering genuine care and comfort to guests, providing better personalized services and facilities, and enlivening the senses and fulfilling the wishes of guests with mind blowing experiences. Husrt established a customer/ employee credo and set standards which employees are required to meet in serving clients. This highlights human resource management practices and organizational cultures like hiring, training and empowerment that have been implemented by the company for organizational success.
Some of the challenges that are experienced by the organization in management include strict organizational culture, an expensive recruitment process and an expansive method of enticing guests for ensuring an excellent experience in the resorts and hotels.
Current Action Plan
The company acquired finances to open new branches from Manufacturers Hanover Trust of New York. Under the leadership of Horst Schulze, the company has emerged as a leader in the hospitality industry in the United States through the institution of a personal and data driven service. The company endeavors to acknowledge the employees’ contributions since they are the greatest resource for enhancing service delivery, nurturing talent towards the benefit of both the individuals and the organization at large, and value diversity, improvement of quality and strengthening of the values of the organization through creation of a proper working environment.
The company sets aside sufficient time and resources for the orientation and training of employees since it is believed that proper training enables the workers to obtain service values and the required service standards. To make sure that only qualified individuals are hired and the process is objective, Ritz-Carlton uses the services of Talent+ Recruitment Firm based in Nebraska. The organization conducts ongoing training for the employees in their first year of recruitment (100 hours annually), so that they are able to perfect their skills and master the culture of the organization. Besides, it also holds workshops and training sessions on either monthly or quarterly basis where it discusses aspects like the appreciation of individual disparities, team work and evaluation of co-workers performance.
Training and Development Steps
The Ritz-Carlton employees are taken through intensive and comprehensive training for the achievement of excellent standards. To recognize the quality and commitment towards offering training to its employees, the company clinched the top spot in training top 125 winners in 2007. Besides, the organization has been able to curve a reputation for exemplary performance when it comes to the provision of quality services by calling their staff ladies and gentlemen, and using training methods that help in providing high quality services as expressed in the company’s Gold Standards. For instance, in 2007, the organization invested 10% of its expenditure in creating a sufficient training program.
Ritz-Carlton is a leading name in the hospitality industry because of the choice to create and adhere to its own standards that is portrayed by the fact that it is the only company that has won the Malcohm Baldridge National Quality Award two times and provides the best through its employee training program. According to the Chief Executive Officer, the success of the organization is tied to several fundamentals like location, product building and the people. To make sure that all employees are up to date, the company uses lineup whereby the CEO communicates with the waiters and waitresses on their schedule for the day and employees utilize this opportunity to also discuss their service experiences. This lineup also enhances continuous training and communication since the message from the heads of departments is passed across. Besides, the sharing of experiences motivates the employees to strive towards continuous development.
Giving employees the opportunity to use at least $2,000 to make sure that guests are treated to the best experience instills trust, enhances creativity and also creates a good public image for the company. The values of Ritz-Carlton acknowledge that creating a good working environment requires that employees ate involved in because this will makes them feel part of the organization and influence their commitment as professionals instead of servants. Despite the awards that the organization received for excellence, the CEO still felt that they were far from attaining sufficient customer satisfaction since their services were erratic and workers lacked a clear understanding on what was required of them.
Employees are given the power to spend up to $2,000 in cases where they think that they are able to enhance the experience of customers, handle customer complaints or correcting an error without the permission from their supervisor. This level of trust makes the staff to have confidence, be creative and approach issues and come up with solutions professionally to the advantage of the company. The philosophy of the organization of respecting its employees creates a fully incorporated working environment that accommodates all. The turnover of Ritz-Carlton is about 20%, quite a low rate in the hospitality industry and the move towards evaluating how well the employees feels that the company’s promises are accomplished on day 21 is commendable.
The evaluation of employee performance is conducted by a quality management team every week through reviews of product and service quality offered. The strategic plans are set on a yearly basis to guide the employees on what they are required to achieve over a given period of time and the established monitoring performance is aimed at enabling them to set goals and carry out evaluations at individual levels. Once the management realizes that a particular employee is not delivering, the first step is to establish the source of the problem and through training, they are encouraged to solve the problem themselves. Employees also monitor their own performance and are rewarded at both departmental and hotel level for their accomplishments.
Although the organization does not provide the greatest salary packages in the industry, it is preferred by many people who have the dream of developing their professional standings because of the positive organizational culture. Comprehensive training and delegation of responsibility and trust to employees reduces the employee turnover, thereby leading to growth since hiring and training expenditure are barely at minimum.
Challenges of the Current Action Plan
The culture of the organization emphasizes on customer satisfaction and maximization of profits. The question is how much the organization is willing to spend on offering clients exemplary experiences. Besides, upholding the culture of the organization is based on the person at the helm and the processes involved in hiring, much time and resources are unnecessarily spent. Due to the intensive training and strict standards, the organizational culture is static and accommodating change can take quite some time. According to literature, the expense involved in operations and ensuring that guests have mind blowing experiences has been identified to cause strain between the management and owners of the organization.
New Recruitment Strategy
A new plan of action should consider implementing a recruitment strategy that does not take a lot of time and resources. The company offers rewards to employees for better performance like professional growth at individual levels and promotions for employees who are committed and hard working.
Tying pay to performance
Considering a good working environment and name of Ritz-Carlton, it is important that salaries of employees are reviewed so that they are able to coincide with the revenues of the organization.
Target Market for Job Candidates
The target market for the employees working in the hospitality industry is focused on tourism and hotel industry. Therefore, the training program should be flexible so that workers are able to use the knowledge acquired in outside situations.
The company sets aside sufficient resources for hiring, training and employee empowerment. This has ensured success of the company in the industry. With 25% of the organization’s managerial workforce as employees who were hired as casual indicates that the organization provides opportunities for professional growth through promotions. The better working conditions enable the employees to understand their roles and also create a perception that they are not in the company to undertake certain duties.
The challenges experienced in the management of the organization include a stringent organizational culture, an expensive process of recruitment and a costly method enticing guests in an effort to make sure that they have the most memorable experience in the hotels. A review of the strategy of recruitment will make sure that the process is less costly to the company and release resources initially used to other important ventures.
Ritz-Carlton’s process of recruitment is done professionally and only applicants with the highest qualifications in the hospitality sector are absorbed. This is because of the fact that service and quality can only be as good as the staff and for the company to attain the Gold Standards, it is important that it hires the right kind of employees and equip them with the necessary input. Recruitment is conducted through benchmarking, an overtime observation of the ability of an employee to learn and deliver. Besides, the good working environment enables employees to understand their responsibility and instills a perception that they are not in the company to play certain roles.
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Procter and Gamble
Historical Background of Procter and Gamble
Procter and Gamble (P&G) was founded in 1837 in Cincinnati, Ohio as a partnership between a British candle maker and Irish soap maker William Procter and James Gamble (Conklin 2006, p. 189). The partnership led to birth of the company proctor and gamble that gained fame quickly and reputation because of their honesty which made it possible for them to earn respect and trust from suppliers and customers alike. The company delivered its products at prices that were competitive and the quality of products was always superior. Upon the merger, the company’s sales reached $ 1 million by 1859 and by that time, the company already had an excess of eighty employees. During the 1880s, the company started to market new products which included an in-expensive sop that could float in water.
The company, in 1887 allowed employees to undertake employee stock option plan (ESOP) where they were permitted to buy shares from the company. The company continued introduction of new products and product improvement as well as engaged in diversification of related products (189). The company, by 1980 was a leading marketer and a leader in advertising as well as basic development and research. By that time, it had marketed move than 300 brands within thirty nine categories which included personal care, laundry, cleaning food and beverages, chemical and pulp products. In the 1980’s the company was able to achieve 95% market penetration. The acquisitions the company made helped in fostering the company (192) and it continued to grow such that by 1990, performance of the company in terms of sales reached a high sales record.
Success of P&G can be attributed to the company’s willingness to operate the business in a manner that was consistent with integrity values, doing what is right in the best manner possible and respecting individual working with the company (192). The environment the company worked on was one of religious backing as such, they were able to inculcate honesty in all dealings. The management policies set aided in best performance among employees. The company also held the belief the company was inseparable from employees as such, it placed great value on workers. The principle of placing high value on workers dictated the HRM policies which included promotion and recruitment of staff from within the organization on the basis of merit, development of individuals through coaching and training, rewarding and encouraging individuals, leadership and innovations and teamwork across the numerous divisions, disciplines and geographies (194-7). The company as well employed in excess of 89,000 people throughout the globe by 1990.
The environment within which the organization operated was comprised of strong internal competition and teamwork which was characterized by a management process that was well structured. The company famed the brand management system by ensuring each brand had drive and focus. In this regard, the management allocated people to foresee the performance of drive in the market place. Each brand was assigned to a specific brand manager and a couple of assistants mandated with the responsibility for loss and profit for the complete product line, for instance, detergents (197). Changes in business environments contributed t revelation of the effects of internal competition leading to conflicts, lack of focus and inefficiencies (197). When authority was pushed down to managers of categories, decision making was also enhanced and the company was better able to get closer to its customers (198).
In the 70s and 80s, competition and globalization in the industry led to many issues because P&G was not in the position to respond to the new environment fast. This contributed to erosion of earnings, brand leadership and margins. The new entrants into the industry included warehouse retailers such as Wall-Mart and large supermarkets. The new entrants as well brought about new sale of point technology, shifting balance of power within the industry from the manufacturers to consumers (199). The retailers benefited as a result of this and they were able to exploit rivalries ad dictate terms of trade.
As the level of competition intensified, competitors reacted quickly to change and they benefited more from restructured operations. P&G faced a lot of competition in all brand categories mostly from competitors that were foreign based such as France’s L’Oreal, Japans Kao, Germany’s Henkel and Unilever Johnson and Johnson, and Gillette (199). Others included American’s Colgate Palmolive and Kimberly Clark who stole the market share for diapers and dental products. The competitive was extremely stiff such that one analyst indicated there were over 1000 new products introduced in the market each month (199-200). The competition was high and especially with the brands established to the point that by 1989, unit sales had risen by 17% and other products competing in the same category doubled. Changing demographics affected competition. An increase in working women and proliferation of media outlets made it hard for the company to be in the position of reaching a large number of segments. As a result of this, the financial state of P&G was drastically reduced.
Market Strategy and Model
Due to the deteriorating results, the company was forced into implementing internal changes in marketing, sales, manufacturing and distribution (199). The structure of management and creation of new category managers begun turning the business around. The company was able to be more customer focused as a result of this since it was in a position to work with its big pool of customers. In order to make this possible, the company employed globalization strategy and research as well as development in marketing, distribution and production of its products. International strategy, worked well till 1970 when the low prices and increased competition weakened it. By 1990 however, the company increased its international marketing and this was attained as a result of foreign expansions, acquisitions and mergers (201). The company as well as able to use global strategy by expanding into Asia, Latin America and Europe among other places (201-203). After the war P&G management carried out research and development, talked to European managers and were able to understand the economic, social and political state throughout Europe making it possible for them to start business once more in these regions by using different models such as taking the entire pulp and detergent industry in the Soviet Union nations.
The merger between gamble and proctor aided in nurturing a global company. The company won the market as a result of its capability to invest in employees and cultivate a culture of honesty in its dealings. Work allocation and hiring within the company made certain that the company retained competent employees and this made it possible for it to introduce more than a hundred new product brands. Technological innovation also led to company collapse. The management should have looked into the issue immediately as it would have made it possible to know introduction of technology age into the market. Development and research was not properly carried out since the company did not have the slightest idea of how to respond to the conditions in the market faster. While the company valued internal hiring, external experts might have been integrated into the company to introduce new ideas such as technology, new products and ideas. Regardless of this fact, the company still managed to perform well by restricting and this helped it to reclaim its lost glory through initiating different kinds of models to be taken to Eastern Europe.
Conklin, D. W. 2006. Cases in the environment of business: international perspectives. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.
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A patent is defined as an award or grant made by government upon which it discusses the maker of an invention given them the exclusive right to sell, exploit and make that particular invention for a certain duration (Pipers Intellectual Property, n.d). It is a set of specific rights which are given to inventors for a restricted duration and they in turn have to make the invention public. Simply put, a patent refers to personal property or assets and can take the form of the property belong to the inventor which can be quite costly to individuals who have them. There are different kinds of patents which are accessible to inventors, for instance, patent to file processes referred to as Utility patent. There are also a couple of reasons inventors might patent a process though this is not restricted to the privilege of selling an idea to customers who are interested.
A patent is also known as a set of restricted rights which are given to individuals who are inventors or owners of material or product. These rights are given by independent state. The attorney offering clients the processes needed to have patents is referred to as patent attorney. Patent attorneys are supposed to have all the needed merits so they can be entitled to offer patent rights to individuals. The processes of patent provision however vary widely between nations depending on their laws and other global settlements.
The individual that performs the task of pursuing patent registration for an inventor or holder before the Patent Office power is referred to as a patent agent. Essentially, no opportunity is given out for patent agents under the Patent Law though these might differ from one state to another. This post, however can also be referred to that of patent attorney in various states according to their laws. Any individual applying for the post of a patent agent must first pass a qualifying exam each year which is provided by Patent Office as it is required by law (Lemley 1501).
Granting exclusive or specific rights to an inventor is anticipated to encourage investment of resources and time for purposes of developing new and helpful discoveries. Restricted domination which is issued by a patent is encouraged and lawful under the United States Jurisdictions as well. As such, patents can be and are very important. A large number of individuals have made large sums of money from patents while others have not.
The Requirements for Patentability
There are 5 primary patentability requirements and these are:
- Patentable subject matter-This addresses the type of inventions that should be reviewed for protection. A god example of the subjects that can be patented and those that cannot is products of nature and fabricated inventions. The law of opposition to stuff that is patent printed still holds force though the printed stuff can as well be patentable if its affiliation with physical invention is useful and new.
- Utility-This means the invention has to be a useful one. Reliability utility obliges that logic and fact should support affirmation of utility or that someone with ordinary talent in art would make the admission the invention has the capability of accomplishing its stated use. The utility is supposed to be specific to an area that is under discussion and common utility that might possibly be applicable to a range of inventions. Considerable utility on the other hand necessitates the invention should be comprised of a genuine definite world use, a claimed utility that is comprised of carrying out further research in order to substantiate or classify use in perspective of the real world.
- Novelty-This requires that the invention should be original. This means it should not have been used by others prior to its invention by the claimant of the patent. In order to enjoy this obligation, the new invention must be new in difference to the art that lies ahead.
- Non-obviousness-The test used for this requirement is establishing whether the matter needs to be patented and the preceding art are such that the matter of the subject as one would be clear to have ordinary talent in art during the period of invention.
- Enablement-This is an obligation that is directly connected to the revelation or requirement which can be incorporated as a component for each of the patent application. Enablement is viewed as having 3 distinguishing revelation which include; enablement necessity, written description necessity and best mode necessity. Each application of patent needs to include specification that tells the invention mechanisms, as well as one or more claims at the stages of closing of specification that states the exact legal meaning of invention. In order to meet this requirement, the specification or design need to illustrate invention with adequate distinctiveness that someone has ordinary talent in art has the capability of using and making the claimed invention which is devoid of any “unnecessary experimentation”.
Process of Obtaining a Patent
Prior to following the procedure to obtain a patent, an inventor is supposed to ensure all the products meet the 3 lawful requirements which include non-obviousness, utility and novelty. Innovations make it possible for the process to be distinct in the market. The law as well entails invention ought to be different before the products or technology gets into the market. The last legal requirement that must be met is utility. This entails the process should provide significant intention.
There is the suggestion that inventors should take the following processes before they start the process of seeking a patent: Maintain an invention record, comprised of specification, diagram as well as other adjustments that are made along the way. Other investors might also come up with typical examples. As necessity, the invention should attain the merit for patent application. This includes that it should be outstanding, able to measure up to other products and the application of patent should occur within the scope of a year from when the product is publicized. Inventors are supposed to assess the market to establish invention capability before they use time and money to go through the procedure of application. Inventors are also supposed to carry out complete investigation of patent. One can start this process of getting a patent through visiting the Web.
The primary process of getting a patent starts with making the specifications. This provides a description of invention which is specified to allow an individual with knowledge in the area to make a duplication of the invention without going through experimentation. Specifications are also supposed to show the best techniques for creating then putting the invention to use. Regularly, these credentials are comprised of several components such as the title of the invention, background, summary and brief introduction.
These are complete declarations that brief what the invention is about. Majority of people take this process as one of the most significant steps to getting a patent. The inventor is supposed to provide boundaries within their creation. This helps to draw awareness on other inventors in case they should cross the line and breach the legal rights of the inventor. The language claims, including words and phrases and manner in which they are put together is of great importance.
Normally, drawings are a requirement for demonstrating the manner in which individual invention operates. They are supposed to plainly demonstrate characteristics documented in the claims made regarding the invention. There are precise provisions for drawings that the inventor must follow. If invention is illustrated and translated through use of a drawing, then the drawing becomes necessary to be part of the patent application.
Filing the Application
The last stage that is part of the process in obtaining a patent is filing the actual application. This can be filed through use of electronic system and mail. The inventor is supposed to create copies of each page given out in the application. The inventor can also receive evidence of receipt; fasten a self-addressed official postcard to the first age of patent application. The card is supposed to contain comprehensive information regarding the inventor; the information might be in the form of; name, date when the filing was done and completed as well the title given to the invention. The card is also supposed to have all documents integrated with application and number of pages for all documents.
A patent makes it possible for the holder to enjoy exclusive privilege. It can be imposed against or sold licensed such that an infringer pays damages or acquires an injunction. It can be worth a large amount of money too as well. A good example of large grants in patent infringement lawsuits is C.R Bird v. W.L. Gore case where the jury awarded to Bard an amount that totaled to $ 371 million (Pritzker n.p).
On February 10th 2012, in a 2-1 judgment, the Federal Circuit of Appeals drew the “ultimate curtain” over a decade’s long patent battle between CR. Bard Inc. and W.LL. Gore & Associates. The landslide win for Bard came after a row that lasted for 38 years and which had been presented before the Federal Circuit three times. In the final ruling, the Federal Circuit make the ruling that Peter Cooper, the Gore plant manager, who apparently worked with David Goldfarb, a researcher, to test prospective use of Gore-Tex as a prosthetic blood vessel was not co-inventor of the medical patent that was in contention. The Federal Circuit, in addition further ruled that the lower court judge made the appropriate action within her jurisdiction in doubling compensation award taking into account the discovery by the jury regarding the willing fullness and continued violation of the patent by Gore regardless of losing repeatedly in court (Quizon, 2012).
Steven Cherny, a couple of weeks before his selection as C.R.Bard, Inc.’s new trial attorney in the violation case against W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. had a brief panic attack. The response was a logical one. Ideally, if the Fish & Neave associate, had actually figured out what he was becoming part of while joining the Bard case in 2004, he would have being frightened. He would have being aware of the long history the case had. For three decades, Gore had been fighting for the ownership of fabricated blood vessel, referred to as vascular graft, which changed the face of vascular surgery. Barely after a twelve year contentious court proceeding aimed at establishing the actual inventor of the device and two trips to United States Federal Circuit, Gore’s ownership claim was rejected by the Patent and Trademark Office eventually in 2002. Gore, however, would not give in to defeat.
The corporation, which was making tens of millions of dollars every year from sale of the grafts declined to make payments to Bard for licensing fee, claimed without concession to the squabbles irony regarding the patent it had fought for thirty years to attain as actually invalid. Lastly, in order to have power over the patent rights and the privileges, Bard was able to file a suit for infringement against Gore. Cherny was not deterred by the extent of time as he had already worked on other long running suits. He was not worried about the technological complication of the case (Frankel, 2009).
In 1983, 9 years after the clashing patent submissions of the vascular graft were filed, the Patent Office affirmed “interference”. The assessor of the patent, in other terms ascertained that the graft was a patentable innovation and both Goldfarb and Cooper had filed for the legit applications.
The intrusion, which was to be done by the Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences office, would have to determine whether Cooper or Goldfarb were the actual inventors. It took another 12 additional years for a decision to be reached-making it the largest interference in the history of Interference proceeding. This led to a 15,000 page as well as one extremely sad encounter. The lawyer hired by Bard for the Interference, Lawrence Green, and ousted Peter Cooper as Gore’s purported inventor. Cooper had managed to cash out of Gore shortly after his name was attached to the patent application of the vascular graft.
Where there was substantial evidence available to support a verdict that an individual had infringed the vascular patent the Court of Appeals, the Court of Appeals in Washington made a ruling that included royalties, fees and interest like for instance, when Gore owed $ 783 million as of June, Bard, in a regulatory filing dated the previous year.
A case involving dispute over a tube that aids in maintaining the shape of blood veins through use of same substance as that of DuPont Co.’s Teflon, in 2003 was similar to the patent held by Gore. The ruling attracted a penalty of close to $ 1 billion for Bard, adding $ 1 a share yearly pay as stated by Raj Denhoy, an analyst with the New York based Jefferies & Co. in a note to clients. Though the proceedings are not anywhere close to finished. Bard is close to the end line.
At the close of New York trading, Bard roe to a higher percentage which was the highest since 30th November. Later, the Federal jury in 2007 found Gore has infringed a Bard patent and awarded $185.6 million in damages. The U.S District Judge, later doubled this amount on the basis of the jury discovering the infringement was done on purpose.
The judge, told Gore to start paying royalties of 12% to 20%, based on the type of Gore grafts. The 3-bench judge appeals committee made the argument that Murguia acted within her powers in order to decline the request made by Bard to stop sales of Gore.
Murguia passed the judgment Gore should have the capability of retaining sales on the market since it was public opinion to allow competition in the medical products field. While initially Bard laid complains in 2003, the court of appeal said the dispute dated back to 1974, which meant that the matter was not recent. Initially, the patent requested in 1974 and issued in 2003 indicated there was a dispute as to who was the first to make the invention.
The Federal Circuit, which initially passed judgment that a researcher with Gore was not the primary inventor. Another patent issue is that of Falana v. Kent State University. In the dispute, the Federal Circuit made the declaration that the court’s ruling that Falana was the primary inventor of the patent argued a genus of chemical substance. The Circuit as well concluded it lacked jurisdiction of arriving at a prize of attorney fees because the district court was yet to state the amount of that prize as such, not finalizing it. Alana took legal action against the University and mentioned the inventors on face of the U.S 789 patent, searching for correction of inventor ship.
Falana also said he had inappropriately not being included among the inventors of the ‘789 patent which was associated with chiral additives for liquid crystal displays. While working at Kent Research organization, Falana thought of finding upgraded chiral additives with the aim of including temperature independence. He also came up with the technique for synthesizing novel class of naphthyl a version of Compound 7. The compound failed to attain required target for temperature independence but it was seen as a great improvement. Later, in 2000 after Falana left, the stated inventor used the technique applied by Falana to synthetize Compound 9 which was able to attain the target for temperature independence.
At the judgment, the court realized Falana was part of the inventors. The defendants said the argument needed high temperature independence but the district court refused as they did not find any help in such a position in the light of the arguments. The Federal circuit made the declaration that it approved the claim of language enclosed a genus of chemical compounds that were not restricted by temperature independence. The court also approved inventor ship final decision giving overall direction on conception of chemical genus. Falana’s lack of specific involvement with compound 9 failed to put him off from the list of investors of broader genus which was covered by the claims.
The district court stated the case was outstanding and offered Falana his attorney’s award but never valued them preceding the appeal. The Federal Circuit finalized it insufficient jurisdiction to come up with a fee award since it was not final. The Federal Circuit, in the ruling failed to practice pendant appellate jurisdiction. The court as well gave the ruling under jurisdiction which allowed interlocutory appeals of fee awards that were not valued in infringement cases which were not applicable to the inventor ship dispute.
The Federal Circuit in the end concluded the trial court prohibited some of the documents which were revealed allegedly by Falana were not novel and was a harmless mistake where the stated originator was permitted to provide details to the allegations.
Dyanna, Quizon, “Federal Circuit Affirms Huge Award for Bard in Decades-Long Suit” February 15, 2012. Web. November 7. 2013. <http://blogs.findlaw.com/federal_circuit/2012/02/federal-circuit-affirms-huge-award-for-bard-in-decades-long-suit.html>
Lemley, Mark, “Rational Ignorance at the Patent Office. Northwestern University Law Review, Volume 95, Issue. 4, 2001.
Randy, Pritzker, “ Building and Monetizing a Patent Portfolio,” Wolf Greenfield. Executive Counsel-December 2010.
Pipers Intellectual Property, (n.d). Patents – Protecting New Innovations and Inventions. Retrieved on 9 November 2013 from http://www.piperpat.com/page/new-innovation-patents
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Jewish Views on Cohabitation
Cohabitation is a practice that is significantly finding its way into the society today at a very fast rate. In fact, there are quite a number of couples who are today living together in the way that husband and wife should, but not married. The practice is on the rise and is committed by both the youth and older people. However, it should be noted that according to Jewish laws, cohabitation is not permitted since it is considered to be a sinful act.
The reason why cohabitation is highly regarded as a sin in Jewish law is because it violates the principles of marriage as detailed in the Torah. When a man and a woman decide to start living together before marriage, there are several acts reserved for married couples that they will be engaging in like sexual intercourse among others. The act of cohabitation exposes the two people who are involved to several other practices that are prohibited outside marriage. It denies marriage the kind of special treatment that it should be accorded since at the time that the couple may be thinking of getting married, they will have nothing new to experience in the holy matrimony.
Matrimony is a form of promiscuity or adultery since there is every reason to believe that when two people who are in love decide to start living together, they will engage in sex. This is an immorality that the Jewish traditions prohibit. In the Bible, it is detailed that for a man and a woman to be considered as married or begin to live as husband and wife, they require the Blessings of God that can only be cast upon them when they declare marriage vows. Among those who cohabitate, this does not take place because in most occasions, two people wimple decide to begin living together.
Jewish teachings point out that cohabitation or living together without marriage bypasses the soul since it is an act of disobedience to God. When a man and a woman begin living together before they are married, they do not honor the commitment to hard work that is crucial to every choice that we make in life. Jewish teachings point out that God does not like lazy people who do not want to work hard towards achieving the good things that they desire in life. Cohabitation bypasses commitments and accountability, the two pillars of an ideal relationship.
Cohabitation in all its forms advances the ‘use and discard,’’ ‘easy come, easy go’’ mentality that is prevalent in today’s society. From the perspective of Jewish traditions, living together before marriage reduces the relationship to a casual encounter, which is against the treatment that God requires us to accord to the union.
In conclusion, it should be noted that cohabitation is a gross violation of the requirement to be holy. It is a sinful act that Jews avoid as much as they can. In fact, Orthodox Jews even tend to marry much earlier in order to avoid falling into the trap of cohabitation.
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Jewish View on Marriage and Divorce
Torah is the fundamental source of all Jewish beliefs, and the point of reference that they always look up to in order to find answers with regards to maters touching on the aspects of life like marriage and divorce. However, it offers very little guidance regarding the procedures of marriage. Information on the method to be applied in finding a spouse, the form of the wedding ceremony, and the nature of the marital relationship are illustrated in the Talmund.
According to the traditional Jewish beliefs, marriage is regarded as a contractual bond that is commanded by God, whereby man and woman come together to form a relationship. God is directly involved in every marriage relationship. A Jewish marriage is expected to fulfill the commandment of child bearing through procreation. When a man and a woman come together in a union of marriage, they become one soul. In fact, man is considered to be ‘incomplete’ if he is not married, according to Jewish beliefs.
Jewish law requires that every marriage plan should begin with engagement (shidukhin). This refers to a contract between a man and a woman where the two mutually promise to marry each other sometime in future. Besides, the engagement also aims to set out the terms of the marriage. The promise may either be made by the intending parties or even their respective parents, or other relatives on their behalf. This promise is documented in a formal document known as the Shtar Tena’im (The Document of Conditions). It is then read, then the mothers of the bride and groom to-be break a plate.
The Jewish tradition and beliefs dictates that there are marriage rights and obligations that must be observed by both parties. These are clearly set out in the Holy Bible. Traditionally, the husband is obligated to provide for the wife and family. A detailed report of all the rights and obligations of the two are spelt out in the Ketubot in the Talmund.
Divorce is viewed as a spiritual amputation in Jewish culture. In the event that it takes place, the husband and wife are separated from the one soul that they became during their wedding. Based on how painful divorce is, it is considered as a last resort when issues between the two cannot be resolved. Even though it is not looked at favorably in Judaism, it is not prohibited and at times encouraged. Rabbis of the Talmund considered marriage to be a holy matrimony or contract, such that the decision to divorce would be an unholy act.
Regarding divorce, rabbis of the Talmund quote prophet Malachi, ‘’the Lord has been witness between you and your wife of your youth against whom you have dealt treacherously, though she is your companion, the wife of your covenant.’’ According to the Holy Bible, a husband has the right to divorce his wife, but a wife cannot begin the process of divorce. According to Jewish law, marriage is not dissolved until a bill of divorce; get is exchanged between the husband and wife.
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Hinduism Views on Marriage and Divorce
In Hinduism, marriage is viewed as a sacred and lasting bond that brings together two individuals for a lifetime. Hindus believe that it is through marriage that spouses are able to pursue dharma (duty), artha (possessions), kama (physical desires) and moksa (ultimate spiritual release). When a man and a woman come together in marriage, the two are joined into one entity to secure the above highlighted aims as one. Hindus are joined together through a ceremony called Vivar Samkar that marks the start of a new stage in life known as Grihistha Ashrama. The ceremony marks the commitment of man and wife to start up a new family.
According to Hinduism teachings, marriage is an important duty or both men and women to fulfill. The choice to stay alone or lead a celibate life is not encouraged in Hinduism. In most occasions, arranged marriages, have been very common with parents sourcing for brides and grooms for their children since marriage also brings together two extended families. Weddings in Hinduism are scheduled according to the horoscopes of the two partners.
For a man and woman to be marriage in Hindu tradition, the ceremony has to be presided over by a priest. To show that the two are joined in holy matrimony, the priest lights a fire in honor of the god Agni and recites mantras in Sanskirt (a holy language of the Hindu scriptures). The groom then presents offers to the fire and asks for blessings to descend upon the marriage in the form of children. Besides, the two also perform other rituals while offering prayers asking for blessings of food, strength, wealth, good health, friendship, wisdom and happiness.
One thing that should be noted about marriage in Hinduism is that there are strict guidelines over status and class regarding who can marry whom. Only members of the same caste system are allowed to get married. However, women of a lower caste system can marry men in the upper castes.
Based on the seriousness with which marriage is taken in Hinduism, divorce is not considered to be an ideal option in the event that the couple has issues. According to Hindu traditions, there is no concept of divorce. Hindus consider marriage not as a choice but destiny. The two are regarded to have deep a deep connection, in this life as well as the past and future, hence divorce is almost viewed as a taboo. Divorce in Hinduism comes with stigma that can be very difficult to escape. However, democratic principles of religion allow a man and a woman who are married to pursue divorce in the event that they can never live as one.
Just like it is in other religious communities, Hinduism encourages spouses that are considering divorce to first sit down and find a way of solving their issues to avoid breaking the holy matrimony, marriage. If the two are unable to reach a consensus, divorce should be the last option. However, just like at the time of marriage, both parties must formalize the separation in writing.
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Hindu Views on Cohabitation
The traditional teachings in Hinduism recognized and acknowledged that the most basic instinct of all was the need for companionship, thus, founded an honorable institution called marriage. The early Hindus set out certain guidelines to ensure that the union is a permanent one capable of bringing happiness to the man and woman, and also provide them with a balance such that the family could enjoy the fullness of life within the framework of Dharma, the Hindu code of right conduct.
Self-control is a crucial aspect of Hindu teachings and tradition. At the time stage of Brahmacharya stage in life that is generally form birth to around 25 years of age, young people are expect to concentrate on their education. Sexual relationships at this stage would be a great distraction; they are encouraged to avoid them. Today quite a number of young people are engaging in cohabitation including even Hindus and even from other religious communities. Despite the teachings, it has been very difficult for young Hindus to steer clear of such sexually exploitative relationships.
A live-in relation is currently a major form of lifestyle that is slowly creeping into Hinduism. In the ancient Hindu traditions, though marriage was a general norm, the scriptures give a description and admit that premarital relationships existed as well. Manu details that premarital relationships existed in the Vedic period and even in the times that followed. However, it occurred rarely.
The concept of cohabitation is not new among Hindus, in the ancient times it was referred to as maiti-karar whereby a written agreement was to be prepared between the man and woman so that they would be joined in holy matrimony, marriage. Only if that was done were the two opposite sex expected to live together as friends and take care of each other as husband and wife.
In Gandhavara marriage, one of the Hindu marriages, there are incidences that resemble those that are found in cohabitation. This concept is not defined in the dictionary or in law. Cohabitation refers to a man living with a woman as husband and wife for a reasonable period, without marrying her. These relationships are considered not holy as required by the Hindu traditions.
Despite the plenty of information regarding cohabitation among Hindus, the concept of the institution of the marriage is inherent in every man. The fact is evident from the fact that marriage is a concept that has evolved and exists in every religion and civilized nation. The need for marriage is deeply rooted in the man’s urge for certainty and for achieving stability in life. Such kind of stability and certainty can only be achieved through marriage even if it means cohabitation.
Among modern Hindus who engage in cohabitation, whenever a new relationship between a man and woman is kindled, it is bound to acquire the form and characteristics of a marriage. This is the similar case in live-in relationship. In the early times, it began as something different from marriage, but has gradually evolved into a scenario with the traits of marriage.
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Church of England Views on Homosexuality
The Church of England has so far been a major player in the development of the debate on homosexuality in the Anglican Communion as well as the English society. While being clear that homosexual acts were not morally upright, the Church of England in the 1950s led the call to decriminalize male homosexual acts. Until 1967, all homosexual acts were considered as criminal offences. Despite the legalization of gay marriage in the UK in March 2014, the Church of England that account for the largest population in the area maintains that homosexuality is a sinful act.
In a document declared by the House of Bishops in February 2014 entitled; Pastoral Guidance on Same Sex Marriage, the Church of England asserts that any form of homosexual behavior is a sin. However, the bishops of the church point out that the Church of England is of the belief that those who are experiencing same-sex attractions are beloved by God and are not to be dismissed out of hand as sinners who are despised by God. The Church of England reminds the church of the virtue of chastity and the need for regulation of sexual appetites in accordance with right reason, which is God’s design for mankind.
According to the traditional teachings of the Church of England, it is not morally upright for people of the same sex to develop attractions towards each other. However, the latest utterances from some of the bishops points out to a contradiction. Some bishops have noted that they would not issue any sanctions on clergy who are entering into same sex relationships. On the other hand, the Church of England allows for the ordination of gay priests provided that they are celibate.
The issue of Church of England views on homosexuality has elicited heated arguments among the followers and even bishops. In fact, it is still a bone of contention between the bishops with some for it and others against it. In 2003, Canon Jeffrey John was appointed as Bishop of Reading despite his pro-gay views. This is a move that has led to continuous criticism of the Church of England with many saying that the church is secretly advocating for homosexuality since it cannot say that the act is a sin when a number of its bishops are gay. Despite Cannon Jeffrey standing down as Bishop-elect of Reading, he was subsequently installed as Dean of St. Albans, meaning that he still serves the Church of England.
Archbishops of the Church of England seek to distinguish between the teaching authority on moral issues that surround same-sex marriage and the pastoral needs of Christians who posses attractions to the same sex. Despite stating that homosexuality is sinful, the Church of England clearly states that it doors are open to same sex couples who have the need to worship. Besides, the church will not hinder the baptism of their children. Homosexuals are welcome to participate in the activities of the Church of England as full members.
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Church of England Views on Divorce
According to the Church of England, marriage is a blessing that should never be broken. However, it is also cognizant of the fact that there are situations whereby divorce can be allowed. The Church of England teaches that if at all there is a problem between married couples, it is important that an amicable solution is found to avoid breaking the holy matrimony that is joined by God. Despite the wishes of the church that two married couples should live a lifetime of love that grows within the protection of God, it is not blind to the fact that there are situations when certain marriages do fail.
The decision for divorce according to the Church of England can be arrived at due to a variety of reasons. Some of the reasons why divorce can be pursued between two people who are married can be adultery, unreasonable behavior, the parties have lived apart for at least two years and both consent to the divorce among others. Despite the reason for misunderstanding between spouses, it is always recommended that the two need to first engage each other and settle the differences.
The Church of England was formed or rather started by Henry VIII who broke away from the Roman Catholic Church. The reason why Henry VIII broke away to form the Church of England is because the Catholic Church would not allow him to divorce his wife; Catherine of Aragon in order to marry Anne Boleyn. In this regard, he was paving way for anyone who felt dissatisfied in matrimonial union to seek divorce without any restrictions.
The Church of England teaches that marriage should be for life. In fact, this has been its long standing position until very recently. In 2002, the synod of the church passed a motion stating that in exceptional circumstances, a divorced person may again marry in church during the lifetime of a former spouse. For any act to be termed as divorce, both parties have to be present and sign a document confirming that they have officially separated. In the event that one of the spouses is reluctant, the church may come in to compel him or her if the alleged reasons for divorce are genuine.
Just like it happens during marriage, the two parties that are getting divorced need to sign a document confirming that they are legally separated. The Church of England provides a way through which people who have divorced can be married again in the church. However, there is no automatic right to do so since it views marriage to be a lifelong commitment. It is left to the discretion of the Priest to decide if a person who has been divorced can remarry in church.
Before one who has divorced can be able to marry again in the Church of England, they must talk to their Vicar concerning their past and hopes for the future. It is then that a decision can be made for re-marriage.
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Church of England Views on Cohabitation
The Church of England affirms the centrality of marriage to the stability and health of society and for procreation to bring up children. While doing so, it also recognizes that there are certain issues of hardship and vulnerability for those people who are in relationships that are not based on marriage, and that such cases need to be addressed through the creation of new legal rights.
According to the Christianity sthat the Church of England is also party to, human relationships proceed from the knowledge that God is love and one who is recognized in relationships. This is detailed in the doctrine of the Trinity and the biblical idea of the covenant which exemplifies love, respect and mutual self giving. Besides, it also applies in particular to our understanding of intimate relationships like marriage. However, the Church of England is concerned that the society in England is changing. The church point out that civilization has brought with it several changes in the society such that it is of great value if certain teachings are re-evaluated.
According to the latest arguments by the Church of England, marriage has never been permanent since divorce has been in existence since the biblical times, although it was specifically condemned by Jesus. Besides, it has never been even part of the English civil law and ecclesiastical law that marriage is indissoluble. The Church of England further argues that until recently, fidelity in marriage was only required of the woman. Before 1923, no woman could be allowed to obtain divorce as a result of the adultery of her husband unless she proved beyond reasonable doubt desertion and cruelty in addition to the allegation.
The Church of England asserts that even though marriage is, without doubt, a legally sanctioned union between a man and a woman, it is not the only possible relationship of that kind. It is concerned that the response of the church seems to be against other forms of legally sanctioned relationships like cohabitation. From these arguments, you can clearly see the avenue that the Church of England is pursuing with regards to cohabitation. It tries to stress that just like marriage; cohabitation is a form of relationship that should not be ignored even in the construction of legislations that govern marriage and divorce.
According to the Church of England, denouncing cohabitation is like denying minorities their rights of association and enjoyment. It is of the opinion that men and women who are cohabiting should be given the right to exercise their relationships as they wish since some end up in marriage. This stance by the Church of England has in the recent past elicited heated debate from various Christian religious groups especially the Catholic Church that have condemned it for approving cohabitation rights.
In 2006, the Catholic Church expressed its opposition to the Church of England’s support of the government’s proposal to offer unmarried cohabiting couples legal rights that are similar to those of married people.
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