Fallacy of Presumption
Fallacy of presumption is an argument, which is based on one or more arguments that are false and cannot be proved within the context of the argument. This is unique from fallacy of relevance, which may have factual assumptions but make faulty conclusions. Different arguments fall in this category. Common examples include complex questions, circular reasoning, false dichotomies, and arguments from ignorance.
A false dichotomy is also referred to as a false dilemma. This is where you propose two alternatives when only one of them is logically possible. Here, the fallacy of presumption stems from the fact that you deny the existence of other assumptions. For instance, an intellectually irresponsible politician might tell voters his voters to favor tax reforms unless they do not care about the interests of other citizens of the nation. This assumption is not true because one may choose to vote against the reforms believing that a different measure would serve the interest of other citizens in a better way. On the other hand, a complex question usually has one or more false assumptions, which you cannot logically prove. This is closely related to a leading question in which the answer is suggested in the question.
Moreover, circular reasoning also has a different type of the fallacy of presumption. In simple words, this fallacy of assumption denotes that something is accurate because it is accurate. However, real life situations present more complex arguments than this description. For example, someone who loves peace may argue that a soldier is a murderer because he kills people. Here, the basis of the argument is that killing is murder and that everyone who kills people is therefore a murderer. The argument can become circular when you question it using just-war theories.
In sometimes, there is the begging question. A good illustration is the belief that God is real and exists because the bible says so. While this could be the assumption, we are fully aware that the bible is God’s revealed work and thus it is true. In essence, a begging question will arise when you assume important piece of the information. In some cases, one may omit the key information when presenting the argument while in other cases, a slightly different conclusion is made. Thus, the reasoning may become circular depending on the conclusion.
Another form of fallacy of assumption is the suppressed evidence. This occurs when important evidence is left out of the argument. This evidence, if included, would give a different conclusion on the matter. For example may say that no man is likely to go to Mars in the next ten years because no one has done it in the previous ten years. Moreover, equivocation occurs when you make a conclusion because a certain word was in two different senses even though the change in meaning is slight. For example if Ken is a violinist and a violinist is a terrible person then Ken is a terrible individual. Amphiboly is when an ambiguity stems from a faulty interpretation upon which one bases his or her conclusion. The syntactical ambiguity usually arises from either poor grammar or wrong punctuation. This should not be confused with equivocation, which deals with the meaning and not error.
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How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis Outline
In order for you to deliver a good rhetorical analysis essay, it is important that you know how to write a rhetorical analysis outline. An outline is the plan that will guide you in writing the paper, therefore, crafting one is always the first step to take. Using a properly written rhetorical analysis outline, you will always find it easy working on the different sections of the paper.
Developing an outline will help you to think critically and choose the best points to use in the essay in order to come up with an outstanding piece. An outline is a simple draft indicating the sections of the rhetorical analysis essay and key points for the discussion.
A rhetorical analysis essay requires the writer to explore how the various elements of rhetoric have been used in the given piece, presentation and argument of ideas and give an analysis of how the strategy has been applied in order to attain the expected results. The best way to achieving all these is knowing how to write a rhetorical analysis outline.
A greater part of essays are always written similarly, and this implies the skills on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline can also be applied in crafting other academic papers. With an outline, you will be able to save quite a lot of time when it comes to writing the essay.
Tips on how write a rhetorical analysis outline
A rhetorical analysis essay can be written about films, other texts, collection of artwork among other pieces. Therefore, it is important that you first determine the material or piece of work that the essay will be based on. This will also assist you in establishing the direction to pursue when creating an outline.
Read on for more guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline
One of the key elements in writing a rhetorical analysis essay is understanding the intentions of the author. You should try to determine how the creator of the original work presented his or her argument in order to achieve the set target. This might play a significant role in your thesis, hence, should be carefully looked at.
Before writing the outline, it is also important that you decide the sections that will be included in your paper. Doing this will enable you to specifically focus on the important things, thereby saving time.
A rhetorical analysis paper basically has three main sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, there are key aspects that must be highlighted in each of the sections to ensure that your paper is a rhetorical analysis essay. All these must be precisely and clearly indicated in the outline.
The SOAPs tone is one of the key aspects of a rhetorical analysis. This is a short abbreviation that is used to refer to Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject and tone of the original piece of work.
The speaker is the first and last name of the creator of that piece of work. Occasion on the other hand, refers to the type of text and context under which it was crafted. The audience is the reader (s) whom the text was addressed to. Purpose is the result that the author wanted to achieve with the work. The subject defines the topic which is discussed in the text.
It is also important that you examine the appeals or first classification of rhetorical strategy. These entail ethos, logos and pathos.
Also known as ethical appeals, ethos are reliant on the credibility of the writer and character in attaining approval. The mention of an author or writer’s qualification can be used to signify ethos.
Logos apply reasoning in making arguments, especially in academic rhetorical pieces. It refers to the use of evidence, facts and data to support an argument.
Pathos is the instance whereby the author of the original piece has used words or phrases that evoke emotions in order to drive his or her point home. Pathetic appeals can include the use of love, sympathy among others.
In your outline, you will also need to highlight the styles details in the original text, like the use of imagery, diction, syntax and tone. It is also important that you identify these for easy reference when it comes to writing.
In preparation for writing the outline for a rhetorical essay paper, all the above elements must be well defined. Remember the outline is the final plan that will be followed in writing the essay, therefore, always ensure that all the points listed in the outline are sufficient for supporting your argument.
Steps on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline
A good rhetorical essay outline should show the order which all your points will be addressed in the paper. The following procedures will guide you on how to write a rhetorical analysis outline with ease.
Always craft your outline in chronological order. This implies you should start from the beginning of the article or piece of work to be analyzed and work your way through to the end.
The outline should demonstrate how you will distinguish the paper from others. You can simply write a statement defining how you will tell the readers about your analysis in a logical and captivating manner.
You should also list the SOAPs tone of the given piece under section since they will be discussed in the opening sentences of the paper. Besides, also remember to state the work under analysis.
Write your thesis statement or chief argument that will be discussed in the essay. It is recommended that you write the thesis as it will appear in the final paper. The thesis should not be hard to create since it simply reflects your intentions in the essay.
The body is generally the longest and most detailed part of an essay. In order for you to deliver good body paragraphs with proper flow of information, you have to carefully pick the points to list in the outline.
In order to make the outline clearer, try to use bullets, numbers and point-form when listing different aspects to be included in the body paragraphs.
There are key aspects of a rhetorical analysis essay that you should know how to address in the right order when writing the outline. These include the logos, ethos and pathos respectively. The body paragraphs should be outlined by rhetorical appeals.
At least identify one key claim and an evaluation of the document’s use of objective evidence. For logos, pathos and ethos, choose evidence from the given piece to give while writing the analysis.
Under every main claim, it is also advisable that you include a statement indicating how you will wrap up the discussion in the paragraph. However, you can also just have one statement generalizing all the points addressed in the body paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you should simply indicate how the entire analysis will be tied up to form an objective discussion. A proper conclusion should re-state the thesis statement and main ideas, then further point out any future expectations on the subject or topic.
You do not have to write an entire paragraph in the outline, instead, simply list the key points to be addressed on the section.
You should also ensure that your references are well outlined since they will also be written in the essay.
After writing the outline, take a few moments to read through it just to make sure it portrays your intentions for the essay. Writing is an art whereby ideas may sometimes come up in the process of writing and this may lead to changes in the outline.
In case there are certain points that you think would ruin your discussion in the paper, it is advisable that you punch them out or find appropriate replacements. Avoid too much statements or exaggeration s in the outline, instead, only list what is necessary for writing the analysis.
Examples of rhetorical analysis outline
You can also easily find out how to write a rhetorical analysis outline by simply reading sample outlines. The following are professionally crafted examples to motivate you in writing.
Outline for rhetorical analysis
- Introduce your topic or subject
- Make evident your purpose
- Engage the reader
- Summary of the Rhetorical situation
- What is the issue?
- What is the context …
(Simply click here to read the detailed sample rhetorical analysis outline)
Rhetorical analysis essay outline
- Attention grabber sentence
- Brief summary of essay with author introduction
- Thesis statement
(Get the entire sample on this link)
Sample Rhetorical Analysis Outline
- Introduction: Background and Thesis
- Background Information, including details about the author, work, title and publication info. Statement of the author’s argument.
- Thesis: Evaluation and appeals
- Body: Analysis, interpretation and evaluation…
(To continue reading the rest of this sample outline, simply click here)
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Ship of Theseus
According to historians, Theseus, a King in ancient Greece founded Athens, today major city in the country. He was not an ordinary King. He won a series of naval battles, winning the public support. As a result, no one wanted to forget him event after his death. His history and successes was to run through generations by preserving something that would speak on his behalf and make future generations believe in his work. The people of Athens decided to dedicate a memorial to him in by maintaining his ship in the port. Because of the dedication of the people, the ship of Theseus was to spend hundreds of years in the port.
However, as hundreds of years of went by, parts of the ship started rotting since they were made of wood. This could not hinder the people of Athens from preserving the ship further as they replaced the rotting planks of wood with new ones. This was not just a replacement, but also a source of many questions that would later haunt the history of the ship. The main question was whether the ship was to remain the “ship of Theseus” after the replacement of planks of wood or if it was to assume a different name. With this replacement, was the ship in its original state, which the King used? This became a major question in philosophy, especially when analyzing the problem of identity. Many questions arose including the meaning of a physical object and the identity of things after some time. Additionally, people questioned the point at which an object changes from its original form to become something different. What does mean for an object to change?
In the same manner, did the ship of Theseus change after hundreds of years or did it become something else after the replacement of planks of wood? Better still, the question of replacing wooden planks focused on the number of planks that would give the ship a new look. For example, would the ship remain the “Ship of Theseus” if forty-nine, fifty-one or ninety-nine planks of wood were removed? Was the original state of the ship the same after removing a plank at the bottom? What would happen to the ship if all the planks were removed and replaced with new ones? How gradual should the change be so as not to temper with the original state of the ship?
Various scholars and theorists hold divergent views about these questions, which revolve around the identity of the ship after replacing rotting planks of wood. Some have maintained that by altering any part of the ship makes it different from the ship of Theseus. On the other hand, some hold that the ship of Theseus remains the same as long as there is at least an original plank still present. This is because the plank that remains carries the original state of the ship. Which side is correct and which one is incorrect? Philosophers argue that both positions can be valid and wrong. Nevertheless, the question of identity is a major one as the original form of the ship gradually changed with the replacement of wooden planks of wood, which were rotting.
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The existence of God remains a contentious issue in the society. Does God exist? For many years, scholars and theologians have explored theories and arguments to disprove each other on the existence of God. In most cases, there has never been a conclusive consensus on whether God exists or if it is an illusion in the minds of believers. Religion largely supports the existence of God as the Supreme Being, who created the world and everything in it. Christians and Muslims strongly support the existence of God. Is the existence of the world good enough to conclude that God exists? This line of thought is called cosmological argument. Its proponents opine that the world is a proof that God exists and he created it. While there is need to expound on the existence of the universe, the only explanation is the existence of God, who created it.
It is important to note that the cosmological argument does not differ from other arguments, which seek to explain the existence of God. For example, it exists in various forms like the temporal kalam cosmological argument and the modal argument from contingency. The first argument is the cause argument. What distinguishes these two arguments is how they avoid the argument questioning if God has a cause for his existence. This is how the two forms of the argument evade the objection in the argument. Firstly, according to cosmological argument, everything exists on the universe because they have a cause to exist. In other words, whatever that exists, exists for a known reason by someone. Additionally, the argument holds that the universe exists. If this is the case, then there is a case for its existence. Since the universe has a cause for its existence, this argument deduces that God is the cause for its existence and therefore God exists.
Better still, is there a cause for the existence of God? For example if God has a cause for his existence, then using the existence of God to support the existence of the universe does not suffice to make a conclusion. However, if we eliminate God, it becomes hard to explain the existence of the universe. Equally, with God centered in the equation, we are unable to explain his existence. This means by agreeing on the existence of God, it raises as many problems as it offers solutions. On this basis, the cosmological argument does not offer better solutions. It leaves us with God, one entity that we cannot explain its existence.
In the Kalam cosmological argument, it is believed that the universe has a beginning in time. This gives its distinction with God. According to this form, everything that has a beginning in time like the universe always has a cause for existence. Thus since the universe has a beginning in time, it also has a cause for its existence, which is God. For the argument from contingency, the main difference between the universe and God is that the universe exists contingently. This means that the universe could not have existed.
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Essential Amino Acids
Essential Amino Acids is also referred to as indispensable amino acids, essential amino acids refer to a class of amino acids that the body is unable to synthesize. These amino acids are thus, acquired from the diets that we eat. There are several kinds of essential amino acids including valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, tryptophan, lysine among others. It is important that these acids are included in the diet so that they can be received by the body for proper growth and development.
Even though they are much needed in the body, there are some types that do not necessarily have to be included in the diet like arginine, glycine, histidine, cysteine, proline, tyrosine, glutamine and serine. These types of essential amino acids are considered to be conditionally essential. The reason why they are not necessarily required to be in the diet is because they can have unpleasant impacts on some people. For instance, those who are suffering from PKU are required to only take low amounts of phenylalanine in order to avoid mental retardation.
Typically, the acids can be acquired from diets that contain meat, dairy products, cereal grains and legumes. Besides, there are also quite a number of indigenous foods that can be consumed for the essential amino acids like Mexican corn, Japanese rice, Cajun red beans, and soybeans among others. Deficiency in even just one of the nine essential amino acids can have serious health implications and also degrade the body’s protein levels. The body can be forced to dismantle protein structures and even the muscles in order to obtain the required nutrient.
The reason why humans are unable to internally produce essential amino acids is because we lack all the enzymes that are required for their biosynthesis. It should be noted that of all the essential amino acids, there is one that is only required by children. Arginine is the essential amino acid that is not needed by adults. It is obtained from proteins and works by producing creatine that is ideal for development and growth in children.
Obtaining all of the essential amino acids that is needed in the daily diet requires that one meets their daily protein recommendation. Normally, a person is required to take an estimated 50 to 175 grams of protein every day. Even though essential amino acids can mostly be obtained from animal products, a combination of plant-based diets can also provide the nutrients. To those who may not be able to take certain animal and plant-based diets due to allergies or other reasons, it is advisable that you obtain over-the counter supplements of essential amino acids.
If you are buying essential amino acids supplements, you should always check the label to ensure that the product can provide all the nine. Besides, it is also advisable to talk to your nutritionist or doctor before starting on the supplementation program.
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology
Central Dogma of Molecular Biology is basically an explanation of how genetic information flows within a biological system. The concept was first brought into the limelight by Francis Crick in 1956. In 1970, it was again stated in a Nature paper. The Central Dogma of Molecular Biology states that sequential information is not transferrable back from protein to either nucleic acid or protein. This precisely means that once information has got into protein, it can never flow back to nucleic acid.
The central dogma of molecular biology is a framework that can help in understanding the way in which sequence information is transferred in living organisms. The sequential information carries biopolymers that include DNA, RNA and protein. The dogma lists three groups of transfers that include general, special and unknown transfers. General transfers are those that take place normally in a variety of body cells. Special transfers on the other hand, are known to occur but limited to certain conditions in the laboratory or in case of viruses. Unknown transfers never take place.
The general transfers that are highlighted above indicate the normal flow of biological information across the body of organisms. According to the central dogma of molecular biology, DNA can be copied to DNA through a process known as DNA replication. Information contained in the DNA can be copied into MRNA through the process of transcription. Proteins on the other hand, can be synthesized through the use of the information that is contained in MRNA. This process is known as translation.
The biopolymers that include RNA, DNA and peptides are classified under linear polymers. This is to say that every monomer is connected to not more than two other monomers. Information is effectively encoded by the sequence of their monomers. According to the transfer of information that is described by the central dogma of molecular biology, one sequence of a biopolymer acts as template for the building of another biopolymer. The newly created biopolymer takes a sequence that is similar to that of the original one.
Despite the central dogma of molecular biology being a concept that most people have agreed with, it should be noted that it has its setbacks too. Some people have questioned certain issues related to the hypothesis and it would be in order that you also get to find out about such concerns. One of the issues is that the hypothesis does not provide information on what the machinery of transfer is made of. Besides, it does not on the aspect of errors.
The central dogma of molecular biology also does not say anything regarding control mechanisms. There is no information about the rate at which the process takes place. According to recent analyses on the central dogma of molecular biology, there are concerns that the hypothesis is not entirely accurate considering that it mainly focuses on proteins as the mediating unit in biological function. Current research is focused on investigating the work of RNA that neither codes nor follows the dogma framework.
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The Samnite Wars refer to the three major armed conflicts between the Samnites or the Samnium tribes and the Romans. These wars were fought from 343 to 290 BC. The Roman Republic was fighting to take Italy’s control. These wars involved almost all Italy states and in the end, the Roman Republic dominated over the Samnites. Samnites controlled the Apennines towards the Latium’s southeast and they were among the earliest formidable rivals of Rome. Regardless of the many setbacks encountered, each of these wars ended in terms that increased the power of Rome and Rome took control of the entire central Italy by the time the third Samnite War ended.
Cause of the Samnite Wars
Rome survived Celtic Gauls’ invasion at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Therefore, it aimed at expanding its middle party further this century. Rome re-conquered Etruscan and Latin towns that were left during the occupation of Gallic and while absorbing others, its position was reconsolidated as a dominant force in Central Italy and Latium. Having a secured home turf, the Romans ventured southwards to Campania.
By this time, Samnites had already moved to Campania where there were fertile lands from their initial place in south central Apennines. Samnites were controlling Cumae and Capua towns in Southern Rome. They were also swaying to the east. In order to protect the flanks and still retake Etruria and Latium, Rome entered a joint alliance with Samnites in a wise move in 354 BC. This led to an inevitable conflict with the Samnium over the dominance of Campania. Eventually, this turned into several wars that lasted from 343 to 290 BC.
Events of the wars and how they were ended
- First Samnite war
The first Samnite war was fought between 343 and 338 B.C and it entailed a brief conflict after the Campania plain dwellers requested assistance of the Rome in fending off attacks by highland neighbors. This war ended with a revolt of the Latin allies of Rome and it was resolved with a Battle of Vesuvis. Campania and the Capua chief city became a protectorate of the Roman republic.
- Second Samnite War
This was the longest of the three wars and it was fiercely fought between 326 and 304 B.C. It lasted for more than 20 years during which the Roman army was captured by the Samnites for some years in what was called the Caudine Forks defile. Rather than killing the army, the Samnits released them so that Rome could give them favorable terms. The Romans were infuriated and humiliated and they resorted to hostilities that lasted for 5 years. The war continued, alternating between the samnite victories like the Lautulae victory and the Roman victories like the Ciuna victory. This was an attrition war though most suffering was felt by the Samnites. On failing to relieve the Bovianum siege, they sought peace.
- Third Samnite war
The peace that ended the second samnite war lasted for a few years. As of 298, the Samnite had formed an alliance with the Gauls and Etruscans in the Northern Italy in order to defeat the Romans. The fighting started disastrously because the Roman army routed at the Camerinum battle. Shortly, Rome established four legions in order to meet Samnites and their allies, the Gallic, in the colossal Sentinum battle. This ended in a decisive Roman victory with the Samnite side suffering heavy losses. Although this time the Samnite did not seek peace, they could make a feeble resistance. During the last battle of Apalonia, the camp of the Samnite was looted, their warriors killed and city taken. Finally, the persistent foes of Rome accepted peace when it was offered to them bringing the wars to an end. The third war was fought between 298 and 290 B.C.
Effects of the Samnite wars
Although the actual number of the casualties of these wars is not known, the wars were significant because they helped in the establishment of Rome as the Italy’s supreme power.
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The Invasion of Canada in 1775
The invasion of Canada in 1775 saw the newly created Continental Army of the United States launch their first military action in the American Revolutionary War. It also marked the first major defeat of the Americans in the Revolutionary War. The invasion led by Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery, was staged in the city of Quebec with the aim of protecting Canadians from British rule. Americans also hoped to persuade Canadians to join their campaign in revolting against England.
Events leading to the Invasion of Canada in 1775
After the forces led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured Fort Ticonderoga in the spring of 1775, Americans got wind that a British Army was being created in Canada under the command of Sir Guy Carleton. Owing to the American resistance of British rule, they thought that by invading Canada, a rebellion would be triggered. Through the invasions, they hoped British plans for war with rebellious colonies would be disrupted.
With the approval of the Congress, George Washington authorized the attack on Canada in 1775 under General Philip Schuyler. The offensive was to be led by Richard Montgomery, advancing with troops from Ticonderoga.
How the 1775 American Invasion of Canada Occurred
Also known as the Battle of Quebec or Canadian Campaign, the invasion of Canada in 1775 started late August when Gen. Schuyler led American troops up Lake Champlain and captured St. Johns. However, the battle impacted ill health on the General, forcing him to wait for Montgomery’s forces before making further advancement.
Montgomery and Arnold finally met and joined their troops in early December 1775, outside Quebec City demanding the city to surrender. However, their demands were rejected by the then governor of the province of Quebec, General Guy Carleton.
With the looming expiry of the enlistment of American troops, they continued the march towards Quebec under snowfall cover in the wee hours of December 31. As the troops approached and surrounded the city, the British were ready and fire erupted between the two forces.
Montgomery was unable to make it through the first assault, and after several unfruitful attempts to penetrate through the British defenses, his troops were turned back.
At the time of Montgomery’s defeat, Arnold and his men were also taking heavy fire on the northern wall, forcing them to retreat. Apart from losing several troops, Arnold also got wounded on the leg. His role was taken up by Patriot Daniel Morgan who continued the assault but got held back at the second wall in wait for reinforcement. As Arnold’s men arrived, the British had reorganized and the Patriots were forced to discontinue the invasion.
Arnold and his men had to stay fortified outside the city amidst raging cold and lack of supplies. Thanks to their counterparts, reinforcements arrived in spring but there were no further orders to proceed with the invasion.
Instead, the American troops moved back to Montreal to team up with other forces, from where they all marched to Crown Point for safety. During this time, British forces and Carleton were still in pursuit. However, they later decided to return to Montreal after failing to capture the Americans who survived the battle.
Results and Significance of the Invasion of Canada in 1775
The greatest impact of the invasion of Canada in 1775 was on the Americans, considering their defeat. Of the about 1,200 American soldiers who took part in the war, more than 400 were taken into captivity, suffered wounds or died. Apart from losing a number of men, American troops also lost one of their Generals, Montgomery. Colonel Arnold left the battle filed with a broken leg while Morgan was captured.
Casualties on the side of the British were low
Canadians did not stage an uprising against the British as expected by the Americans. Canada remained as a British colony.
Americans had not planned well for the invasion of Quebec and this was clearly shown in their defeat. Besides, they had not properly analyzed the information about anti-British sentiments in Canada.
However, the actions of Arnold and his men while retreating to Montreal on Lake Champlain bore great impact by holding back the British Army from staging a counter-attack until 1777.
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After the conclusion of Samnite War , Pyrrhic war began when all of central Italy was put under Roman control. Roman territories were brought closer to Magna Graecia cities in Northern Italy, bringing about conflicting interests and subsequent fights.
An overview of Pyrrhic War
The pyrrhic war began shortly after the end of Samite wars with the Lucians and Brattain’s fighting in the early 3rd century BC. The continued attacks on Greek colonies did not deter them from appealing to Roman regional power for assistance. At that moment, the City of Magna Graecia, Tarentum was the most powerful.
The city of Magna Graecia and Tarentum signed a treaty with Rome clearly stating that it would not send any of her troops into the Gulf of Taranto. This situation led conflicts between Rome and Tarentum because the former started interfering with the affairs of Greek colonies in Southern Italy.
Soon, other states in Magna Graecia including Croton, Locris and Rhegum asked for Rome’s support in their struggles with their neighbors. Rome sent a troop to garrison town of Thurri in 282 BC since it had been attacked by Lucania. Tarentum saw this as a hostile act and responded by sinking the fleet and expelling roman troops from Thurii.
The city and states of Magna Graecia had sought help from mercenary kings during their struggles but now, Tarentum sought assistance from King Pyrrhus of Epirus, on the Greek Peninsula across the Adriatic Sea from southern Italy. Pyrrhus landed in Italy with 25, 000 men and twenty war elephants in 280 BC. His first move against the Romans took place at Heraclea, small coastal town.
Pyrrhic War first and second engagement
The first engagement of the war took place at Heraclea, a small coastal town. The romans had 50,000 thousand troops who drove to the Lucanian territory to prevent them from aligning with Pyrrhus. Romans technically lost at the battle at the small coastal town, Heraclea and Pyrrhus lost a large number of troops. The pattern became quite common during the fight between Pyrrhus and Romans. Despite winning main engagements, Pyrrhus could no longer keep up with the war without support.
After marching to northern parts of Latium, Pyrrhus was not happy with the domination of Romans. He hoped that many cities would join his cause. He misjudged the situation because Roman military alliances were more stable. Roman rule was evident as many states enjoyed roman protection. Leaders of the states also enjoyed their positions under the leadership of the romans. However, only a few Lucanians and Samnite’s sided with Pyrrhus.
This led to the second engagement took place at the battle of Ausculum. It took two days with massive fights between ancient armies. The Romans were led by Publious Dentius Mus and used the terrain of the area to their advantage thus, reducing the effect of the elephants and Epirote Calvary. The first day was a virtual draw and the second day of the fight was a stalemate. At the end of the battle, more than 6000 Romans and 3, 5OO Epirotes died. Pyrrhus was left in the command of the field. It was the results of this fight that was considered the Pyrrhic victory.
Pyrrhus upon receiving the congratulatory message said ‘’ that one other such victory, would utterly undo him’’. He acknowledged the costly victories and thought of signing peace treaties to Rome with no success and he remained in Italy. Appius Claudius who built the Appian Way refused the negotiations calling for the freedom of Tarentum and her allies.
Pyrrhus went to Sicily in 278 BC, aided the Greek city against Carthage and became quite victorious. Rome formed alliances with Carthage against Pyrrhus and later on, Rome’s interest became conflicts. Pyrrhus in 275 BC went back to Italy, faced the romans in Southern Italy, town of Malventum and was defeated. With the victory of him, Pyrrhus left Italy for good and went to Green mainland.
Results of the war
Pyrrhus lost in the war, more than a third of his army died in the fight and there was little to show for his efforts. Two years later, he died in a street battle in Argos.
Tarentum which was the third significant Greek city in the state of Italy finally accepted to sign an alliance with Rome in 272 BC. Rome became the mistress of the entire southern and central Italy.
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Battle of Bunker Hill
The battle of Bunker Hill occurred on June 17, 1775, after the American Revolutionary War. Thousands of American militia besieged Boston and the British were trying their best to control the city and its valuable sea ports. They also aimed at taking over the harbor in Boston, to keep it open to bring in their troops and supplies. Therefore, the British focused on two hills, the Breeds and the Bunker in order to achieve a tactical advantage. The American militia got the news and went ahead to defend the hills.
Location of Battle of the Bunker Hill
The British wanted to bombard the Americans from a distance and they thought of taking over two hills, the Bunker Hill and the Breed hill. Therefore, the battle took place on the Breeds hill, Charlestown, Massachusetts. The battle was followed by the battle of Chelsea Creek and an engagement during the 11 month of Siege of Boston in April 19, 1775 to March 17, 177. It ended with British victory.
An overview of the battle of Bunker Hill
The battle of Bunker Hill was one of the most significant battles of the American War of Independence. This followed the first Revolutionary War at the Battle of Lexington and The Battle of Concord, the militia which took over Boston. The Americans received intelligence reports that the British under General Thomas Gage were planning to control the hills, Dorchester Heights area and Charlestown to maintain Boston harbor and acted immediately.
With more than 1000 men, the colonial militia under the leadership of William Prescott constructed ramparts and fortifications on top of the Hills and Charlestown peninsula area. The British men of war opened fire and Colonel William Prescott walked over the ramparts while his men continued to dig.
General Thomas Gage sent three thousand men to attack the Americans across Charles River. They attacked and the first two assaults were repelled by the militia. More than 1000men were injured and killed. More British soldiers were sent to Boston and by the third assault, the militia had to retreat back to Cambridge due to lack of ammunition and powder.
Leaders during the war
The British army was led by General William Howe
The Americans were led by Colonel William Prescott
Major John Pitcairn was also one of the front leaders for the British army. He was in command of the troops that started the war or fight at Lexington and started the Revolutionary War.; Israel Putnam was the General in charge for the Americans. Leading the patriot was also Dr. Joseph Warren. He played an active role in the battle but died while fighting.
Results of the Battle of Bunker Hill war
Even though the British won during the war and took over the hill, they paid heavily. Many soldiers and officers lost their lives. The Americans on the other hand were filled with a lot of courage knowing that they could stand up to their enemies, the British in a fight. Many colonists also joined the army and the revolution grew in strength.
The American Revolutionary war which included the battle of Bunker Hill became strong as it was a culmination of the American Revolution. Many American colonists rejected the legitimacy of the British to govern the 13 colonies without representation. The other interesting facts about the war is that
- The Americans were low in ammunition and couldn’t fire until they could see the whites with their eyes
- Troops from America worked tirelessly especially at night to build up their defense. They build a redoubt which was nearly six feet high
- General William Howe from Britain was really astonished at the American defense and said ‘’The rebels have done more work in one night than my entire army and what it would have done in one month.’’
- The British also suffered the most with many casualties in a single fight during the American Revolutionary War.
- Inexperienced forces also build up their confidence and in their ability to fight the British in the war and more specifically, in the first war of the American War of Independence. This was the significance of the Battle of the Bunker Hill.
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SWOT Analysis of Nordstrom
A SWOT analysis of Nordstrom can enable this company to carve a clear, sustainable niche in its market. SWOT analysis refers to a useful technique that is used to understand the strengths as well as weaknesses of an organization or a person while identifying the opportunities to explore and threats to face.
When and how SWOT analysis of Nordstrom has been useful or important
Nordstrom has always used SWOT analysis in uncovering opportunities that are possible to exploit. This framework has also enabled this company to understand its weaknesses and to eliminate threats that may catch up with it unawares. Additionally, by looking at itself and its competitors via SWOT framework, this company has always crafted strategies that have enabled it to distinguish itself from competitors in order to compete successfully in the market.
Perhaps, it is by using SWOT analysis that Nordstrom has continued to grow since its establishment in 1901 by John W. Nordstrom in Seattle Washing as a small store selling shoes. In 1963, the company ventured into clothing market and it is currently one of the leading fashion retail stores in the U.S. It has more than 49,700 full time employees and it operates indirect selling which includes catalogs and e-commerce as well as credit operation.
Comprehensive SWOT analysis of Nordstrom
Since mid 1980s, Nordstrom has been striving to ensure diversity in its workforce. 15.7 percent of the managers of this company were color people in 1988. 23.9 percent of the entire workforce comprised of the color people. Today, the company comprises of 30.5 percent managers as color people and 71.6 percent of the workforce is made of women. This company also has a diversity program for suppliers which provides an opportunity for women and minorities companies to supply it with the products that it needs. Additionally, the company has diversity of operations. It has restaurants, cash operations and spa service. It is by ensuring diversity of employees and operations that Nordstrom has won the support of people from different races and backgrounds in the society.
Nordstrom has always striven to achieve uniqueness in its services and products. To achieve this, the company has employed workers from different backgrounds so that they can contribute in the production of products and services that are superior to those of competitors.
- Society support
Nordstrom also participate in the activities of non-governmental organization and Fair Labor Association. It has been active in supporting universities and colleges. This has enabled it to obtain the support of the society and to expand its business more.
- Slow growth
The growth of Nordstrom is very slow especially in other continents. This can be attributed to the competition that it faces from similar stores which makes its market share stagnant.
- Huge operational costs
Due to its large employee base, Nordstrom spends a lot of money in paying salaries and wages. This has led to a decrease in the money that is available for investment in new ventures. This has contributed to a slow growth rate as compared to other retailers like Kohl’s.
- Further growth
When compared to other retailers like Dillard’s and J.C Penney, Nordstrom is the sole retailer with operations in Europe. With this strength and consideration of the fact that the company has not explored all markets, Nordstrom has an opportunity for further growth in Europe and other continents.
- Better utilization of technology
Through the use of modern technology, Nordstrom can expand its business and enhance efficiency. In fact, this is one of the key initiatives of this company. An example of this initiative is the cooperation with IONA technologies in building its internet retailing system. This has enabled the company to manage its inventory control while reducing response time for physical distribution management.
- Intense competition
Being a fashion retailer, Nordstrom faces intense competition from other retailers including J.C Penny, Dillard’s and Home Retail Group among others.
- Economic change
Economic changes are a threat to this company. The effects of economic changes can be seen in different ways including the cost of shipping products which compels it to set higher prices for its products. When the company offers free shipping, its profitability is affected negatively. Additionally, the company is affected by the cost of acquiring clothing merchandises that it sells from other countries due to changes in tariffs that arise from economic changes.
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SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
SWOT analysis of GAP is an effective method that the company applies in determining its ability to survive in the market, while also growing revenue base. GAP Inc. is a leading world-wide retailer that deals in clothing, accessories and personal care products for the whole family. It operates six globally recognized brands including, Old Navy, Banana Republic, Gap, Intermix, Athleta and Piperlime. GAP has several more than 3,200 stores across the world and also operates an e-commerce website from where customers can get products information and do their shopping.
What is SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc?
A SWOT analysis of GAP Inc. basically explores the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the clothing giant, with regards to the global market which targets. By determining the company’s strengths and opportunities, the management will be able to come up with measures on where emphasis is required for continued success.
The weaknesses and threats of a business are indicators of failure and by knowing them, the company can easily make decisions and plans for eliminating mistakes and avoiding losses in the future. The following is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of GAP Inc.
With the six brands that it operates globally, GAP has been able to attain a strong product portfolio and brand recognition. Coupled with its wide range of products that target the whole family, GAP Inc. enjoys global customer recognition and loyalty.
Its’ presence over a wider geographical area is also another strength that has made several people across the globe to identify with the company’s products.
Because of the global reach of GAP Inc. the business is able to record a high inventory turnover ratio. In fact, this is one of the main reasons the company commands a strong financial position in the market.
GAP Inc’s dedicated section for baby products is also another feature that has kept the business afloat since such products are always in demand even when the market is not doing well.
Despite the global customer base that GAP Inc. has, the company heavily relies on vendors from outside to sell its products. This is an area of weakness since such vendors are susceptible to various kinds of mistakes that may hinder the successful operations of the company.
The high competition in the apparel and accessories industry is also another point of weakness since it implies many customers are learning of new brands that could shift their buying trends. Besides, it also limits the market share of the company.
GAP has not fully focused onto penetrating the emerging economy markets and this has limited its ability for expansion and revenue growth.
One of the opportunities that GAP Inc. can exploit is the emerging markets in Asia and Europe. These markets present an ideal platform for expansion and profitability.
The growing use of technology in business is also another opportunity. Through effective online campaigns and shopping, the company can easily attract new customers for its products and brands across the globe.
Considering the good performance of GAP Inc. in operating six major brands is proof that it can still form franchise units and joint ventures with other companies in the industry for greater development.
The readily available market for kids’ apparel and products is also another opportunity that the company can fully explore for maximum profits.
The clothing and accessories market is experiencing a very stiff completion between various brands, offering more fashionable products at better prices than GAP Inc.
The rapid change in fashion trends is also another threat that the company has to plan on how to handle.
Counterfeits is yet another issue that is threatening the existence and success of businesses today.
Another threat is the increased production and operational costs, which could water down profits.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of GAP Inc.
According to this SWOT analysis of GAP Inc., the company is strong enough to withstand market forces considering its wide selection of products and brand portfolio, which have ensured global recognition, loyalty and financial power. However, it still needs to focus on international expansion into the emerging economies and intensifying its online presence. Besides, GAP Inc. also needs to consider the shifting fashion trends in order to meet customer needs.
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SWOT Analysis of Costco
SWOT analysis of Costco is among the best methods used by the company in evaluating itself and making decisions for sustainability in the market. Costco Wholesale is considered one of the largest retailers in the world today. Based in Seattle, Washington, Costco operates membership warehouses in the United States, Canada, Japan, Mexico, Spain and Australia. Besides, it also has several subsidiaries in Korea and Taiwan.
What is SWOT Analysis of Costco?
SWOT analysis of Costco refers to the evaluation of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the company. Considering the majority of players and shifting trends in the retail warehousing industry, it is always advisable that a company conducts a SWOT analysis in order to determine areas of weakness that require fixing and potentialities that should be fully exploited.
By conducting a SWOT analysis, Costco Wholesale will be able to know how to package itself for continuous growth and development in the market. Below is a comprehensive SWOT analysis of Costco.
These are the outstanding features of Costco that makes it unique and different from other retailers in the sector. One of the strengths of Costco is its pricing authority. The company mainly focusses on offering its customers quality products at the most competitive prices. The fact that it does not emphasize on maximizing profits in the short term gives many customers the confidence of always obtaining high quality products.
Brand loyalty is another strength of the company, which it has been able to attain through its constant pursuit of high quality and great value. This has enabled it to attract customer loyalty too.
Costco often records high sales volumes, which contributes to increased revenues. As a result of this, the company is able to make high revenues even if its prices are than other retailers.
Although Costco is a renowned profitable retailer, it still suffers certain defects that if not solved on time, might negatively impact operations. One of them is the company’s business model which allows only the members of the club to use the warehouses. As much as this may encourage customers to buy at the company’s stores, it also limits the number since non-club members might not feel welcome.
Another weakness of Costco is that the stores do not offer a wide variety of goods and services like other retailers. This tends to send away many customers who will opt to shop from stores where they can easily find all the products they need at once.
One of the opportunities that Costco can exploit is the increasing number of younger customers. The recent months have seen the company’s management take measures aimed at attracting young customers, a move that can significantly help in driving long-term sales to the company.
The going numbers of people using e-commerce is yet another opportunity that Costco should look into tapping. Intensive online marketing could also be a great way of venturing into new markets and attracting more customers.
Costco has plans to continue growing its reach on the international map. There several foreign markets with better prospects like China, France among others.
The warehouse services industry is one which is quite competitive, considering the high number of players involved offering similar process, quality and selection. In the domestic market, Costco is facing stiff competition from companies like BJ’s Wholesale Club, Sam’s Club among others. Internationally, there are several other competitors like internet retailers and even others that do not require membership.
The intensive marketing by other retailers dealing in similar products as Costco is yet another threat that the company needs to challenge in order to avoid being edged out.
Conclusion on SWOT Analysis of Costco
Costco Wholesale is a business with high viability, the reason it has continued to expand even poor economic times. Its competitive prices is a key strength that has kept the business afloat for long. The above SWOT analysis of Costco also reveals that the company has several opportunities it can exploit in order to tame the threats in the market. Through the firm’s website, intensive internet marketing and network of suppliers, it can effectively reach out to a wider customer base and scare away competitors.
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Company Profile: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy is an American with its stocks trading on the New York Stock Exchange. It specializes in consumer electronics, accounting for about 20% of America’s domestic market in technology-based products. Best Buy has 24 stores across the United States. Besides its presence in America, it also operates in the United Kingdom, Mexico and Turkey. By the year 2010, Best Buy and its subsidiaries had more than 1,050 stores in local markets. Today, Best Buy is position 45, according to Fortune’s top 1000 companies. What are the factors that keep Best Buy outshining its competitors in the market? What are its weaknesses and opportunities? Read this SWOT analysis of Best Buy to find out more.
Strengths: SWOT analysis of Best Buy
Best Buy enjoys dominating the market in retailing electronic products in America. For example, it is the leading retailer of electronic goods in the USA, accounting for about 20% of the market. As a result, the company has a unique market position, which favors its business operations, making it position 45 on global ranking.
Another reason why Best Buy excels is its enhanced presence across the United States, with outlets all over. With its strong network, Best Buy is able to maintain its economies of scale and strengthen its brand image. This network allows the company to reach more customers and penetrate the market effectively.
Best Buy has good practices in terms of growth, profitability and community involvement. This gives it a higher customer satisfaction index as compared to other players in the industry.
SWOT analysis of Best Buy further shows that it manages several stores in America, as a joint venture with various warehouses. This relationship helps consumer to buy and use its products with a lot of ease.
Weaknesses of Best Buy
Besides dominating the market in retailing electronic products and making good profits over the years, Best Buy has a range of weaknesses. Its main weakness is over dependence on a few suppliers. By the end of 2007, Best Buy maintained only 25 suppliers, who accounted for the company’s 60% of purchases.
Additionally, Best Buy does not maintain strong ties its suppliers. It does not favor long-term contracts. This approach exposes the Best Buy to risks of shortages especially in the event one of the suppliers turns its back on them.
Another weakness is the endless lawsuits against its operations. In one of the suits, Best Buy was accused of charging higher prices more than what is advertised. In 2000, Best Buy was also charged for concealing warrantees of products with the aim of selling their labeled merchandise. Lastly, its overdependence on the US domestic market could affect sales with low economic growth.
Opportunities: SWOT Analysis of Best Buy
From this SWOT Analysis of Best Buy, it is clear that the company has a bright future with a range of opportunities to expand and diversify its operations. First, Best Buy can make major acquisitions. From its recent acquisitions, the company was able to increase its customer base and strengthen brand image in the market. Such will allow Best Buy to enter new market and develop new products under the same brand name and increase sales.
Secondly, Best Buy plans to expand its business in other countries. By expanding its operations geographically, this will guarantee the company more opportunities and a higher market share.
Threats of Best Buy Inc
The first threat is cutthroat competition from three main players, Amazon, Apple and Wal-Mart. The competition is stiff as the leading giants increase inventory of products related to electronics. In addition, these retailers offer installation services and focus on increasing their market penetration. With increasing competition, this many exert pressure on the company’s margins and harm its operating results.
Another threat is the increase in prices of rental equipment in America. If this trend escalates, it may increase Best Buy’s operating cost, which is likely to affect its profitability. The company also faces a risk of low sales because of low desire for Americans to make purchases. This SWOT analysis of Best Buy has explained the business environment, which favors and threatens the company’s optimal operations.
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SWOT Analysis of Toys “R” Us
A SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us can be used to curve a clear, sustainable niche in the target market of this company. SWOT analysis can be defined as a useful technique that enables managers and policymakers to understand the strengths as well as weaknesses of an organization while identifying the available opportunities and threats that the organization is facing. Toys “R” Us can perform a SWOT analysis and use it to uncover opportunities that this organization is capable of exploiting. Additionally, this analysis can be used to identify and understand the weaknesses that the organization is facing as well as in managing and eliminating threats that may otherwise catch it unawares.
A clear SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us
Toys “R” Us is a retail company that was founded in 1957 by Charles Lazarus in Rockville, Maryland, U.S. Currently, this firm is headquartered in Wayne, New Jersey. It has different outlets in Canada, Finland, Africa, Europe, Asia and Oceana.
Its SWOT analysis is as follows:
- Toys “R” Us offers a wide array of baby amusement items and toys.
- Its chain comprises of 840 stores in the U.S only, with operations in 34 countries and 716 stores.
- The franchises chain and licenses of this company have also made it very popular.
- It is the second-largest retailer in the United States.
- Its toys brand is popular globally.
- It has a properly developed e-commerce website that facilitates online purchases by customers. It has numerous e-commerce sites including eToys.com and babyuniverse.com that are not only well managed but also attractive.
- It has created jobs for 70,000 people across the world.
- Toys “R” Us lacks a competitive advantage because it is a sole source brand. Its only competitor is Wal-Mart which is offering attractive offers.
- It does not offer unique toys because you can find similar items in better packages with different brands.
- Its sales are season-dependents because the range of the products that it offers is not attractive during other seasons apart from Christmas. This is why its sales keep declining despite being the sole global toy chain store and having a strong brand.
- After Express locations gave this company positive response, it decided to open more with about 600 stores.
- The company has been able to excel after forming an alliance with Amazon, its competitor. This alliance encouraged the buying power of the company but it came with physical stacking risk.
- Through charitable giving, the company can enhance its popularity through several side by side campaigns.
- The company’s revenue can be enhanced by diversifying locations if introduced in countries like India and China which are the emerging economies.
- Affiliated chains like Kids “R” Us, Bike “R” Us, Scoops “R” Us and KB Toys are also presenting opportunities to the emerging markets and this company too.
- Strong competition particularly from Wal-Mart and other retailers.
- Low cost toys such as those from Chinese manufacturers are a threat to the manufacturers who spend on high costs’ raw materials.
- Many brands to choose from mean that the company must offer attractive packages to customers.
- By closing chains suddenly including its 87 stores, the firm indicated that the label was unreliable because it fired several employees.
- The company’s payment disputes over the last two years gave the brand a negative image because the media highlighted it.
What makes SWOT analysis of Toys “R” Us important
Toys “R” Us can use a SWOT analysis in two ways. The management can use it as an icebreaker that helps the management to start the process of formulating strategies or as a strategy tool. Using this analysis, the management of Toys “R” Us company can understand the competitors of this company better and gain vital insights that will enable them to formulate strategies that will enhance its competitiveness.
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