Definition of activation function
An activation function in computational networks as a node that defines an output depending on its set of inputs. Generally, an activation function is said to be one of the most essential parameters in neural networks. When selecting specific nodes of an activation function it is necessary to be careful. It is also important to ensure proper training is done with a neural network because this determines how an activation function works with the network.
The roles and types of activation function
However in biological neural networks it is an abstract representation of the actual potential of the firing in a cell. The activation function in this case can be binary in the sense that it is not firing any cell.
There are several types of activation functions and they each play a unique role:
- Identity function. This is usually used with input unit. In some instances the net input can be multiplied with a constant in order to form a linear function. It is illustrated using the equation below:
g(x) = x
- Binary step function. This is usually used with single layer networks and is sometimes referred to as the Heaviside function or Threshold function. The output of this function is limited to two values, 1 or 0. If x is greater or equal to theta (θ) then the output value will be one. However, where x is less than theta then the output value will be equal to 0. It is illustrated using the equation below:
g(x) = 1 if x ≥ θ
g(x) = 0 if x < θ
- Sigmoid function. This function is best used with the neural networks especially when they are trained using backward propagation method. It is mainly preferred because it can dramatically reduce the burden of computing during training and is also very easy to identify. This function is used with the outputs which lie between 0 and 1. It is illustrated using the equation below:
- Binary sigmoid function. This function bears similar characteristics with those of the sigmoid function. However, these functions are usually used with the outputs whose values lie between -1 and 1. They can be illustrated using the following equation:
Choosing activation functions
Generally, sigmoid functions are more popular than any other types of activation functions. Where there is need to
introduce the element of non-linearity into a network, activation functions are used together with hidden units. Even though linear functions are important, the non-linearity or capability to characterize a non-linear function is the element that makes multilayer networks more powerful in training. Non-linear functions can therefore facilitate training over any network.
Nevertheless, it is important to consider the methods used in the training. For instance, in back propagation method, the non-linear function must be differentiable. It might also be necessary to bind the values. Activation functions should also be chosen carefully so as to suit the distribution of target values especially when used with output units. When used with sigmoid functions, the outputs should be scaled so that they are in the same range as the output of the activation function.
Where a target value has no bounded range, then it is better to use the unbounded activation functions. In most cases, the identity function is preferred under such circumstances. An exponential output activation function is also used in instances where the target values are positive yet have no known upper limit.
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Association Rule Learning
Definition of association rule learning
Association rule learning is a technique used to discover underlying relationships in a large repository of information found in a relational database. It is used mostly by businesses to determine the relationships between their sales, supplies, employees and clientele among other things. Most association rules are made in formulaic or statement form. For instance if a client purchases eggs and bread, they are 80% likely to purchase milk as well.
In association rule learning, association rules are usually split into two:
- An antecedent (if) which is found in the data
- A consequent (then) which is found after combining the antecedent with a particular item
Useful concepts in Association Rule Learning
The association rules are created through analysis of data in order to determine frequent “if/then” relationships. There are some vital concepts that are normally used to determine the most important frequent relationships:
- Support – this is an indicator of the frequency with which particular items appear within the repository or relational database. It measures the significance of a particular data set or variable. It also helps to eliminate or prune the items that appear infrequently from the database and hence narrow down the variable-relationship search. The main downside of this concept is that it can prune out important items from the data set especially if they appear less frequently.
- Confidence – this is an indicator of the number of times the “if/then” relationships deduced have been confirmed as true. It is also called strength and data derived from support calculations is used to determine the confidence. The downside of confidence as a concept is that it is calculated in such a way that any consequents which have support levels will automatically have high confidence regardless of whether the items involved have minimum or maximum association.
- Conviction – this is a concept that was developed with the aim of accurately capturing the directions of associations between items. Since confidence failed to take into account the accuracy of the associations, the conviction would do so by taking into account information regarding the absence of the consequent.
- Leverage – this concept measures the difference of the units appearing together in order to determine which independent variables can still be categorized together as an antecedent and consequent.
- Lift – this concept determines the probability that two variables would co-occur even if they were independent statistically.
Importance of association rule learning
Association rule learning is a subject that has been extensively researched and written about. It is important in different fields and has been used in the following areas:
- Businesses use association rules to predict customer behavior and shopping patterns.
- Association rules are used in shopping basket data analysis which is commonly done by supermarkets and chain stores.
- It also helps in product clustering and positioning especially for products that have high association levels.
- Association rules are used in designing catalogs in accordance with the preferences and tastes of a targeted clientele.
- These rules can also be used in store layouts and designs.
- In programming, the association rules are used in building programs that have machine learning abilities.
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How Backpropagation Works with Artificial Neural Networks
What is backpropagation?
Backpropagation is an abbreviation which originally stands for “backward propagation of errors”. It is a technological method used in training artificial neural networks. Artificial neural networks are ideally used to solve problems that cannot be solved using the traditional computational methods. The artificial neural networks learn from different inputs how to carry out desired tasks and generate varied outputs. Backpropagation is generally used in situations where there are huge sets of input or output data yet it is difficult to relate this to the output.
In general, backpropagation is a supervised learning method that generalizes the delta rule and works with a particular dataset of outputs. These desired outputs for the different inputs form the training set for the artificial neural networks. Backpropagation is very useful in training of feed forward networks and it requires for activation functions used in the artificial neurons to be easily differentiated. Most networks that use backpropagation therefore do not have feedback.
Phases of backpropagation
The backpropagation learning is carried out using specific algorithm. This algorithm is divided into two major phases. During training, each of these phases is repeated until the performance of the artificial neural network is satisfactory.
- This is also divided into two steps. The forward propagation is the first step and it is where the training pattern’s input is fed through the neural network so that the propagation’s desired output activations can be generated. The backward output is the second step and this involves generating the deltas of every output and hidden neuron by propagating output activations using training pattern targets.
- Weight update. There are two steps involved here. First, the output delta is multiplied with the input activation to get the gradient of the weight. Then the ration or percentage of the gradient is subtracted from the weight. In this case, the ratio is important because it determines the learning rate as it influences the quality and speed of learning. A greater ratio therefore indicates faster training for the neutrons. A lower ratio on the other hand indicates high accuracy of the training. The gradient sign of the weight can be positive or negative and it will indicate areas where the errors are on an increase. The weight must therefore be updated in opposite direction.
Modes of learning in backpropagation
In backpropagation, there are three modes of learning that can be used with the neural networks.
- The online mode of learning. This mode of learning is preferred with dynamic environments especially those that provide continuous streams of new patterns during training. Here the propagation is immediately followed by a weight update.
- Stochastic mode of learning. This is used with more static patterns. This method goes through the data sets in a random order. It is also fast because like the online mode of learning, the weights are updated immediately after the propagation.
- Batch mode. It is more or less similar to the stochastic mode of learning in that it also makes use of static patterns. However in this mode of learning, several propagations must occur before the weights are updated.
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Business Intelligence Application
Definition of business intelligence
Business intelligence is a set of techniques, theories and technologies that businesses use in order to transform large amounts of raw data into meaningful and useful information for the purposes of improving the business. Business intelligence is mostly done through varied software applications. Some of the activities included in business intelligence are:
- Online analytical processing
- Data mining
- Multidimensional aggregation of information and allocation
- Optimizing key performance indicators
- Statistical inference
- Budgeting and forecasting
- Process management
- Group consolidation
- Open item management
- Business analytics
- Complex event processing
- Text mining
- Predictive and prescriptive analytics
- Online analytical processing
Application of business intelligence
Business intelligence is now being used by several renowned companies including several supermarket chains, restaurant chains and even professional sport teams. These companies have experienced success by utilizing business intelligence software in the following manner:
- Using measurement programs that create a history and hierarchy of performance. This shows the management the progress the business is making towards achieving its set goals and objectives.
- Using the analytics programs to assess the performance of the business against set goals and market trends. This helps the business managers and leaders to come up with optimal decisions that can propel the business forward and also utilize resources at hand more effectively. It may involve several technological processes such as data mining, predictive modeling and prescriptive analysis.
- Use enterprise reporting program and software such as data visualization and executive information system to build relevant infrastructure for strategic reporting. This enables to focus on and execute strategic decisions in the business and as such employ strategic management effectively.
- Use collaboration platform program to get perspectives of both internal and external stakeholders of the business. This is done through electronic data interchange and data sharing. It helps the business leaders to encompass relevant data and ideas in their decision making.
- Using knowledge management program to facilitate practical strategic management and adoption of insights that are based on factual business knowledge. This helps the business leaders to gain better management skills and also effect regulatory compliance practices.
How to make business intelligence work
Since every business is different, business intelligence cannot be incorporated as a one-size-fits-all measure. It requires technical planning and a specific focus on the business goals at hand. Not every business will automatically succeed by implementing business intelligence software. It is thus important to consider the following criteria before launching any software for business intelligence:
- Before initiating business intelligence it is very important to establish a committed and realistic sponsorship team for the project. This team should not only comprise of the management of the business but also external sponsors with a reputable business profile. Apart from offering financial support, the sponsors should set goals and closely monitor the business intelligence project.
- Business needs and goals. The business intelligence project should be initiated after establishing specific goals and objectives that need to be assessed or analyzed. It should not just be launched haphazardly. Rather a team should be set up to establish the needs of the organization and market trends before initiating the project with a specific objective.
- Availability of relevant data. It is necessary to profile the data an organization has before embarking on any business intelligence project. Data used should always reflect the true picture of the organization. It should be rich in content, relevant and consistent. Without proper, high quality data, business intelligence cannot work.
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Advantages of Foreign Direct investment in Developing Countries
Foreign direct investments can have very good impacts on the global economic growth. As a result of this, it is always of great importance to the emerging economies or developing countries as some refer to them. It should be noted that through foreign direct investment, developing countries are able to get funding and expertise that is highly needed by smaller domestic companies for their expansion. Over the years, there are quite a number of developing countries that have benefited from foreign direct investment initiatives.
There are several benefits that developing countries have already acquired and will receive from foreign direct investments. One of the advantages is that foreign direct investments allows finances to freely move into the businesses or projects that present the best prospects for growth in developing countries. This is because; investors are always in the rush to acquire the best returns for their investments with the least risk. As a result of this, several companies in emerging economies have been able to get boosts that have earned them great profits, thereby driving upward the GDP of their respective countries.
As a result of the foreign direct investments that developing countries have been receiving, quite a number of businesses within their borders have acquired competitive advantage. Even though this does not completely eliminate the impacts of politics, bribery and cronyism, it has significantly reduced them. This has enabled many businesses to be able to bring their goods and services to the market at the right time and in turn, rake in great rewards. With this, developing countries generate revenues from increased imports and exports, further enhancing their economic stability.
In most developing countries, lack of skilled workforce is one of the major setbacks. However, this is a problem that has been solved by foreign direct investment to grater lengths. To foreign firms that invest in developing countries or any other part of the world, skilled labor is a major concern. Since most developing countries lack have for a long period of time run low on skilled labor, most foreign firms have been pushed to training and education a larger percentage of the workforce in order to conduct their operations. As a result of this, most developing countries can now boast of having skilled labor. In fact, foreign direct investment plays a critical role in human capital development in emerging economies.
Foreign direct investment is also beneficial to developing countries since it allows for the transfer of technology especially in the form of new capital inputs. Since various developing countries lack sophisticated technology but present better prospects for investments, foreign investors bring in advanced technology when starting up projects. The technology not only benefits the investors in their operations but also the residents of the countries where the investments are made.
The profits that are generated through foreign direct investment in developing countries make great contributions to corporate tax revenues in the countries where the investments are made. Thus, the investors as well as consumers will be well cushioned against taxes that may be incurred as a result of high-level taxation.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing for Consumers
Cloud computing is one of the technological advancements that are quickly transforming the way in which people conduct business today. In the past, businesses used to store their digital information with large server firms that in most cases were physically present in the offices. Cloud computing offers users the opportunity to store their digital files and other kinds of information on remote servers in a centralized location for security and easy access. Those who use cloud computing can access their files easily from wherever they are and also at any time that they wish through internet connection.
There are several benefits that consumers of cloud computing can achieve by using the technology. One of the reasons why most businesses are today choosing cloud computing is because of the high level of security that it offers to the users. In the past where people shared servers, there was the fear of hackers breaking into online services and obtaining other people’s data without their authority. However, this has been cut short through the introduction of cloud computing since it gives only the owner of the stored information, authority to access their data.
Another benefit of cloud computing to consumers is that it is very reliable. Whenever you switch your data to the ‘cloud,’ there is no fear of losing information whenever your computer crashes, hardware fails, gets damaged or even stolen. With cloud computing services, your data is never lost. In fact, you can just log in with another machine and find all the information intact. Cloud computing can enable you to have manual backups on your external hard drives so that in case of anything, your data is not lost or even shared with another user. The reason for this is because, cloud computing service providers can always backup your data across several servers in multiple locations so that it is always safe and can be accessed by only you, at your own convenience.
Cloud computing is speed-conscious, meaning that it offers an increased speed whenever you want to download data or even access information. The services that are offered in cloud computing are delivered via the internet and the servers of the service provider. As a result of this, you will no longer be inconvenienced by slow connections and speeds whenever you want to access your data. Besides, updates on cloud computing are done automatically so that you will not be bothered after now again to update features. This avoids the problem of slow connections each time that you want to access information from the cloud.
Cloud computing is also beneficial in that it allows for cost savings. This is an advantage to businesses since it helps in cutting down on the cost of operations. With cloud computing, you only pay for the services that you utilize for a given period of time. Besides, the fast speeds also enable you to save up on costs even much cheaper.
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Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
It is true that cloud computing is fast gaining popularity among several businesses across the world today. This is due to the numerous benefits that the technology offers to consumers. However, it is also important that before you switch off to cloud computing, you should know about some of its drawbacks too. In this way, you are able to make an informed decision on whether it is the most ideal avenue that you should pursue.
Just like other forms of technology, there are also a few disadvantages of cloud computing that you should take note of. One of them is the possible downtime that can occur without internet connection. Cloud computing entirely depends on the internet and in case the connection or network is down, the services are equally down. And, if the connection slows down, you will also experience slow speeds in accessing the services. It should be noted that even if the service providers always take precaution to maintain a great uptime, the risk of possible downtime will still exist.
Another setback that can be experienced with cloud computing is that the safety of your data could be compromised. Cloud computing is mainly dependent on the internet, thus, there is always no guarantee that someone else may hack into your information despite the stringent security measures in place. Most cloud computing service providers will always look for and put in place the latest sophisticated mechanisms to ensure that security of their clients’ data is not prejudiced, however, there are chances too that hackers may breach the security system. There is always a possibility that the privacy of the user of cloud services can be compromised.
Data ownership is yet another issue that has raised concerns in cloud computing. In fact, this can be a major setback especially when you have a lot of data to handle. As of yet, there is no clear answer as to who owns the data that is stored on the cloud between the service provider and the party that uploads the data. There are even certain service providers who will not allow you to upload certain types of data. Cloud computing service providers come up with their own terms and conditions which may be arbitrary to consumers. Thus, it is always advisable that before hiring any service provider, make sure that you carefully read and understand the small print in order to avoid any inconvenience.
In case you use programs that require an attachment to a hard drive, you will not have the best experience with cloud computing since that kind of provision does not exist with the services. Even though it is believed that elimination of the use of hard drives enhances data management, it is still a requirement that your business might need. Cloud computing is cost effective, however, that is only in the long run. When you are just starting off, you may need to try out various services before settling on the best one for your business and this can be quite costly.
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Factors Affecting Automotive Industry in Germany
The origin of the automotive industry in Germany can be traced back to 1886 when Karl Benz registered his first vehicle that was powered by gas. Germany is renowned to be the home of the first four-stroke internal combustion engine in the world and continues to enjoy a unique placement in the international automotive industry. Currently, it accounts for 17% of the total global passenger car production with its OEMs. Besides, it should be noted that Germany is the sole largest auto market in the entire Europe.
Over the years, the German automotive Industry has been doing well in the global automotive sector. However, a crisis hit the industry in 2009 when the global economic production fell. This was the first time that such an incident was taking place in six decades. The drop mainly hit the commercial vehicles production dropping the in international production by 9%. This did not go down well with the automotive industry in Germany as profits got held up and production also stalled.
Just like most industrialized nations across the globe, Germany’s automotive industry was also hit by the international financial crisis experienced in modern times. The crisis negatively affected the demand and supply trends in the market, impacting the industry negatively. Even though it did not stop the manufacture of automobiles in Germany, it stalled the progress.
Today, the automotive industry in Germany can be said to have successfully made its way out of the international recession. The sector has been able to recover and achieve solid growth in the aftermath of the crisis. In fact, this was clearly evident when the German automotive industry issued an affirmation of its position as the mainspring for the country’s national economy. Today, almost a fifth of the total sales derived from the overall manufacturing sector in Germany is from the automotive industry. In the 1990s, this share only lagged at about 13%.
Technological advancement is a factor that has enabled German automotive industry to experience significant growth over the years. Germany’s introduction of OEMs created a new trend in terms of demand of cars across the globe. In the recent years, the automotive industry has re-invented them to suit the needs of various car buyers around the world with much emphasis on brand management and market leadership. This has enabled the automotive industry in Germany to stay well ahead of the rest in a congested international market.
The automotive industry in Germany has also been able to steadily sail to the top because of its focus on manufacturing cars that meet the needs of various drivers in the market. When the demand for smaller and more energy efficient medium-range passenger cars began to take an upward trend, Germany had already began manufacturing them well in advance. This significantly propelled the industry to the top in the international automotive market. The ability of the industry to manufacture cars that meet the need of different drivers is an advantage that has enabled the industry to experience unmatched growth over the years.
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Factors Affecting the Automotive Industry in Japan
The automotive industry in Japan enjoyed spectacular success in the 1980s mainly as a result of the ‘lean production system’ applied in the sector. Lean production system can be simply defined as a combination of effective supply system, efficient production system and a product development system. The success of the industry was faced with a downturn in the 1990s due to the Japanese asset price bubble and the appreciation of the currency to the extremes. However, the industry has been able to survive through the hard times and is not currently doing so bad on the global grid. In fact, the Japanese automotive industry is now one of the largest in the world.
Over the years, Japanese automotive industry had been doing so well but a major tragedy that almost brought down the sector struck in the 1990s. The country’s economic bubble burst and became stagnant. This hampered operations in the industry owing to the fact that it had by that time become one of the main contributors. The trough of recession dragged back the automotive industry into a position that production had to be cut down.
The recession that hit Japan almost twenty years ago hit one of the largest car manufacturers in the world Toyota, that has its base in Japan. It made the management of automobile manufacturing operations difficult and the industry had to struggle getting back to its feet. In order to counter this, the industry best player; Toyota was forced to transfer its operations to overseas countries after entering into a joint venture with General Motors. Despite the country’s growing contraction in the automotive industry, the transfer of the corporation’s lean production system to overseas plants has enabled it to brace the hard economic times.
Internalization is a strategy that almost all Japanese car manufacturers adopted in order to counter the economic bubble. However, it has had great impacts on the country’s automotive industry considering that currently, the number of vehicles that are manufactured by Japanese assembles in overseas plants has exceeded that produced at home. Even though internalization has been widely viewed by many as killing the automotive industry in Japan, it has played a role in ensuring that Japanese car manufacturers do not run out of business. It has enabled the car manufacturers to stay afloat amidst the scorching heat of inflation that continues to hurt the country.
In 2011, the Japanese automotive industry was faced yet with another crisis that significantly cut the manufacturers’ profit margins to levels that had never been experienced before. This crisis resulted from the earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan thereby disrupting the operations of the country’s largest chip makers. Besides, the earthquake also destroyed some of the plants of car manufacturers. However, the impact on the chip maker hit the motor industry with a bang since every car manufacturer depends on the custom-made chips in assembling their automobiles. This kept the production levels at less than 50% for quite a long time, hurting the Japan automotive industry as a whole.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Disaster Recovery
Cloud computing have for the past years offered numerous disaster recovery solutions. It is a recovery option that does not require a lot of monetary investment. Additionally, it provides offsite management of crucial data in any location and automatically.
With cloud computing, business can keep their IT systems up and running. Whenever there is a downtime or data loss due to unexpected problems, quick recovery is essential. Therefore, cloud helps businesses to restore lost data within the shortest time possible. With cloud, there is no use of traditional back up options.
Cloud computing in disaster recovery also offers the ability for reliable backups in single or multiple locations nationally and internationally.
Cloud computing is a highly affordable disaster recovery solution. It offers low cost options for small and large businesses. It also allows for economies of scale and in the long run, lowers operational or recovery expenses.
With cloud, businesses can also restore data more quickly. This is one of the features that set cloud from other recovery solutions in the market. Cloud offers multiple copies of data that is usually kept in sync and at multiple locations. Data in cloud is stored and protected as it is being created.
Cloud also allows businesses to demonstrate more compliance in disaster recovery. This is based on the fact that it provides a highly functional and secure infrastructure. Therefore, businesses enjoy more control of their operations compared to an onsite data recovery solution.
Cloud is an automatic data recovery solution. Therefore, cases of constant checkups and regular babysitting of IT systems are greatly reduced or completely eliminated.
With cloud computing disaster recovery solution, businesses cut down on their monthly costs. Resources for their businesses can be reserved for use only in the event of an emergency. As a result, it enables business to function effectively and generate the desired revenue.
Cloud also allows business persons to set their metrics. It is easy to determine your recovery objective when using cloud. What’s more, you can easily set the time used in the recovery process. These are essential metrics and you have clearly set them, it also becomes easy to set IT systems and infrastructure to be used in recovery.
Cloud also allows businesses to prioritize IT systems and data. This is essential especially in determining how often a business may need backup and what should be restored first in the event of a disaster.
As a tiered system, cloud computing in disaster recovery can also be used for more strategic business initiatives including e-commerce. It can also be used as a point of sale application.
Cloud computing is additionally used in disaster recovery for all business sizes. Today, many organizations are considering reliable, flexible and recovery solutions that can be controlled to suit the needs of a business. It is this reason that makes cloud an ideal solution.
Businesses using cloud disaster recovery are also in a better position to get back up whenever and wherever, run more efficiently than before and enjoy smooth operations. With the solution, a company also enjoys huge profits.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Education
Cloud computing is a flexible internet application facility that enhances ICT services. It employs powerful networks and systems to allow for easy sharing of data and collaboration. In education sector, the benefits of cloud computing cannot be overlooked.
It is very clear that cloud offers flexibility and enhanced mobility in the education sector. Tablets and laptops allow for learning whenever and wherever. These gadgets increase engagement and allows for greater collaboration. Teachers can create and share programs with students efficiently.
Tablets and laptops also eliminate barriers to learning. They are easy to use and they transmit information much faster. Students are therefore able to continue with their school work on the go or at home. Cloud bridges the gap between home and school. It has also made learning more interesting because students are more interested in doing their assignments from different devices. Cloud therefore increases these benefits among others.
Cloud computing enables schools, colleges and higher institutions of higher learning to cut down on their expenses. Learning expenses especially with the need for 24hr internet connection can be huge if not managed. Cloud allows for a low cost computing system. Therefore, once a school has internet connection, it cuts down on its operational costs.
With cloud concept, teachers and schools can comfortably share work and assignments. It eliminates paper work by a great deal. Paperwork can be quite costly. However, with cloud, information can be sent via mail. In the long run, it cuts down on learning and environmental costs. With cloud, learning is viable.
With cloud computing, IT administration in different institutions has been made easier. Hardware and software updates are fully taken care of by cloud service provider. This also extends to security management. Consequently, it helps to eliminate administration burden and allows all educational facilities to concentrate more core issues. By doing so, the facilities also become more productive.
With cloud computing in the education sector, critical and confidential data can be stored in the central processing system safely. There is less exposure of important information and it helps to prevent threats including loss of laptops, tablets and other electronic systems. Content can also be stored safely in USB flash drives and in the event of a disaster, the data can be retrieved without any problem.
Schools can also monitor student data more efficiently with cloud. They do not have to worry about data mining. What’s more, teachers no longer have to worry about security threats or breaches because cloud computing is highly encrypted.
Cloud is highly beneficial to developing countries. It helps teachers to teach children who under normal circumstances would not have accessed quality education. There are laptops specially designed for use in remote areas. They do not require a lot of maintenance and teachers can comfortably impart knowledge to children in underdeveloped countries.
With cloud computing, schools have also been able to improve educational standards. This is based on the fact e-learning comes with a wide range of interactive features. Teachers can demonstrate what they are teaching using graphics and other related features instantly. In the long run, students understand better what is being taught.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Government
In today’s age and era, governments are looking for the best ways to manage challenges that affect their economies. Cloud computing has proven to be an ideal solution because it allows for e-governance. With cloud, governments are able to deliver core services to citizens across different parts of the globe. Even with dwelling city populations, a government is able to reach out to its citizens, manage aging infrastructure and address other challenges within a short span of time.
Through cloud computing, the government is able to manage rapid urbanization. This is based on the fact it is able to manage its IT systems and carry out specific functions efficiently from whenever and wherever. It moves to current IT in metering, procurement and issuing of loan sanctions among other government functions.
It is essential to note that IT resources can be hard to manage. However, with cloud, everything is automated and in an efficient way. The government is freed up of a lot of time it could spent monitoring different functions and on human resources. It therefore has more than enough time to focus on increasing its roster of services or mechanisms for quality service delivery.
With cloud computing, the government is able to manage financial pressures. The government is able to deliver quality services even with limited resources and a tight budget. It also offers a greater advantage in terms of short term and long term savings.
Cloud allows for pay-as-you-go option and pay-as-you-use. The government does not face upfront costs especially when buying IT equipment. The savings are later used by the government during harsh financial times.
With cloud computing, the government is able to reduce the risk of technological obsolescence. This is because of shortening IT upgrade cycles and constant launch of new products. With cloud, the government also does not have to rely on old IT systems for many years. It can easily explore timely upgrades and at a cheaper price.
Cloud computing provides a way for the government to deliver quality products and services. Government agencies are also able to cut down on upgrade costs. Any hardware and software upgrades can be utilized at any time, because they are included in the contract between the government and service provider.
The government is also able to manage other challenges relayed to massive delivery of services to citizens in different parts of the globe. It is now able to deliver time and efficient services in minutes through cloud.
Cloud computing also enables the government to provide a good platform for sharing. Citizens can air their complaints, share their concerns and seek redress through cloud computing. The government ensures that there is efficient and transparent citizen-consumer awareness.
Similarly, the government employs cloud computing when undertaking reforms processes. It has benefited the government a great deal when it comes to e-governance. Agencies are able to share information freely, pool of resources and collaborate with relevant stakeholders to achieve set goals. With cloud computing, these tasks are carried out with no delay.
Cloud computing has also provided a strong foundation for the government to create an ideal environment for good governance.
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Large Business
Cloud computing is an internet based facility that offers long term benefits to a business. In this age and era, businesses are looking for ways to cut down on the cost of production and ways to enhance productivity. Cloud computing is also a solution that has enabled many large businesses to expand their brand visibility online and offline.
Large corporations including Coca Cola, Nike, Avon and Monster.com are some of the best examples of large businesses that have reaped from cloud computing. With the cloud based software, large businesses are in a better position to deliver quality products and services. Despite large workforce, big business can easily ensure that each employee delivers without close monitoring.
Cloud is safe and beneficial in many ways to large businesses including
It is green and allows for more profits
Cloud is considered green in terms of the profits it generates for large businesses. With cloud, large business does not have to use in-house storage system. Instead, it explores the cheaper monthly storage option from a service provider. With the storage option, business cut down on energy and production costs by a large margin.
Cloud also offers room for giant multi power server units or rooms. This means that large businesses get to save billions of dollars on their energy consumption.
With cloud, large businesses are also able to explore internal messaging. This is done via highly functional software that enables these corporations to pay less on workflow tools and email.
Large businesses also enjoy open communication and collaboration through cloud computing. Cloud allows for more scalability and sharing of messages and data can be done within the shortest time possible. Cloud enables employees to work from anywhere. Therefore, companies save a great deal on time.
Cloud computing also enables large business to concentrate on more urgent business issues as opposed to management of IT systems and related issues. Cloud service provider ensure smooth running of operations because it updates IT systems regularly. What’s more, whenever there are new upgrades that can benefit a business, a service provider will let you know of the updates for enhanced productivity.
As such, large business reduces a great deal on downtime. It gets time to capitalize on its resources and make huge profits. With continued use of cloud, large businesses are also able to achieve a competitive edge against relevant competitors.
Greener cloud storage
Cloud computing is also beneficial to large businesses because of green cloud storage. Businesses are known to produce carbon emissions due to their storage systems. These emissions are harmful to the environment. However, by using cloud, businesses are able to reduce the amount of carbon emissions. The bigger the business, the greener cloud computing storage unit it can explore.
Additionally, with greener cloud storage, large businesses are able to create a safe working environment for its employees.
Other benefits that cloud offers to large businesses include
- Enhanced security for its data
- More flexibility and scalability
- Reduced cost of operation and cost of production
- Reduced downtime
- More room for productivity and profitability
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Benefits of Cloud Computing For Small Business
Cloud computing is one of the most beneficial internet based facilities for small and large businesses. With cloud, managing IT systems and sharing data is easier and cost effective. To a small business, cloud computing is beneficial because
It allows for enhanced accessibility
Cloud allows for more flexibility and accessibility. This is one of the biggest advantages that come with this internet based facility. With cloud, business persons can access, modify and save data files from any sources and in any location. You can access data from your computer, laptop, tablet or phone.
Cloud also offers more flexibility when sharing files and collaborating with other people. This is because storage of files in cloud system is done in one central location. Therefore, anyone can access data from wherever and at any time. It offers greater accessibility and flexibility for small business owners to run and manage their business remotely.
With easy accessibility of business files, a business will also enjoy increased productivity, competitiveness and quality time management.
Cloud allows small businesses to enhance security of their systems. Over the past years, many people could easily lose data on their mobile phones and laptops. When using cloud, even if your laptop is stolen, it is easy to retrieve data.
Cloud computing also cuts down on operational and production costs. This is based on the fact that a small business person has the opportunity to choose what to use and what to avoid. Nothing is fixed in cloud because it is a practical service for small businesses.
Startup cost when using cloud is also low. In addition, applications used in small business are fully customized. Therefore, there is no need of buying expensive hardware and software.
The applications are also web based are easy to maintain. Cloud computing service provider offers cheap and advanced technologies to programs that are out of date.
Cloud offers backup for small business. It is a disaster recovery system that allows for more resilience and at a cheaper price. If your computer or mobile phone breaks down, you will not lose your data. Data is saved remotely in cloud computing and recovery time is faster compared to systems that do not utilize cloud.
Cloud computing allows small businesses to achieve a competitive edge against relevant competitors. Service provider helps small establishments with all technical issues within the shortest time possible. Downtime is greatly reduced so that a business person can focus on more important aspects of the business.
What’s more, cloud allows for energy saving and produces less carbon emissions on on-site servers. This also helps a small business to save a great deal on cash. According to research, businesses using cloud computing can cut up to 90 percent carbon emissions.
With cloud computing, small business persons are in better positions to improve their operations. They can also easily cut on the cost of resources and traditional computer technologies. Cloud computing improves and benefits a business during high and low seasons.
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Causes and Effects of Battles of Lexington and Concord
Rising tensions between Great Britain and colonists from North America in mid Atlantic region led to formulation of British regulations and restrictions. The colonists felt that the British Empire was treating them as citizens of a lower class. Distance, arrogance and time made it impossible for both sides to come up with any peaceful solution and as a result, the colonists felt there was no recourse but fighting at Lexington and Concord in 1775.
There were different factors that contributed to the battle of Lexington and concord and some of these are as highlighted below:
England and American colonies experienced communication lag which made it difficult to discuss issues that were of concern to the colonists. The British government especially treated American colonists like they did not deserve full British citizenship and this became quite obvious during the Indian and French war when soldiers of American descent discovered the advise they offered did not carry the same level of credibility as that one offered by British soldiers.
Also, the American soldiers were paid far less than what their counterparts were receiving. The contempt the British had for the colonialists fermented with time and eventually became a desire for full fledged citizenship or freedom from mother country.
Acts of the British
Among colonists, there was growth of unrest which was fanned by patriots like James Otis, Samuel Adams and John Hancock. In response to this, England put into place laws that were more restrictive like the 1975 Stamp Act. This law taxed all newspapers and any other paper that was bought within the colonies. The colonists however did not abide b y the rule and it had to be repealed by England.
However the damage was already done and the colonists no longer had trust in the British government. England passed Townshend Acts in 1768 so it could collect tax on glass, paper, tea, silk and paint. The determination England had to force colonists to make payments for the expenses incurred by the British and its wars angered the colonists.
The British march to destroy supplies at concord and arrest Hancock and Adams also helped trigger t he battle and so did the Boston tea party in 1773.
The battles of Lexington and Concord had the effect of causing the American Revolution. During the battle, blood was spilled and Minutemen defended their weapons successfully though there was no possibility of coming up with a peaceful solution. The battles aided in uniting the colonies and eventually led to the Revolutionary War.
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