The convention on the rights of the child (CRC) is an international treaty that protects children from all forms of discrimination by providing children with basic rights and mandating governments to observing those rights. The convention has fifty-four articles. Forty of these articles address themselves to substantial rights that range from political to cultural rights (Kaime 2011, p. 16). This essay tries to establish the achievements, failures and strengths of the CRC. The paper argues that the said treaty has more strengths and achievements than failures.
Strengths and achievements
To start with, a treaty simply refers to a written international agreement that according to Villiger must be concluded between states and should be governed by international law (Villiger 2009, p. 76). This agreement may be contained in a single instrument or more instruments that are related to one another. With regard to this definition, it is clear that every international treaty is based on international law. As such, it should refer to international law when making critical decisions. Looking at the treaty in question, it is clear that it refers to international law whenever making critical decisions that relate to children. It is also clear that it is based on international law. First, on article 41, it is evident that the treaty does not violate international law. Instead, its bases are on international law as well as state laws. Second, on article 40(2), it is evident that the said treaty is based on international law because it refers to it. To a great extent, this serves as one of the strengths of the treaty on the rights of children.
Once again, referring to the above definition, it is clear that international treaties are formed by state members. This means that international treaties cannot exist in the absence of states. In other words, states must come together to form these treaties. Looking at the treaty in question, it is clear that states have come together to form this treaty. This is in relation to the fact that the treaty keeps on referring to state parties. For example, article 2 starts by defining what state members need to do to be part of the treaty. Other articles keep on referring to state parties. This indicates that various states have been involved in the formation of the treaty in question (Villiger 2009, p. 81). This basic element of international treaties strengthens CRC as an international treaty.
One critical thing to note with this treaty is that it contains fifty-four articles, and that each of these articles addresses itself to one particular issue. For example, the first article addresses itself to the definition of a child while the 33rd article addresses itself to drug abuse. For the international treaties, this is a critical element that strengthens them by clarifying issues. The CRC has adopted this practice for the same reason. Apart from containing articles that address themselves to particular issues, the treaty covers a number of issues that affect children. Some of these issues include protection from child labor and prostitution, guaranteeing education and good life to children, giving children rights to play and protecting them from discrimination among other issues. With regard to this issue, it has been suggested that treaties should concern themselves with 4P’s. As an achievement, the first P for CRC should concern itself with participation of children in making decisions that affect them. The second P should concern itself with protecting children from all discriminatory acts. The third P should concern itself with preventing children from harm while the fourth P should concern itself with provision for assistance to children (Kaime 2011, p. 17). Over and above, the treaty in question can be said to satisfy the 4P’s because of the following reasons. First, the treaty encourages state parties to include organizations that protect children when making critical decisions that affect children. It also encourages those organizations to act in the best interests of children (Howe & Covell 2013, p. 26). Second, to a great extent, the treaty can be said that it protects children from different forms of discriminations. The treaty does this by identifying various forms of discriminations and outlining what state parties should do about each of these discriminations. Third, the treaty protects children from harm by identifying possible harms and committing state members to protecting children from those harms. For example, the treaty protects children from violence by identifying various forms of violence and committing state parties to protecting children from those forms of violence. Fourth, the treaty encourages state parties to facilitate for the provision of basic needs to children. Given that CRC treaty satisfies these 4P’s, then it has achieved significantly as an international treaty.
According to Klabbers (1996, p. 72), treaties are valid if state parties have free consent to those treaties. This means that state parties should not be coerced into signing treaties. In relation to this fact, some states and countries in the world may not be parties to CRC treaty. Although this might downplay the critical role CRC treaty plays in protecting children, it strengthens CRC as an international treaty because it promotes autonomy among state parties. As at 2014, only three countries were not state parties to CRC. These countries include USA, Somalia and South Sudan (Davidson 2014, p. 499). Once again, while this might appear as a weakness, it strengthens CRC because state parties are free to join either by signing the treaty or exchanging instruments that constitute the said treaty.
In terms of defining its scope, CRC treaty can be considered to be clear and succinct on this issue because of the following reasons. First, the treaty starts by defining a child as a person that is below eighteen years of age. Second, the treaty goes ahead to outlining that it applies to all children regardless of their ethnicity, ability, religion and gender. By so doing, the treaty defines its scope clearly and succinctly (Dorr & Schmalenbach 2011, p. 21). This strengthens the treaty.
In terms of failures, given that the treaty gives room for state parties to apply their national laws in implementing the treaty, CRC treaty is susceptible to varying interpretations and implementations. Such variations may emerge from differences in state laws among the state parties. This means that a state party may implement the treaty differently thereby undermine the treaty. Although such a state may be said to violate international law, such a state may defend itself on the basis of its national law. This weakens the treaty even if it tries to address this issue broadly.
Over and above, in spite of the few shortcomings, the CRC treaty is a strong international treaty because it addresses the various elements of international treaties. First, the treaty is based on international law and to some extent on national laws. Second, the scope of the treaty is clear and succinct. Third, the treaty gives state parties autonomy by allowing them to become members freely. This notwithstanding the treaty is weak because national laws may undermine its implementation.
Davidson, H., 2014. Does the UN convention on the rights of the child make a difference? Michigan State International Law Review, 22(2), pp. 497-530.
Dorr, O. & Schmalenbach, K., 2011. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties: A Commentary. Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Berlin, Springer.
Howe, R. & Covell, K., 2013. Education in the best interests of the child: a children’s rights perspective on closing the achievement gap. Toronto, University of Toronto Press.
Kaime, T., 2011. The Convention on the Rights of the Child: a cultural legitimacy critique. Groningen, Europa Law Publishing.
Klabbers, J., 1996. The concept of treaty in international law. The Hague, Kluwer Law International.
Villiger, M., 2009. Commentary on the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
The Economies of Global Warming
Global warming: the Problem
Global warming is a major issue that has confronted many policy makers in the whole world. In terms of the economic analysis, the issue of greenhouse gas emissions that cause the planetary climate changes has represented both an environmental externality and the overuse of the common property use (Harris and Roach 4). Global warming is evident from the top of the atmosphere to the depth of the oceans. The evidence is collected by scientists and engineers’ using satellites and networks of weather balloons. This paper will analyze the aspect of the economy of global warming by evaluating its impacts and effective policies that can be used to combat global warming.
It is evident that the greenhouse gases, for example, carbon dioxide, methane and chlorofluorocarbons trap heat near the earth’s surface, this has significantly contributed to global warming in the surface. The greenhouse gases are long lived and they accumulate in the atmosphere over a long period of time. The carbon dioxide has increased by about twenty seven percent since the industrial revolution began, it is now increasing by about 0.5 percent every year. The concentration of methane and NO2 is increasing. The scientists have predicted that if the current trends in the increase of the greenhouse gases continue, the average temperatures in the world might rise to about two and six degrees (Nordhaus 34). The global warming probably involves a lag of a few years, therefore it is sometimes hard to predict the effects that are caused by the greenhouse gases, the gases are long lived and they accumulate in the atmospheres for a long period. Of all the greenhouse gases that accumulate in the atmosphere, about eight five percent results from the burning of the fossil fuels, twelve percent is caused by deforestation and other changes that take place in the land use. The United States is responsible for about twenty percent of all the CO2 emissions and about 10% of the emission of the other gases (Wheeler and Braun 12).
Global warming and economic theory
The phenomena of global warming can be described as having an anthropogenic origin. This is because of the massive consumption of the fossil fuel and the depletion of the tropical rain forests (Nordhaus 32). The predominant forces that cause this human activity are economists, therefore, any policy that or institutional measures to arrest the process of the atmospheric disequilibrium has to consider the economic, the social and the political implication of the whole process.
The phenomena of the global warming is characterized by two unique features, in one of the feature, it is argued that, global warming is as a result of the concentration of the carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases that are in the atmosphere. In this case, the atmosphere plays the role of the overhead social capital, which is neither privately appropriated nor is it subject to the transactions of the market. The traditional economic theory is solely concerned with the scarce resources that are privately appropriated and whose ownership rights are transacted in the market (Smith 18).
The second feature explains about equity challenges that exist between different generations and different countries. The countries that emit most of the carbon dioxide are the countries that benefit most from the combustion of the fossil fuels; the countries that suffer most from the global warming are countries that benefit least from the combustion of the fossil fuels (Carayanis, Barth and Campbell 16).
By this same token, while the current generation enjoys higher living standards as a result of the combustion of the fossil fuels, many future generations will have to go through suffering as a result of the global warming and other challenges that are related to the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (Harris and Roach 18). The traditional economic theory has stayed away from the challenges that involve the process of justice and equity, it has restricted its realms to the efficiency aspects.
Developing countries versus developed countries
Many developing countries will face a dilemma when it comes to the global warming debate. Understandably, many developing nations want to have a right to develop economically and expand in the fastest ways possible (Nordhaus 19). During the Kyoto conference, the developing nations were the most hesitant to agree to any sort of conventions that would limit their use of the greenhouse gases. The irony is that many developing countries have the most to lose when compared to the developed countries (Nordhaus 22). The developing nation do not have enough resources that can be utilized against the rising sea levels in their countries, the increased ferocity of the tropical storms and the great expansion of the tropical diseases.
As the developing countries work hard to boost their economies, they are largely dependent on the concepts of manufacturing and the energy industries, this increase the risk that the climate will be greatly affected by the global warming. The countries are now faced with a very difficult situation, should they sacrifice their economic development for the protection against the possible logical ecological problems in the near future? However, there is another alternative to the dilemma that is faced by these countries, this involves the development of alternative means for energy, and this can result to an even stronger economic progress than depending wholly on the utilization of the fossils.
Many developing countries, especially those that are found in Europe will face severely compromised food production and water shortages (Harris and Roach 27). Countries like those found in Asia will face great risk like flooding. Tropical Latin will experience damage to forests and agricultural areas due to dry the climate. In Sothern America, the changes that will take place in precipitation patterns and the disappearance of the glaciers will affect the availability of water in the continent. Compared to the developing nations, the developed countries will have the necessary resources that will be needed for adapting, the developing countries will not have the power to implement the necessary preventive measures, especially those that require the use of the latest technologies
Economic analysis of global warming
Scientists around the world have modeled the effects of the projected doubling of the accumulated gases in the atmosphere. Some of the predicted effects of the gases include the loss of the land areas; this includes the beach and the wetlands, the loss of the species and the forest areas, the loss of agricultural outputs as a result of drought and the increased cost of the air conditioning, the loss of agricultural output as a result of the drought. Global warming may have some beneficial outcomes as well; this includes the increased agriculture production in colder climates, lower heating costs and fewer deaths from the exposure to the cold (Harris and Roach 54).
The economic studies that deal with the cost benefit analysis of the climate change have come to different conclusions on matters regarding policy (Harris and Roach 45). According to the studies that were done by William Nordhaus and colleagues, the optimal economic policies that can be utilized in slowing the climate change involve the modest rates of emissions reductions in the near term; this will be followed by an increase in the reduction in the medium and the long term.
Positive economic impacts of global warming
The aspect of global warming will affect every aspect of the economy, especially in agriculture, energy and transportation. When the question of how the global warming is asked, there are two different ways to look at this concept. Many economists who have the knowledge of the concept of global warming have a bias to know how the global warming affects the economy in a negative way and not in a positive way. Very few people have insights that the concept of global warming can result to many advantages. Many researchers have documented the optimistic side of the concept of global warming (Wheeler and Braun 65). Researchers have analyzed some benefits of human societies in warm weather. The warm world should affect the agricultural productivity, according to Moore; warmer weather means that there will be a long growing season and therefore a great output, warm weather results in great rainfall providing the much needed water for the plants. Due to the warm weather, the risk of the crop failure is decreased with short, mild winters, for example, the countries that are found in the mid Atlantic states are likely to benefit from the high temperatures (Nordhaus 76).
Warmer climates, as a result of global warming benefit other forms of life. By having warmer arctic’s, more available resources that were trapped by ice to the human exploration and the transportation industry will benefit because of the warm climate. The heavy rains and the snow that occurs during the winter, interrupt the ground and the air transportation, this results in costly delay and severe conditions that result to waste of resources (Nordhaus 89). Currently, many freighters are forced to use the Panama Canal in order to reach the other side of the world; those that cannot fit in the canal are forced to go around South America. Short routes through the arctic would result in lower shipping costs. The concept of global warming can result to many benefits in the economic activity, this is because so many people around the world depend on oil, fish transportation, and shipping. The increase in supply of goods due to the high climate will result in low prices for these goods (Wheeler and Braun 78).
In cold countries, the amount of energy that would be used for heating would be low, countries that are far away from the equator will benefit immensely. Few weeks of warm weather have potential of saving a country’s millions of dollars. Many companies around the world are now presenting the issue of going green as one of their major focal points. Despite the fact that the expenses, generates by this companies in their initiatives may be immense, the result of this activity is highly beneficial to the companies because the mass public is shifting towards a green market. By conducting business through a more energy efficient manner and watching the emissions of the carbon dioxide, many organizations and the consumers will be able to save large amounts of money and this will boost the economy (Smith 56).
Negative effects of global warming
Many people have the belief that the evidence of global warming is conclusive and that doing nothing about global warming will create a much greater cost that exceed addressing it. The most comprehensive review carried out regarding the economics of climate change contends that the concept of global warming could impact the worldwide disruptions. The concept of climate change will have a great impact on the basic elements of life for the people who live around the world; this will be in terms of access to clean water, food resources and the environment. The dangers of the climate change would be equivalent to five percent of the gross domestic product (Wheeler and Braun 45). The effects this will have on economy will not be immense. The elements that are important for the purpose of sustaining human life will be in very high demand as the population grows and the sea levels rise; there could be loss of land.
Many environmental factors will be apparent and they will have the potential of affecting the economy heavily, the most recent evidence of the impacts of global warming is the severe weather storms. Many researchers have come together to study the effects of global warming on the number of severe storms, it is now evident that the number of stormy days could double in the future. The effects that the storm has on the economy are widely evident; hurricanes Katrina and Rita brought massive physical damage and took a huge toll on the economy of the country. In the year 2007, flooding in the UK resulted in financial tensions, this was all blamed on global warming, in a case like this, it may happen that some areas may not be under insurance coverage and the ones that are insured may pay extensive premiums (Harris and Roach 56).
Despite the fact that global warming boosts food production in some of the cases it can result to desertification. This fact is usually compounded by the lack of water in those areas, these results in a decline in food supply as a result of increases in the food prices. The countries that are considered to be the net importers of food will be greatly impacted by this situation as a result of the temperature rise. The rising temperature will result to crops growing more quickly and at the same time reduce their yield; the extreme temperatures will also significantly reduce the yields (Harris and Roach 78).
The fact that global warming causes rising sea levels that are detrimental to economy. The process of fighting against the rising sea levels is not trouble free and it is a very expensive process in terms of the flood defenses (Smith 89). Many countries lack the facilities to counter the adverse effects of global warming. Variations in temperature may cause increased infrastructural cost.
The carbon tax policy
The actual climate change policies have not taken the concept of the uniform taxes, everywhere, the measure that are in force today or in prospect are largely made of a long list of growing regulatory initiatives that have been termed as immensely costly. In all such cases around the world the adoption of the carbon tax that eradicated the costly taxes has constituted a major improvement in combating the phenomena of global warming (Nordhaus 56).
The concept of the carbon tax has been around for very many years now, however, the numerous questions and misconceptions regarding this method have remained. Before going into detain on the carbon tax, it is important to come up with the economic fundamentals of the carbon taxes. It is important to note that basic mechanism of carbon tax involves creation of tax for every ton of carbon dioxide that is emitted (Wheeler and Braun 75).
CO2 is unique to be taxed by using this was because in many situations, there are no abatement options, once the carbon is burned, the whole content of the carbon ends up in the air, therefore, if we have knowledge of the amount of carbon that is burned, then we will have the knowledge of the amount of tax that should be taxed. The people who use the fuel will economize through the reduction of the most carbon intensive forms. Since the purchase made in the market are more motivated to save their money, all the emissions reduction options that cost less than the given tax will be adopted (Harris and Roach 70). The result of this is that the market will have the knowledge of all methods that can reduce the emissions of the CO2, in the process utilizing far more information than would have been available to the government planners and the rule makers.
Because of this economic mechanism, the carbon tax is one of the most efficient methods of reducing the CO2 emissions, however, this comes with three caveats, these include, instead of, not in addition to, this means that the carbon taxes must be utilized instead of, and not on top of. People who argue for the adoption of the carbon tax without the support of the removing of the other policies may not be able to fully understand what all this implies (Harris and Roach 56).
The second caveat involves the revenue neutrality via the tax reduction; the case of the efficiency of the carbon tax presupposes that revenues are not utilized for anything else apart from the reduction of the carbon (Harris and Roach 45). The absence of this condition can make the carbon tax not only to become a macro economic burden, but a foundation for new regulatory inefficiencies. The third caveat proposes that the carbon tax should be a price instrument and not a quantity instrument. The policy works efficiently through the stipulation of the price that a person pays for the emissions.
Global warming involves accumulation of greenhouse gases that traps heat in atmosphere. Significant economic effects are felt due to global warming. It is important to know that global warming can have some positive and negative effects on the economy, many scientists have been biased to only look at the negative impacts that global warming has on the economy; however, it is now clear evidence that global warming has significant positive effects on the economy. Carbon taxes are the most efficient ways of combating severe effects of global warming.
Carayanis, Elias G, Elias Barth and David Campbell. “The Quintuple Helix innovation model: global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation.” Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2012): 1-12.
Harris, Jonathan M and Brian Roach. Environmental and Natural Resources: A contemporary Approach. New York: Routledge, 2014.
Nordhaus, William D. “Economic aspects of global warming in a post Copenhagen environment.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Copenhagen, 2010. 11721-11726.
Smith, Alison. The Climate Bonus: Co-Benefits of Climate Policy. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Wheeler, Tim and Joachim Von Braun. “Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security.” Science (2013): 508-513.
Technology and Its Effect on People’s Life
There has been tremendous growth and development in the world in terms of technology. It has taken over power and it is evidenced by its impact on people’s lifestyle. The computer and the internet era has seen the rise of development and changes in so many sectors of life. Hence, technology has affected people’s life and brought significant changes on how various things are done.For example, the way people interact and and go about their daily activities .
This paper is an extensive research and analysis of the effects and changes that have been brought about by the widespread use of technology. The research will analyze the way life was before and during the technology age. It will focus on the differences and similarities between the two eras including the changes that have taken place. The focus will include undertaking research from books, journals, articles, internet sources and social media platforms. This is in order to understand what technology is and what it comprises of, reasons or factors that led to technological advancements. From this study on technology, we will be able to establish the changes and influences both positive and negative that have been brought forth by technology. It emerges that technology does not only have effects on the people. Its effects are felt on almost everything from the; environment, climate, economy, politics, plants and animals among other things. The effects and impacts that are brought about by technology force man to learn more about it with the aim of understanding it and its operations. This is as a result of man using technology in almost all the spheres of his day to day activities. Hence, creating the importance of understanding technology one is using.
Restlessly, humans have been interested to know how things work and technology has provided a solution for this. Technology has been proved to have brought significant change in people’s lifestyle. From its inception, the time it started to evolve, it has been growing day in day out and in future, the trend may not change. Through technology, man has invented new ways of doing things, using new and existing resources (Bruce, Sam & Jack 4).
Impacts of Technology on People
The impacts that technology has on individuals matters on the approach that the individual has used a particular form of technology, the approach determine whether the result will be positive or negative. The change in technology has resulted into the changes in the following areas that will be expounded in the research:
- Health care
- Standard of living and nature of work
- Life expectancy and global population
Impact of technology on education
Technology has contributed positively for instance; improves literacy development, impacts language acquisition, makes available greater right of entry to information, supports learning, inspires students, and boosts their self-esteem. The rise of computer technology offers plenty of opportunities for students to build or modify their personal knowledge. When carrying out research in libraries the students or researchers need not have the hard copy of the books that they need to use to gather information. There are easier means of accessing the books via the computer and search digital encyclopedia in the internet where the books are accessed easily.
Schools are given an opportunity to interact despite their differences in geographical areas. This interaction is achieved via video conferencing where students learn foreign languages online. Student, teacher interaction is also done over the web rather than meeting physically, this has encouraged distance learning where students can access notes and course work at their own convenient time. There are software games that have been developed to enhance education. They pose a challenge on spelling, counting, and pronunciation. Such games make learning to be a fun experience especially to young children.
Technology used by students in the learning arena sometimes have negative impacts. Where the technology is used, learning time is wasted on the gadgets especially where computer games are involved. Excessive usage of online chatting and shortcuts results to declined writing skills nowadays students are relying more on digital communication. The use of computes has helped students with poor spelling and grammar. From playing games to socializing, these all are done online hence the way one is supposed to act or handle themselves when interacting on a one on one is lost.
Impact of Technology on Health Care
The increase of consumerism in health care shifts in the direction of placing the patient as the last authority for selecting among diagnostic and treatment alternatives. It makes patient records more accessible, the extensive implementation of electronic health records has resulted in considerable savings in health care costs as well as improved patient health and safety. This advancement is not only a time saver but it also results in better data harmonization and management, this helps to ensure that the records of the patients are kept in a centralized location.
Technology has introduced a form of biological science called functional genomics that establish which genes are active in various health and disease states. Technologies have the ability to identify with a disease at a molecular level hence boosts the number of unambiguous categories of diseases and the number of treatment from which practitioners must make a choice. Pharmaceutical companies use gene sequence data to generate new drugs that are aimed to block precise molecules. For common diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease, a future practitioner may have to select from hundreds if not thousands of possible healing options.
Patients can visit medical websites and seek information on diseases, symptoms, and preventive methods without going to a medical facility. This means that they look for symptoms, explore treatments and medicines on the web. The Internet has made patients more authorized to make verdict about what to do next about the medical conditions they are. Healthcare facilities especially hospitals, are via social media establish contact with patients they; answer questions about performance, commence public awareness campaigns, and perform community outreach. Advanced sites even put forward instant chats with nurses and doctors about medical issues and reminders for people to be frequently considered necessary tests and vaccines.
Technology has offered new machines, medicines, and treatments that facilitate at a high rate to save lives and improve the chance of recovery for billions. The sophisticated medical practices help patients heal directly, more so, new technology has also enhanced research so experts can make healthcare even more effective. There has been drastic change on the rate of suffering caused on patients that is brought by persistent pains, technology has devised ways of reducing or doing away with pain.
Analyzing health data that users seek for online, search engines such as Google have been able to precisely forecast medical trends such as flu outbreaks.A proactive step aids medical experts respond to outbreaks quickly as well as take preventative procedures. As more people use the internet to explore for their own medical problems, these internet giants will access more data to be appropriate to scientific studies.
Impact of Technology on Communication
Communication is a basic skill that is required in life’s growth and development. Technology development has had a strong impact on the way society carry out communication. With time there has been developments in technology that facilitate communication, from invention of the telegraph and telephone to the initiation of the Internet, technology has given people tools to not only keep in touch with each other, but also express their feelings and opinions to a huge audience than would otherwise have been possible.
An advance in technology has made the world a global village, making communication across borders easier. Developments can be reflected in; telegrams are faster than letters while phone are faster than telegrams, phones are easier and more convenient, since they require no go-between and allow users to hear each other’s voice. With the email services, computers, webcams, and internet connection online communication is effected which is the most efficient yet. Programs such as such as Skype, iChat or Google Video Chat, allow the parties communicating to see each other not just hearing their voices.
Business networking is made possible by social media and online networks intended specifically for that purpose, such as LinkedIn. Companies can expand beyond their local market and gain a wider customer base in international markets simply by maintaining an active online presence. This has helped individuals to acquire and select from a variety of products offered by the international markets. Consumers can make direct orders from the organizations themselves, while the organizations act on the consumers taste and preference and customize products according to the customer’s request (Levi-Jakšić &Rakočević 18).
Furthermore, technology has improved communication for disabled people and made it possible for them to overcome the barriers of disability that deters them from effective communication. Hearing aids makes better the hearing of partially deaf people making it easier for them to comprehend speech, while cochlear implants brings back hearing to the completely deaf individuals. For the individuals who have lost the ability to communicate completely there is a remedy, which are functional brain computer-interface-systems that re-establish the communication ability.
The ease of message sharing has made it nearly impossible for oppressive regimes to rein their rule of fist. The ease of communication has made it possible to reach a very wide audience within a short period of time. Videos and audio clips can be recorded and uploaded online instantly via the phone, hence the information gets to be viewed globally by all users with an internet connection.
Technology has made it easy to keep in touch with friends and family, and has also assisted to reinforce relationships. It has condensed the world and encourages exchange of opinions to find better answers to any dilemma. Technological development in the approach of communication has endorsed faster decision-making by the relevant stakeholders. This has led to the growth and evolution of the world where video conferencing has played a selfless role in promoting fast decision-making. Most of the businesses and organizations rely on technology for contact of the organizations or businesses that they are interested in.
Impact of Technology on Standard of living
The internet has improved the living standards; this can be seen in the ability to evaluate prices and going for the cheapest deal (Lack n.p). An individual is in a position to choose in a deal of activities and products that best suits him or her and at the most favorable prices. All the selection process done at the comfort of the consumer since he or she needs not go to the actual market place to choose and make his or her order. The consumer only needs a gadget that has internet connection and he or she can explore at his own leisure. It has made it possible for more people to enjoy goods that were only perceived to be for the wealthy, that they would have not been able to meet the cost. The rationalization of the manufacturing procedure expanded consumer’s experiences through diverse work, travel, and education that would have been impractical before.
As globalization became more rampant, companies’ deals with augmented cultural diversity within the labor force. These changes involve small and large businesses to learn how to deal with this range as well as to implement new policies and guidelines for workers. The differences in work ethics and religious differences are major topics globally. The improved cultural diversity also has formed many profits as companies gain new insights into diverse cultures from an executive and a marketing standpoint (Blakey 91).
As companies expand their business overseas, most of them recommend outsourcing cheap labor hence, wages have altered for many workers. Where lower standards of living, third world companies can offer their services at a fee significantly reduced from those in countries with higher standards of living. This has affected many workers in the United States as well as other large countries as more companies clinch to the outsourcing tendency. While it means a better profit periphery for the companies, it has also lead to condensed earning potential for employees.
The differences that are evident in Culture, religion and ethnicity variety in the workplace presents a need for more employees training. There is need to; protect companies, their new employees from bias, managers put into practice course of action and offer training to existing employees to make sure everyone can accept and appreciate one another. This leads to a greater gratitude of other cultures and perspective in some companies, while frustrating some employees who have a preference in a less culturally varied work environment.
Impact of Technology on Life Expectancy
Increase in life expectancy globally have been taking a positive trend during last century than at any other time in recorded history, statistical scrutiny show that ever since the early 1800s life expectancy at birth has seen a linear pace of increase. The twentieth century advances in medical science and technology have seen the rise and growth of insurance companies which act as a go-between the doctor and the patient. Medical costs incurred reduce drastically as a result of medical technology which means that the majority of the patients receive treatment in their homes and medical expenses are often negligible. As a result of accomplishment of union campaigns millions of workers and their family members achieved access to private health insurance. Good health care results to increased life expectancy as people are not vulnerable to diseases.
Impact of Technology on War
The U.S. army came up with a digital warfare system called Army Battle Command System. The war system can look into digital street maps, keep an eye on enemy site, zoom in on individual buildings through satellite descriptions and download orders from commanders. The technology has permitted commanders to graph complex raids and organize battle gear and hundreds of soldiers within a short period of time. While the most understandable military technology is used to kill people, some silent military technology has questionably prevented some death. Generally, fewer people die in attacks where smart bombs in the miming of dumb bombs than the life that would be coasted if the bombs were not mimed. Satellite snap and UAV images can potentially encourage people to spare and keep off certain buildings and locations that they would otherwise blow up (Caldwell 158).
The Scientific American covered the Civil War at length, with a lengthy segment of each issue dedicated to reports of the newest combat and assessments of the state of affairs, including naval activities along the coast. The magazine also published hundreds of editorial about the new technologies that were being organized during the war or tested for probable use.
Impact of technology on Entertainment and Sports
More media streaming services became third-party ecosystems extend streaming services’ reach across the whole range of connected devices. Technology has become an essential part of Americans’ daily lives, touching our infrastructure, mail, relationships, the administration of our bills and finances. As we have become more wrapped up in the benefits and capabilities of these constantly on the rise technologies, children as well as adults have become passionate users. In entertainment there are productions of quality movies that act as a form of entertainment to individuals. They watch and listen during leisure and when they need motivation. Music is also generated via technology and the playing devices are clear evidences of the extent that technology has taken man into.
Software’s are being developed with an aim of getting the users entertained in the long run. Technology has shaped the way we human plan, organize, analyze, or do business with sports and entertainment. Theoretically speaking, technology aids, or may replace, human participation in sporting events. Using lasers for example is thought to limit sporting debate as this became apparent at some point in the FIFA World cup 2010 in South Africa. Computer games are most sources of entertainment to most individuals especially the young generation.
It is a fact that information technology is self-motivated and continues at an ever escalating pace. Consciousness of technology is required, and to continue to discover ground-breaking ways that move forward and transform the world as whole. Therefore, to be able to draw off the good part of technology for our needs, we need to be inquiring of technological developments with a drive in shaping our future together. The advantages that technology brings overshadows the disadvantages hence it is essentially vital to endorse state of the art study in future information technology disciplines. Finally, we should to be up to date and absorbed in information technology concepts and applications that are technologically motivating (David 205).
Blakey, George T. Creating a Hoosier Self-Portrait: The Federal Writers’ Project in Indiana, 1935-1942. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005. Print.
Bruce, Linda, Sam Bruce, and Jack Bruce.Entertainment Technology. North Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media, 2005. Print.
Caldwell, Dan, and Robert E. Williams.Seeking Security in an Insecure World. Lanham, Md: Rowman& Littlefield Publishers, 2012. Print.
Lack, Simon. Bonds Are Not Forever: The Crisis Facing Fixed Income Investors. , 2013. Internet resource.
Levi-Jakšić, Maja, and Rakočević S. Barjaktarović.Innovative Management & Business Performance: [symposium Proceedings]. Belgrade: University of Belgrade, Faculty of Organizational Sciences, 2012. Print.
Paradice, David B. Emerging Systems Approaches in Information Technologies: Concepts, Theories, and Applications. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference, 2010. Print.
Ernest Hemingway was an American novelist, journalist, dramatist, poet, non-fiction artist and mainly a short-story writer. Everybody is destined to a similar end in this world; the history of his life, what he did, the way he died, and generally, his legacy differentiate him from the rest of the people in the world. As a Nobel peace prize-winner, Miller had an important influence on the 20th century fiction as his work attracts critics a claim that was significant and classic even now. His effort is greatly recognized for numerous aspects like the minimalist style. His accessibility to readers and his stark contrast with other authors in the field of writing, such as J.D. Salinger and James Joyce, who also acknowledged his work, saying that it had an advance effect on their writing too. Miller’s work also gave way for pulp fiction and potboilers. When he was sixty year old, he forged a literature standing, unsurprising during the 20th century.
In addition, he made a mythological champion in himself that puzzled and refined an average person, besides severe literature critics. He was a champion, and that is why his legacy and life is still honored up to date. Due to his devastating war-like ambition, tormented privacy, unbounded struggle, and complicated childhood, Miller’s styles and life was very meticulous. He once made a short story with six words in two sentences and claimed that it was one of the best anthropology piece he ever wrote evident as a big world drama in his literature life. Miller worked as a driver in a Red Cross ambulance during the Second World War, deep-sea angler, and participated in safari games in Africa. His visit to Africa made him fall a victim to a two-plane crash where he was mistaken dead by some newspapers.
- Early Life
The life of Miller came to rise in 1899 at a place known as Oak Park in Illinois. Born in a high central point class family, his mother was a singer while his father was a physician. Miller loved the outside surroundings during the times they spent in Mighan. The love of his environment throughout his life accompanied him. This was a significant cornerstone for his future work. He got his first work at the Kansas City star after completing his high school education as a reporter with the help of his uncle. He did not get an opportunity to attend college education. Miller worked as a reporter for six months, struggling to be recruited into the armed forces. He did not succeed as he had an eyesight issue. He then willingly accepted to work as a driver in Italy with an American ambulance Red Cross hospital in the city of Milan. Ernest got several feet and leg injuries in Italy as a driver forcing him to be admitted at Red Cross hospital; there, he spent the fall of 1918 and the summer.
“A Farewell to Arms”, is a novel Miller wrote due to the encounters he went through after falling in love with a nurse but eventually breaking up due to Agnes, the nurse, jilting him as an Italian officer. Miller married Hadley Richardson as his first wife in 1921 despite his broken affairs with Agnes the nurse. The lost generation, initially referred to as literary group was part of miller when he migrated to Paris, France. Bumpy was the nickname of Jack Miller’s son with Hadley. During this time, the family dwelled on an income that Miller acquired from working as a foreign correspondent and writing short stories.
- World War I
Ernest attempted to enlist in the US army when America declared their participation in the First World War. After failing because of his eyesight problem Miller decided to work as a driver in a Red Cross ambulance service He left us and went to Paris where he was ordered to report to Milan. He was given the responsibility of driving ambulances after moving to Schio town. In 1918, Ernest got a severe injury due to machine gun fire and wound by the mortar. Ernest worked hard in dangerous circumstances with the aim of securing his war fellow army men. His bravery saw his earn a silver medal as one of the best military valor by the Italian government.
Agness von Kurowsky was six years older than Ernest when they meet at a hospital in Milan. They fall into affection and Hemingway arranged for their way to his motherland at Oak Park. They later broke up and miller went back to the United States there his individual encounters would be part of his fiction. At this juncture, it is evident that Miller wrote his short stories in respect to his general life including his secrets.
- Private Life and Career
It is clear that miller hated his mother as John Passos said that the only person he was aware of who disliked his mother was Hemingway. A man quickly gets tired of a woman when he is treated in the best way with ultimate love as evident in Carlos Baker’s views on the short stories of Miller – the Snow of Kilimanjaro and The Short life of F. Macomber; Carlos says the character goes around the issue of women . In the two short stories Ernest references to a woman as a “bitch”. Ernst points out a woman as feeble in the Hills like White Elephant.
Agnes refused to marry Ernest as she saw that he was not mature enough and send him a letter informing him of her engagement to one of the Italian officer. when Miller returned to oak land he decide to write arguing that lovers and friends come and go although what he had in writing would stay with him forever. According to him, writing was reliable, inspirational and essential in his life at that moment of stress. His early childhood relation with the mother and the heartbreak by Agnes made Ernst only to concentrate on women as sex counter parts rather than people. (Hemingway and women: female critics and the female voice By Lawrence R. Broer, Gloria Holland)
Before the final send of, Miller made four marriages in his life. The first one was Elizabeth Hadley after which in 1927 he married Pfeiffer a wealthy woman. in 1940 he later married Martha Gellhorn as his third wife after separating from Pfeiffer. Martha the journalist died forcing Miller to married Mary Welsh as the fourth wife on his list.
- Depression and Suicide
Hemingway loved hunting and fishing with his father, on the other hand, his mother tried to make him get to the life of music in vain. He got his eye problem during boxing match that prevented him from becoming an army in the times of World War 2. Miller as a driver had a lot to do sometime work in harsh condition rescuing injured army men this had much to do with his life having in mind that his father had committed suicide. During his career as a driver Ernst went through a lot of thick, he saw both dead and picked a lot of wounded bodies making him depressed.
The main way to ordeal is living, bull-fighting, hunting, boxing, war and deep sea fishing. Ernst attempted to commit suicide in the year 1962 in the spring after with he received ECT treatment. In July 2 1961, three weeks before his birthday, Hemingway reached his destination the planet earth and went to meet his creator. This took place at his residential home in Ketchum, Idaho, due to a short gun injury inflicted by him. His advance life experiences equipped him with relevant skills and knowledge in his short story writing.
- Literary Style and Works
Ernst was a hero in his field and became a legend of his sole lifetime. He was a foremost literary scholar, reader of books and more important a writer. Miller had the privilege of public spotlight, delight, and fame. On the other hand he was himself as an artist and never waned praise for awkward basis .During his writing days Ernst used a distinct style that had several speculations. He kept into act short physical and geographical illustrations. This style was said to be deficient of substance due to its indirect description of emotion and statements. In simple language, his style contains direct plan.
Hemingway developed and modified a prose style with simple phrases, a few adjectives, and adverbs. He wrote clear dialogue, concise and exact illustrations, and descriptions of things. He used internal dialogue, shift person point of view, and objective description.
Miller’s style and life were very meticulous because of his complicated during his early childhood, his tormented private life, his devastating war experiences, his unbounded struggle with life and his ambitious career. His life was his literature apart from the numerous ups and downs life tock him through like the love affairs and injuries he suffered. Moreover, his styles were liked and admired by many readers.
Since his childhood to his final destination, Ernest Miller Hemingway went through full life experience in almost all the aspects a man ought to learn. He lived his life in a distinct way according to his way. This was a true man of his own adventure that did not escape his daily diary. From this, it can be concluded that life in what you make it, we are the drivers to our own destination, treasure each moment in life and note each occurrence as significant. It is the minor finer things that are responsible for whom we are and our fate. What we do today will have an advance effect on our future. Our life is our testimony stick to the truth and at the end of the day show some love.
Baker, Carlos. Hemingway: “The writer as Artist”. New York: Princeton University Press 1952
Book Title: “Ernest Hemingway: The Critical Heritage”. Contributors: jeffrey Meyers – editor. Publisher: Routledge. Place of Publication: London. publication Year: 1997.
Earnest Hemingway: Biography, Works, and Style. Accessed April 22, 2015.
Kert, Bernice. “The Hemingway Women”. New York: Norton and Co., 1983Perceptive and Sympathetic, looks closely at his mother, his first 3 wives and other women important in His life and work.
Hemingway, Leicester. “My brother, Ernest Hemingway Cleveland”: World Publishing Co., 1961
Kazin, Alfred. Fiction in the Twenties: “The Lost Generation-Ernest Hemingway.” Mount Vernon, New York: Gould Media 1937
Lawrence R. Broer, Gloria Holland. Hemingway and women: female critics andthe Female voice; the Romance of Desire in Hemingway’s Fiction. University of Alabama Press, 2004.
PBS. Accessed April 22, 2015. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americannovel/timeline/hemingway.html.
“A Farewell to Arms By Ernest Hemingway Critical Essays The Hemingway Influence.” The Hemingway Influence. Accessed April 22, 2015.
“American Writer Ernest Hemingway’s Life Style and Its Influence to His Creative Activity.” American Writer Ernest Hemingway’s Life Style and Its Influence to His Creative Activity. Accessed April 22, 2015.
“Ernest Hemingway Biography – ENotes.com.” Enotes.com. Accessed April 22, 2015.
“Ernest Hemingway: A Classic American Novelist.” Ernest Hemingway: A Classic American Novelist. Accessed April 22, 2015.
Baker, Carlos. Ernest Hemingway: “A Life Story”. New York: Charles Scribner’s Son 1969
Griffin, Peter. “Along with Youth: Hemingway, The early Years“. Foreword by Jack Hemingway. New York: Oxford University Press 1985
“Documentary on Ernest
Hemingway The Writers Block Library.” YouTube. Accessed April 22, 2015.
 For sale: baby shoes. Never worn
 “The Hemingway woman” by Bernice Kert – biography & autobiography page 28
 A Farewell to Arms, 1925
Political realities at Magnolia Hills Hospital
Organizational politics concerns the pursuit of agendas based on individuals’ choices as well as their interests in organizations, sometimes without concerns about the impact; such pursuit has as the main objective the aim to accomplish individual and organizational objectives. Politics, consequently, plays an important role in any organization (Cropanzano & Kacmar, 2005). Depending on the choices that individuals make in an organization’s operations – choices that concern some interests in the respective organizations – goals will either be achieved or neglected. One of the major roles of politics in any organization is to build some influence on the workers. The influence could be either positive, thus making it easier to achieve goals, or negative, which makes the organization to lag behind in achieving its goals. Managers, as well as employees, have their political power, and could easily influence one another while at work (Amatayakul, 2013). However, because of the span of control in an organization, it is difficult for employees to induce their political power in influencing managers, but it is very easy for managers to use their political power to influence the employees.
In the case of Magnolia Hills Hospital, the negative impact of political power is reflected. The process of implementing the EHR system fails because of the influence of the political power of the management team. The fact that there is too much resistance from the physicians to use it shows its ineffectiveness. It is expected that a system that would bring some positive change as well as improvements would be highly appreciated by the employees. The system fails because it is always down for 4-5 hours a day. It implies that when it fails, physicians have to do things manually, which is somewhat tedious. It is not plausible and logical to have the struggles, yet there is an EHR system in the organization. The system also produces low quality prints. “When the HIM department printed out the reports to satisfy release of information requests, what they received was more like screen prints than forms.” Dr. Anderson, who was the brain of the system, is not a qualified IT professional to come up with such a system. Simply because the building bears his name, he picks up some cronies, who help him implement the system without involving the rest of the members of the institution.
Despite this, he informs the IT staff only; it shows that the rest of the stakeholders are perceived to be invaluable in the implementation process, which greatly contributes to their resistance to the implemented system. The training session also contributes to the failure of the system. The three weeks’ training session is not enough to teach the physicians to use it. It thus leads not only to resistance of the physicians in using the system, but also to high employee turnover, including the hospital administrator’s departure. To support the EHR initiative from the start, it would have been appropriate for the administration to seek help from qualified IT professionals in the IT department to come up with and implement the system, instead of allowing Anderson and his cronies to do the work. Informing the rest of the stakeholders in the organization would have supported the initiative, as it would have given the management team the thought of the stakeholders concerning the system. The IT department cannot continue leading teams using the mode reflected in Magnolia Hills Hospital because they do not handle their responsibility fully. They should have taken it as their work to implement the initiative and take the necessary steps to question the management team for allowing Anderson to implement the system.
Amatayakul, Margret K. (2013). Electronic Health Records: A Practical Guide for Professionals and Organizations. Fifth Edition. American Health Information Management Association: Chicago.
Cropanzano, R., & Kacmar, K. M. (2005). Politics, justice, and support in work organizations. Westport, Conn: Quorum.
Walmart Business Strategy and Recommendations
One has to understand the specific characteristics that make a work place to be considered effective in terms of organizational strength and performance. The retail industry in particular, is faced by many challenges, and the ability to understand the challenges and dynamics of the industry can make the difference between a successful retail business and one that is not successful. For instance, Walmart has been a market leader in the retail business for years, yet Heskett (2017) opines that the company has been unable to stop the wheel of retail business in the industry. This implies that there has to be a limitation in the business strategy that has been used by Walmart through the years. The company uses a discounted retail business model, which experiences certain challenges in the market and makes business performance more difficult to sustain. The fact that Walmart has upheld business performance this far is an indication of certain internal strengths and opportunities that can only be understood well through analysis of the retail business industry, the internal as well as the external business environments in the company.
The Retail Business Industry
The retail industry has grown significantly in the recent years both in the U.S and beyond. In the contemporary times, many changes are also occurring in the industry, requiring companies to be more vigilant of the market characteristics and industry trends for success to be achieved. Walmart currently uses the discount business model which has several characteristics in the contemporary market. According to Brea-Solis et al (2012), the retail business can only improve its profitability through increasing the average revenue per unit product. This can be achieved by selling at higher prices; reducing expenditures on products; reducing the use of other auxiliary business inputs. The total revenue can also be increased through an increase of sales. The discount business model which is currently under use relies on the volume of sales achieved to enhance the total revenue. To a large extent, the revenue that can be gained per unit product is limited by the costs of those products in the market. This implies that Walmart only gains much less revenue per unit product in comparison to what their competitors gain.
For the discounted retailers, Brea- Solis et al (2012) describe the key levers used in the industry to boost the revenue. One of them is to through increased pressure over vendors. Increasing pressure on the vendors could result in lower cost of products hence resulting in higher revenue per unit product in spite of the discounted selling prices. Changes in human resources practices and investment in technology can also be used by discounted retailers as avenues for increasing profitability. Through technology use, businesses in the retail industry reduce human resource related expenditures hence increasing the profits. More discounted businesses are also selecting particular products for sale in their stores and using cost conscious customer service practices to boost the income generated from each of the products. Cost conscious customer service operations function to reduce overhead costs incurred in service to each customer.
As more companies get into the retail market, greater dynamicity is being observed. For instance, Amazon, in recent times, has entered the retail market with a lot of innovation in the practices. Changes in marketing practices and provision of product distribution services are key opportunities that most retail businesses are pursuing to obtain greater profits. Technology use has been the most applicable lever in the contemporary times as more businesses pursue online operations. Deloitte (2017) reported that the consumer economy in the retail industry is continuously tightening. The implication of this tightening economy is that more businesses are experiencing slowed growth rates. The emergence of business strategies that use technology to access more consumers across the world makes it even more difficult for businesses in the retail industry to enhance their productivity. Inflation and the wage growth across countries have made retail business operations even more challenging across the globe. With the rise in inflation, increased marketing and ambitious online growth, many businesses in the retail sector faced significant challenges in terms of physical growth. Deloitte (2017) reports that more than 8600 retail businesses have been closed in 2017 alone.
Roles in retail stores have also been changing over the past few years due to the emergence of online commerce. Moreover, automation has been used to enhance digital migration in many of the retail companies increasing the response to customer needs in specific areas of retail business. Agility is enhanced significantly through various practices. Walmart, like many other businesses in the industry has to put in place strategies for expanding both physically and in the online operations. Companies that have specific and real differentiators have a greater standing in improving market shares. Better customer engagement is also used by industry leaders to keep businesses in operations. Innovation practices in the retail industry include: reduction of overheads and store costs, automation of retail processes, augmentation of the work place, and development of differentiated as well as immersive customer experiences (Deloitte, 2017a).
The online of the retail industry notwithstanding, the pressures on the retail sector are still many. Heskett (2017) asserts that most of the businesses in the discounted retail business focus on low price increase strategies where price reductions are only applied periodically to boost the market shares. Once the shares have been boosted, the businesses can be operated through short term price increments. This however faces significant challenge in that consumer behaviors are also dynamic and sustaining consumers after such price changes can be difficult. Moreover, new competitors are constantly arising resulting in need for sustainable price regulations; the rising costs of products also make it difficult to sustain low cost operations over prolonged periods of time. Currency depreciations, rising fuel prices, increased costs of pensions and pressures in the market are also some of the challenges that the retail sector undergoes, and which companies have to understand how to manage for effectiveness in the retail business operations (Deloitte, 2017a). Most of the companies in the retail sector are using the culture oriented practices by adapting their advertising habits to consumer motives and customer habits (de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010).
Walmart Internal Business Environment: SWOT Analysis
According to Matzler et al (2013), the retail business is handled through various components including unique positioning, consistency in product provision, and a service logic. Effective marketing has also been an essential pillar in the retail business both at Walmart and in other companies. The combination of these components results in the realization of a working profit for the growth of the sector and sustainability of individual businesses. In all these, utilizing the specific business strengths and minimizing the weaknesses can be of great help where the intention is to develop sustainably. Walmart has some visible strengths with which it can work to sustain its performance in the retail sector. At the same time, some weaknesses exist which can be detrimental to the growth of the company’s business. Smithson (2017) describes some of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that are extant in Walmart’s business model.
According to Smithson (2017), Walmart’s strengths include the global nature of the business, the global supply chain at the company, high efficiency in the supply chain and effective management. The strengths associated with Walmart Company are linked to the business size strategy, where the company gains most advantages due to its size relative to the competitors. Being a global organization, Walmart can use this as strength to access a wide market. Being a global organization increases the company market shares in the U.S and beyond as more people are likely to identify the company than others. Furthermore, the global supply chain associated with the company is also a significant strength. It gives the company sufficient resilience in business through enhanced opportunities for access to cheaper sources of products. As such, the company can run its discount business model successfully without reducing profit margins by accessing the products from low cost manufacturers in different countries and selling them in areas where there is need for the same. It can use the same strategy applied in bilateral marketing where nations producing more of a specific product can trade in the same product with other countries where the product is in demand. The supply chain being efficient, it implies that strategies put in place for business performance have to result in great profitability, especially through the use of technology.
On the other hand, the weaknesses associated with Walmart include the thin profit margins allowed by the discounted retail business model and an imitable business model. These weaknesses are brought about by the cost leadership strategy that Walmart thrives on. This strategy limits organizational capacity to withstand business strengths. In spite of these weaknesses, the company can still take advantage of the many opportunities it has to expand its profitability (Smithson, 2017). One of the opportunities is that of expanding into developing countries where the disposable income among citizens is limited and discounted retail businesses are likely to do well. Furthermore, Walmart can also improve its HR practices to be more customer-oriented. There has been criticism on the HR practices at Walmart and the company can take this as signals towards greater potential upon adoption of fair trade practices in HR management. With improved HR practices, it is expected that the company will also be able to enhance its quality standards in terms of service delivery (Smithson, 2017). In terms of threats, the company will have to put in place strategies that will make it visible against the aggressive competition. The healthy lifestyle trend among consumers also poses a slight challenge to Walmart’s business as the company will have to adopt practices that align with customer needs. This may require fast and significant change in product sourcing, packaging and handling practices. Online selling also poses a threat to the business of Walmart. As more companies are adopting an online business model, Walmart faces a threat to its business model as more people shift towards the flexible and easily accessible online business locations. The company will have to enhance its online presence in order for it to remain relevant in the market (Smithson, 2017).
Walmart External Business Environment: PESTLE Analysis
As much as the internal environment is an important factor for consideration in business operations, the external environment is also a key determinant of business practices, especially in the retail industry. Rowland (2017) describes certain characteristics of the external environment of Walmart’s business. The first characteristic is the political environment of the company. Walmart operates in different countries and predicting the political environment cannot be generalizable. According to Rowland (2017), most of the countries in which Walmart operates are characterized with high political stability and the support for globalization. These factors can be considered as opportunities for the company to pursue greater profitability. On the other hand, some of the countries have also been subjecting Walmart to high political pressures especially with regards to the need for higher wages for all employees. This is a threat to business profitability (Rowland, 2017).
The economic factors that characterize the external business environment include the economic stability of most of the countries in which Walmart operates. The developing countries, in which Walmart may expand, are also experiencing continuous economic growth. The company also has great opportunities for growth in the U.S where unemployment is decreasing, an indication of a more robust economy. Socio- culturally, the healthy lifestyle trend, urban migration and cultural diversity are the key factors that influence Walmart’s operations across the world. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions can be a good starting point for the company to conduct its marketing practices to ensure that the advertisements and service delivery practices work well with the cultural diversity in the company (Hofstede, 2011). Cultural advertising will be a crucial step towards sustainable profitability. Walmart’s technological environment is characterized by increased automation, increased use of mobile devices, and the application of big data and business analytics. Such technologies are increasingly being used by new as well as existing retail businesses across the world. Walmart has to adapt to the times to ensure it remains relevant in the technological advanced consumer world.
Other factors in the legal business environment are the legal and environmental factors. According to Rowland (2017), the legal factors that could affect Walmart’s operations include food safety requirements, employment management regulations and tax law reforms. These regulations are different across countries and Walmart has to align the operations of each of its branches to the laws of the countries in which those branches operate. The environmental factors on the other hand include sustainable business trends and adoption of environmentally friendly products trend. More individuals, companies and governments are opting for and supporting sustainable business models, also referred to as green business models (Rowland, 2017). Walmart can pursue green business trends through traceability practices from the sources of their products to the end of the supply chain. The company can also push for reverse logistics to address customer issues and to enhance the environmental aspect of operations. Practices such as recycling can be considered to make the company more viable in the green world.
Recommendations for Walmart
The success of Walmart’s business model depends on the company’s capacity to utilize all its available resources optimally. According to Malhotra (1998), businesses can be defined based on components such as entities, objects and activities. The entities in any business can be interpersonal or inter-functional. On the other hand, the objects are physical or informational while the activities are operational or managerial. To improve the business sustainability, changes have to be pursued in each of these components to ensure that all components are working are in tandem with each other. According to Malhotra (1998), the principles for success, especially in the retail business industry include: to organize operation around the available corners, to combine information processing work with the actual work, to capture all information at their respective sources and to treat all the geographically dispersed resources based on their relevance to each process.
In order for Walmart to adapt its processes to the principles recommended by Malhotra and subsequently to increase the company productivity, various recommendations have to be implemented by the company. The first is that the company must have well developed business objectives and visions and to align them to the external business environment. For instance, technological changes that are happening in the retail industry should steer Walmart towards new objectives and new goals in terms of how the company conducts its business operations. The company should also understand all the business processes and to identify those that need redesign. To align with the changing systems and with the principles of effectiveness, Walmart should understand the particular processes that need change. Processes can be managerial, such as human resources practices, or operational such as marketing practices. Advertising strategies also need to be understood and aligned with cultural values to ensure that they are effective towards achieving organizational goals.
Advertisement as a process is increasingly being enhanced through communication and culturally aligned brand advertisement. De Mooij and Hofstede (2010) discussed the role of advertisement in brand positioning. According to De Mooij and Hofstede, the brand positioning in any company depends on the social processes in place, identity of personalities involved, cultural values of the society and the consumer characteristics. Mental processes such as information processing and categorization must also be considered for the company to be able to address the advertising challenge more effectively (de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010). This implies that Walmart also has to understand the existing processes, not only for advertising but for other processes as well. The objective of this would be to understand the processes, identify the areas in need of change and understand the role and capabilities of information technology in that these changes occur. It is only after understanding and redesigning all the processes that the company can enhance its profitability once the new designs are implemented.
Walmart has been a market leader in the retail business industry. However, this can only remain so if the company understands its industry, the external and internal business environments and utilizes the available resources for effectiveness in its processes. The industry is dynamic, with most changes in recent times occurring in terms of technological advancements. This can be a threat to the company, as more competitors are engaging in online businesses hence incurring fewer costs and gaining more in terms of profitability. Walmart has various strengths and opportunities including global presence and supply chain; and the opportunity to expand into developing countries. The ability of the company to use these strengths and to practice culturally aligned advertisement strategies can result in increased profitability and business sustainability.
Brea-Solis, H., Casadesus –Masanell, R. and Grifell – Tatje, E. (2012). Business model evaluation: Quantifying Walmart’s sources of advantage. Harvard Business School, Working Paper 13 -039. Retrieved from www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/13-039%20Nov%202012_612ce7e2-7f81-4eea-9126-3c0964f2be2f.pdf
Deloitte LLP (2017). Insights: Retail trends 2017. Deloitte LLP. Retrieved from www2.deloitte.com/uk/en/pages/consumer-business/articles/retail-trends-2017.html#
Deloitte LLP (2017a). Insights: The retail profitability challenge. Deloitte LLP. Retrieved from www2.deloitte.com/uk/en/pages/consumer-industrial-products/articles/the-retail-profitability-challenge.html
De Mooij, M. and Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1): 85- 110. Retrieved from www.mariekedemooij.com/articles/demooij_2010_int_journal_adv.pdf
Heskett, J. (2017, May 31). Can Amazon do what Walmart couldn’t, stop the ‘wheel of retailing?’ Harvard Business School – Working Knowledge. Retrieved from www.hbswk.hbs.edu/item/can-amazon-do-what-walmart-couldn-t-stop-the-wheel-of-retailing
Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). Retrieved from www.scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=orpc
Malhotra, Y. (1998). Business process redesign: An overview. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 26(3). Retrieved from www.kmbook.com/bpr.htm
Matzler, K., Bailom, F., von de Eichen, F. and Kohler, T. (2013). Business model innovation: Coffee triumphs for Nespresso. Journal of Business Strategy, 34(2): 30-37. Retrieved from www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/02756661311310431
Rowland, C. (2017, January 13). Walmart PESTEL/ PESTLE analysis and recommendations. Panmore Institute. Retrieved from www.panmore.com/walmart-swot-analysis-recommendations-case-study
Smithson, N. (2017, January 16). Walmart SWOT analysis and recommendations. Panmore Institute. Retrieved from www.panmore.com/walmart-swot-analysis-recommendations-case-study
Plate Tectonics Activities
The plate tectonic topic is an excellent topic of study as it involves a deep uncovering of facts. This concept was developed in the early 1960s. According to this theory, the earth is made up of a hard layer called lithosphere, which is about 60 miles thick and extends to the asthenosphere (Gerya at el 221). When the lithosphere moves, affects the earth. For instance, it is thought that the interaction movements of the plate cause most of the Earth’s seismic, mountain rising and volcanic activities. It is factual to say that plate tectonics processes are among the major influencers of long lasting climatic change. The processes contribute to both physical and chemical components, which are responsible for the evolution process in the Earth
Figure 1: plate tectonic’s movement
Additionally, plate tectonics incorporates a wider range of activities occurring in the earth as a planet. Some of its events are scientific in nature and can be explained in details, while others are theoretical. Some of the major effects of plate tectonics include, earthquakes, continental drifting, mountain formation process, and volcanism. For a geologist or a geographer to come up with facts about plate tectonics, he or she has to synthesizes both the geologic and geophysical data. Therefore, to understand the composition of the earth one has be aware of the major plate tectonic activities. As stated earlier, activities involved in plate tectonics arise from its movement and extend to the crust and its outer shell (Gerya at el 221). The plate tectonic movement is a theory that has allowed humans to gain insight and knowledge to explain some of the world phenomenon. The latest discoveries by the 21st scientists show that plate tectonics highly influence the atmosphere and oceans.
The Mountain Formation Process
When we view the mountains it is quite hard to tell the difference by just a glance. One cannot tell the difference between mountains from a glance because of the fact that they are covered by ice or snow. Nonetheless, it is important to know the formation process of each type of mountain. All the mountain formation processes are among few of the geological processes arising from the large scale movement of the Earth’s crust. As a result of earth’s c. As a result of earth’s crust movement, different types of mountains will be formed. Weather formed through faulting or folding all are as a result plate tectonic activities. However, it should be noted that the formation of the mountains is not related to the geological structures that they have. There are many types of mountains resulting from different types of plate tectonic activities of the earth. In addition, the plate tectonic activities explain the difference in the landscapes of some areas in the world. For example, there are parts of the earth that are plain, while others are hilly and steeply curved compared to others. There are numerous types of mountains formed as a result of plate tectonic activities and they include the ones discussed below.
These are mountains formed as a result of the movements of plate tectonic along the plate boundaries. When the plate tectonics erupt they form volcanic mountains. Examples of such mountains in the world include, Zimina and Udina of Russia, Fuji, Kilimanjaro, and Vesuvius. Alternatively, when there is a series of volcanos it leads to formation of arc volcanic mountain. This because during a series of eruptions some parts of the crust melts leaving sharp arcs, which form the volcano mountains. Volcanic mountains can further be divided into stratovolcano, composite, and shield volcano. They are easily classified though the slope or the heights of their cones. For example, both the composite and stratovolcanoes have steeply rising cones of between 33 to 40 degrees. Another fact that cannot be left untouched is the relationship between volcanic mountains and earthquakes. During volcanic activities, an increase of earthquakes in experienced. Earthquakes occur as a result of the melting of the earth crust leaving gaps and shapes that allow the drifting of the solidified rocks underneath.
Figure 2: Volcanic arc
Fold mountains occur when the plates collide and slide over one another. When the plates undergo orogenisis they form fold mountains. For example, Jura and Zagro mountains are fold mountains. Most of the world’s ranges are formed through this process.
Block Mountains form when the blocks are lifted or tilted by the movement of the crust. When there are strong tensional forces. The forces split the plate and lift the Centre block, a movement leading to dropping of the sideway blocks. This eventually leads to flaking from the weak points and the blocks rise to form Block Mountains. If the tensional force is not strong it only lifts the block to less heights compared to strong forces. An example of block mountain is the Sierra Nevada Range.
This is another result of the plate tectonic activity. Earth quakes occur when the Earth’s plates move against one another. This movement causes tension and stress, which results in the earth’s outer shell to shift or break. Earth quakes are of different types and caused by different forces that act on the plate. The major concern here is the Tectonic earth quake. A tectonic earth quake is the most common and occurs when there is shifting of the earth’s plate caused by geological force. To understand the concept of earthquake in detail it is important for one to understand the causes and impacts of these earthquakes on human life.
Causes of the Tectonic Earth Quake
Earth quakes occurs when the plates move towards each other or drift from each other. These movements form either divergent or convergent boundaries. When divergent boundaries are formed, the divergent movement results in minor earthquakes that cannot be felt. Divergent earthquakes cannot be felt because the plates move away from each other at a slow pace, which cannot be detected. On the other hand, the convergent plate movement leads to more vigorous and destructive earthquakes. This is explained by the fact that convergent boundaries involve the destruction of the crust of the earth. Moreover, convergent earthquakes occur under the ocean. For instance, the earthquakes of San Andrea’s are caused by convergent boundaries. Both the convergent and divergent boundaries are associated with the creation of fault lines when the lines move horizontally. In conclusion, the major cause the earthquakes is the tectonic plates. Besides the volcanic and tectonic earthquakes there is the collapse earthquake, which is a minor earthquake, which is caused by mines and caves under the crust.
Earthquakes and Human effects
There would be no valid reason for understanding the plate tectonic earthquakes if th knowledge were not applicable to human life. Therefore, it is important to discuss the effects of earthquake on human life (Bassett 1992). There are a number of earthquakes, in the world, caused by plate tectonic activities. However, some are never acknowledged due to their minor effects on human daily activities, as compared to other earthquakes. Earthquakes result in deaths, property destruction, and disabilities among others. For instance, the San Andrea earthquake caused the deaths of 700 and destruction of more than 250,000 dwellings by the fire caused by the earth quakes. In another incident that occurred in 1960, the deaths of 20,000 people were recorded. Later, in the year 2004, earthquake near Indonesia and Sumatra left over 200,000 people dead. lastly, in the year 2011, in Japan, the tsunami caused by a massive earthquake caused mdeaths and destruction of facilities (Bassett 92).
Plate tectonic theory is a major source of information on the composition of the earth. Plate tectonics significantly influence different processes within the earth, ranging from harmless ones to dangerous ones. Different types of mountains and earthquakes occur as a result of different activities within the earth’s crust. While some earthquakes are quite harmless, others are quite deatructive as they leave death and destruction in their wake.
“Revision World – Free GCSE & A-Level Revision Resources.” Revisionworld.com. N.p., 2017.
Bassett, Dan, et al. “Upper-plate controls on co-seismic slip in the 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake.” Nature 531.7592 (2016): 92.
Gerya, Taras V., et al. “Plate tectonics on the Earth triggered by plume-induced subduction initiation.” Nature 527.7577 (2015): 221.
Lomnitz, Cinna. Global tectonics and earthquake risk. Vol. 5. Elsevier, 2013.
Political Science Paper on Combating Terrorism in the Gulf Region (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait)
Combating Terrorism in the Gulf Region (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait)
The modern world faces more intensive and diverse terrorist threats, thus influencing higher rates of global incidents of violent crimes and fear. Violent extremism has grown into a global problem that all cultures and nations have to address to protect their citizens and improve world peace. The problem is also more complicated owing to the effects of globalization in the modern society. This is since advancements in technology and higher quality and intensity in interactions across cultures across the world have provided terrorist groups with more efficient tools and ways of recruiting and influencing members of vulnerable communities with their philosophies and concepts. This paper presents a discussion on some of the approaches that the international community could utilize to combat terrorism in the Gulf region, particularly in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
The focus of this discussion on the region is essential considering that the Gulf is the principal source of religious extremists and groups whose activities have undermined world peace in recent years. Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, and the Gulf region, generally, are highly susceptible to the problems of radicalization and extremist ideologies that breed terrorist groups. In the recent past, groups such as Al Qaeda and ISIS have developed in the region, leading to terrorist activities with devastating effects around the world. Events such as the 9/11 attack on the U.S. and those on other cities such as London, Paris, and Belgium have resulted in enormous losses of life, property, and public security. Despite the difficulty of defining the activities or organizations that constitute “terrorism” at the international level, it is clear that the region and the international community need to address the problem to make the world safer and prevent losses of property and life. In the following paragraphs, the author argues that the most effective and sustainable approach for Gulf countries to combat terrorism is to cooperate with the international community to address social, economic, political, cultural, and other conditions that are conducive to violent extremism and build or support government capacities that can reinforce the rule of law and promote socio-economic development.
Policies, Strategies, and Measures to Combat Terrorism in the Gulf, focusing on Kuwait, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia
The European Commission observes that the main variety of violent threats originating from the Gulf region is ideological in nature, rather than state-related or insurgent violence. This is an important starting point in efforts to combat terrorism in the region because it allows the international community to mobilize and allocate its resources in a specific direction. The Commission notes that violent extremist ideologies have gained an enormous level of traction in the Gulf and the broader Arab region. In the view of the Commission, the principal factor that has promoted the vulnerability of this region to extremist ideologies that breed terrorism relates to chronic humanitarian needs that cause or exacerbate migration from homes, economic decline, poverty, growing social inequality, fragility of governments, and insecurity. In such environments, it has been easy for violent extremist ideologies to become popular as growing numbers of disenfranchised citizens find the ideologies appealing. These ideologies have also gained significant support among disenfranchised ethnic or social groups in other societies outside the region, including European societies. The European Commission notes that while violent extremism has grown into a global problem that is observable across cultures with different characteristics, the extremism in the gulf region is unique in terms of its high prevalence and implications for global security.
Radicalization works through exploitation of the economic, political, and social challenges and injustices that a particular group in a society faces. By pointing to such injustices and challenges and exploiting or targeting the real or perceived grievances of the members of these groups, radical extremist groups such as ISIS can influence the appeal of their philosophies and recruit followers. Often, the extremist groups promote the belief that the grievances of “marginalized” or “oppressed” social groups in the society are the result of a corrupt system of ideology or politics, implying that the government or society pursues deliberate policies that target or victimize the social groups. Based on this outlook, the extremist groups seek to incite the members of these “oppressed” groups to fight against the “oppressors” to secure their rights. To become persuasive, the groups utilize arguments based on facts in the lives or experiences of the target groups, employing an incomplete and selective approach in portraying the facts to distort the reality and influence the target groups or individuals.
This assessment is vital for the Gulf countries in the effort to combat terrorism and terrorist ideologies in their communities through sustainable solutions. In this regard, the countries need to mobilize their tools and resources to address the underlying causes of the vulnerability of their communities to extremist ideologies that breed terrorism. The European Commission’s position is that the most effective and sustainable approach in dealing with the problem of terrorism is to focus on social, economic, political, cultural, and other conditions that are conducive to violent extremism and build or support government capacities that can reinforce the rule of law and promote socio-economic development. This viewpoint features the assumption that the lack of socio-economic opportunities, social injustice, and the consistent fragility of states in the Gulf region are the principal underlying factors that promote the vulnerability of communities in the region to radical extremist ideologies that breed terrorism. Some of the policies and activities that meet this criterion are long-term preventive engagements in trade, short-term political stabilization, development and infrastructure-oriented services or funding, targeted recovery and humanitarian relief measures, and use of the media to educate the public on the threats of radical extremist ideologies.
In 2005, the EU adopted a Counter-Terrorism Strategy aimed at reducing terrorism globally and promoting respect for human rights. One of the four pillars of the strategy focused on preventing the population from turning to terrorism through tackling the factors that lead to recruitment into the extremist groups and radicalization. This pillar recognized the need for proactive policies aimed at addressing the enabling environment for violent extremism. Under this pillar, the EU identified various areas of priority for action at the national and international level to address the vulnerability of particular communities to radicalization. These areas included the promotion of equal opportunities among different sections and groups (social groups, ethnic groups, racial groups, etc.) of the population, community-level efforts, capacity-building efforts, and counter-narrative effort. Based on recommendations of the Commission, cooperation among relevant stakeholders at all levels of the society (internationally, nationally, regionally, and locally) is vital to support vulnerable countries (especially in the Gulf region) and communities to counter the recruitment of individuals into extremist groups and build the resilience of vulnerable communities to radicalization.
The European Commission recognizes the relationship between development and security. This concept holds that security cannot prevail without development and vice versa. Political, social, and economic circumstances that undermine development at the international, national, regional, and local levels are important influences of the vulnerability of communities to radicalization. Fragile states, socio-political or socio-economic grievances, and weak governance offer uninhibited spaces for the operations of violent extremist groups and fertile grounds for the recruitment of local communities into extremist groups. Armed conflicts are also important influences of the vulnerability of communities to radicalization because they offer compelling images and narratives for radical extremist groups to utilize in influencing the beliefs and perceptions of local communities in particular ways. This means that effective and competent government and the preservation of political, economic, and social stability are essential in efforts to combat terrorism in the UAE, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. By preserving political, economic, and social stability and efficient government, these countries can undermine the appeal of radical extremist philosophies, and hence prevent the growth and prevalence of terrorist groups. The international community should commit investments in assisting Gulf countries whose communities are vulnerable to extremist ideologies to assist in development projects at the local community level. Such commitment would alleviate the political, economic, and social conditions that influence the vulnerability of local communities to the philosophical influences of radical groups, thus rendering these groups less powerful.
Nevertheless, in a globalized world where advanced and fast-changing technologies have revolutionized the processes of transport and communications by rendering international borders irrelevant in contact across cultures and national communities, the governments of Kuwait, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia cannot achieve the objective of preventing the radicalization of their citizens alone. The international community has to cooperate and enforce strong international frameworks to coordinate efforts aimed at addressing the networks and mechanisms of international terrorism. Part of this cooperation involves respect for human rights and international law to prevent countries with partisan interests, including Western countries, from supporting regimes, factions, or countries in the Gulf that have undemocratic values. In the past, Western governments have offered military, economic, and political support to factions or regimes that have evolved into terrorist groups. In outlining its position on terrorism and the actions that are necessary to combat the vice at an international level, the Norwegian government identifies the need for an integrated and long-term approach featuring a balance between combative and preventive measures. A stronger international framework is vital to ensure that all countries in the world, including the neighbors of the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait that are vulnerable to the activities of violent extremist groups such as ISIS, endorse and adhere to international efforts and mechanisms against terrorism.
Since the United Nations is the most broad-based international organization with a strong mandate from members across the world, the organization ought to have a strengthened role to coordinate and integrate the international community’s efforts in the long term. The development of a more comprehensive UN convention against terrorism, based on a strong definition of the vice, would facilitate the development of a clear strategy for the united participation of all countries in efforts against terrorism. Actions such as arms embargos, travel restrictions, freezing of assets, and sanctions against countries that fail to observe the regulations would be effective in limiting the resources of terrorist organizations in the Gulf to reach, radicalize, and recruit individuals from vulnerable communities, including in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.
These proposals to address the vulnerability of particular communities in the Gulf to the ideologies of extremist groups ought to complement the efforts of Gulf countries and the international community to promote increased dialogue and understanding across different communities, social groups, and religions. Ethnicity, race, religion, language group, social group, and other cultural factors constitute the principal factors that underlie the identities of individuals and groups in the society. This means that perceptions of differences among members of the society based on these factors are likely to be references of mobilization based on identity in the philosophies of radical extremist groups. Intercultural and interreligious dialogue, interactions, and understanding represent vital ways of promoting tolerance among ethnic, racial, religious, social, language, and other groups in the society. This focus is especially vital in Gulf countries where radical ideologies are prevalent. In recent years, several events have demonstrated the need for inter-cultural and inter-religious dialogue to combat the appeal of radical extremist philosophies and their promotion of terrorism. Following the publishing of cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad in France in 2015, there was widespread hostility towards the publication in the Arab or Islamic world. The strong discontent among Muslims was evident in the subsequent attack on the publication’s offices in the country, which led to the deaths of several executives. The cause of the conflict was essentially the lack of understanding and tolerance between the Western and Islamic cultures based on differences in their cultural and religious values.
Governments and societies in Gulf countries can alleviate such misunderstandings and conflicts based on religious or cultural values through promotion of dialogues, interactions, and understanding among members. These opportunities would allow the members of each side to understand the differences between their cultures. They would allow the members of different cultures, religions, social groups, social classes, ethnicities, races, language groups etc. to understand the values of one another, and hence promote tolerance of each other’s attitudes, norms, rituals, beliefs, and cultures. In the Gulf countries whose communities are vulnerable to the philosophies of extremist groups, dialogues and interactions between members of different cultures would promote understanding and tolerance, and hence promote harmony and minimize the appeal of extremist ideologies based on cultural identity.
Education in schools and in public, including mass media campaigns, represents an important and practical approach for Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Kuwait, and other countries in the Gulf to promote dialogues, interactions, and understanding among members of different cultures in their societies. School education and the mass media are some of the most powerful mediums in this effort because of their potential to reach all areas of the society, including the rural areas. The school system is effective and highly practical in the effort to promote dialogue and understanding of other cultures because most of the population receives formal education in the institutions. Targeted public education and mass media initiatives could enable the governments in Gulf countries to reach vulnerable communities and sensitize them about the risks of extremist propaganda from the radical groups, and hence counter their philosophies effectively. The mass media is powerful in mobilizing the opinions and perceptions of the public and fortifying the society’s resistance against the ideologies of extremist groups. Governments in the region could exploit this power to transmit warnings and counter-information about the extremist groups and their activities. This strategy should involve use of the medium as a forum to promote in-depth and quality discussions of the agendas of extremist groups and the social, economic, and political implications of their activities. This approach would be effective in countering the propaganda and efforts of radical groups to reach and influence members of vulnerable communities in the Gulf countries.
The Gulf is a particularly vulnerable region to the extremist philosophies of radical groups that breed global terrorism. In an increasingly globalized world with evolving technologies that have allowed communications and social contact across international borders and cultures, Kuwait, the UAE, Saudi Arabia, and other countries in the Gulf cannot address the threats of extremist philosophies and terrorism on their own. Efforts to combat the threat need to involve international cooperation to be effective. As the discussion above demonstrates, the most effective and sustainable approach for Gulf countries to combat terrorism is to cooperate with the international community to address social, economic, political, cultural, and other conditions that are conducive to violent extremism and build or support government capacities that can reinforce the rule of law and promote socio-economic development. To combat terrorism in the Gulf and achieve a sustainable solution, the countries need to cooperate effectively with the international community to counter terrorism and violent extremism and promote social, political, and economic solutions to minimize the appeal of extremist ideologies among their vulnerable communities. Education of the public through the mass media and in institutions (schools, public forums, etc.) is also vital to sensitize citizens about the risks of extremist philosophies and counter the philosophies.
Mokrosch, Reinhold. “How tolerant do Religions need to be to serve Peace? Considerations of Tolerance and Satire after the attacks in Paris and Copenhagen in January and February 2015”. In IFSH, Yearbook 2015, 2016, pp. 297-307.
Peresin, Anita. “Mass Media and Terrorism”. Media Research Journal vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, pp. 5-22.
The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016.
Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy
Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government
Foreign Policy Document, 2006.
 The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.1-2
 The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.2-3
 Ibid, p. 2
 Ibid, p. 2
 The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.3
 Ibid, p. 3
 Ibid, p. 3
 Ibid, p. 3
 The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p. 3
 Ibid, p. 3
 The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016. P. 11
 Ibid, p. 11
 Ibid, p. 11
 Ibid, p. 11
 The European Commission (EC). Strengthening Resilience to Violence and Extremism. The European Commission Report, 2016, p.11
 Ibid, p. 11
 Ibid, p.11
 The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006, p.9
 Ibid, p.10
 Ibid, p.10
 The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006, p. 14
 Ibid, p. 14
 Mokrosch, Reinhold. “How tolerant do Religions need to be to serve Peace? Considerations of Tolerance and Satire after the attacks in Paris and Copenhagen in January and February 2015”. In IFSH, Yearbook 2015, 2016, p. 300-301
 The Norwegian Government. Foreign Policy Strategy for combating International Terrorism. Norwegian Government Foreign Policy Document, 2006, p.14
 Peresin, Anita. “Mass Media and Terrorism”. Media Research Journal vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, p. 13-14
 Ibid, p. 13
 Peresin, Anita. “Mass Media and Terrorism”. Media Research Journal vol. 13, no. 1, 2007, p. 13-14
The question of whether effective business leadership can be learned remains a contested debate. Many individuals believe that business leaders are born. It is the year 2020, and I have been allotted to teach Effective Leadership in an MBA program. The three hot topics in this course include the most important skills of a business leader, learning effective leadership, and managing a diverse workforce. Leaders in organizations are handling these topics through supporting employees to enroll in management courses. Students need to learn the topics to become successful organizational managers and leaders in the future, and this has led to the significance of the topics. I will know if the course has been successful by posing questions to students after its completion and gauging their understanding. This paper seeks to raise the understanding of how effective business leadership can be learned and challenges of diversity overcome. In literature, it has been established that many people fail to lead effectively due to the perception that successful leaders must have unique leadership chromosomes while others, who have the notion that leadership can be learned, learn and excel at it (Schiffer, 2017). In the business world, people think of leaders that actively encourage unsavory reputation and publicity like Donald Trump, Jack Welch, and Lee Iacocca. Any person with unwavering desire to develop their skills can learn effective business leadership and become successful.
Any person can learn and develop leadership skills. The primary challenge to developing leadership skills is the notion that persons without particular chromosomes cannot be leaders. Some people learn business leadership skills at an early age. However, this does not mean that one cannot learn leadership skills at a later age. To appreciate that effective business leadership can be learned, it is imperative to understand the skills of a good business leader. One of the primary skills of a good business leader is that they never stop learning (Schiffer, 2017). One mistake that many people make is being complacent. Some individuals remain in a given rank for a long time and think that they understand everything about the position. It does not mean that one should not feel skilled in their job. The problem is that feeling competent might result in one being complacent, thus not becoming a successful leader. For one to learn effective business leadership, they need to look always at their roles in new ways.
An effective business leader is a good listener and
talker. Such a leader also understands the importance of communication. One can
always learn new things by communicating and listening to the coworkers. For
instance, a manager might acquire knowledge of an organization-wide challenge through
collaborating with workers. Additionally, a leader may acquire leadership
skills by discussing with employees how to handle particular tasks (D’Auria, 2015). Being a follower is another critical skill for an effective
business leader. It does not denote that once you become a leader, you cannot
learn something from your juniors. Spending time with employees from different
departments gives leaders an excellent opportunity to learn various skills.
Transformational leadership is the best approach in dealing with subordinates. Derue, Nahrgang, Wellman, and Humphrey (2011) argue that transformational leaders have the ability to influence their subordinates. The leaders encourage followers to shelf their interests for the sake of the organization. Transformational leaders are creative. They help their assistants to establish organizational goals and work towards their realization. In most cases, transformational leaders are fervent about transforming the organization. As a result, they inspire their followers. A good example of a transformational leader is Steve Jobs, the former chief executive officer of Apple. Jobs inspired his subordinates leading to remarkable innovations in Apple Company.
Excellent leadership skills promote innovation amid the subordinates and enhance their performance. Organizational leaders ought to alter their management styles based on circumstances. A leader has to change his/her leadership style according to the development level of the subordinates. Further, changes in circumstances influence the needs of various stakeholders within an organization. Hence, a leader has to vary his/her approach to satisfy the needs that arise. Managers can use leadership skills in different ways to enhance employees’ performance (D’Auria, 2015). The managers should identify the differences amid employees and ensure that they consider those variations when setting goals for the workers. Additionally, leaders should use leadership skills to educate employees in the subtleties of professionalism in the organization.
Many people believe that effective business leadership entails having a charismatic personality and high profile. Effective business leaders are products of an immeasurable practice of proficiency and character improvement. Effective business leaders grow through a series of continual learning about their careers, relationships, and personalities. Every individual possesses leadership skills. Nevertheless, some people may not have meticulous leadership skills to manage specific departments, organizations, groups, industries or businesses. The world history comprises numerous examples of business leaders who acquired leadership skills through learning. Leadership skills are learned with respect to the support of culture, and the learning practice begins as the children are growing up. In the family context, the parents act as leaders. The children learn the fundamental business leadership skills from the parents. They observe how the parents manage the family business and later build on the skills when they start their businesses. In other words, children are not necessarily born with business leadership skills. However, they may learn some skills from their parents. In the same way, a person can learn effective business leadership by working in business organizations or interacting with persons with trade shrewdness (Derue et al., 2011). The learned skills can help an individual to succeed in running an enterprise once they assume leadership roles.
Life offers people an opportunity to learn new things on a daily basis. Every day comes with a new learning opportunity. One can learn effective business leadership by reflecting on their achievements and failures or studying how successful businessmen conduct themselves. The trick to successful business leadership is having time for the hard work that constant learning demands (D’Auria, 2015). People can learn effective leadership by updating themselves about what is taking place in the business world. Besides, one can learn business leadership skills by taking the time to analyze the internal and external factors that affect a business. Learning effective business leadership requires the ability to have a stance on things. Business leadership entails a learning process. What motivates a particular group of employees may not necessarily persuade all workers. Thus, a leader learns the leadership skills by interacting with the subordinates and getting their feedback.
Numerous books give details on how one can become an active leader in the business world. Besides, various leadership theories teach on how to be a successful businessperson. Studying such ideas and books might assist one to get knowledge in successful leadership. However, the most efficient way to learn effective business leadership is by emulating renowned leaders; students can learn business leadership skills by identifying the qualities that such leaders possess (Derue et al., 2011). Further, an individual can quickly learn effective business leadership through working with a person that they consider an effective leader. Identifying the strengths and weaknesses of an effective leader can go a long way to bequeathing a person with business leadership skills. In other words, students can learn business leadership skills by analyzing the achievements and failures of other leaders.
In life, people do not always get an opportunity to decide the role they undertake, but they choose how to do it. This mantra can help individuals to acquire business leadership skills regardless of their experience. Good leaders have to pursue a demanding, and infinite course of learning that requires them to maintain an open mind. People can learn business leadership skills by shunning their ego and working with all kinds of employees (D’Auria, 2015). Domination and control have no place in the present business environment. Hierarchical thinking is a fundamental impediment to learning effective leadership skills. It denies a person the chance to learn from others who might be below them in the hierarchy.
The journey to effective leadership begins at a personal
reflection level. The literature reveals that many advocates of the reflective
process, from students to intellectuals, acquire effective business leadership
through incorporating personal reflection into learning. Personal reflection
kindles self-discovery in a career life. Additionally, it enables one to
develop the perceptions that lead to a holistic appreciation of questionable
circumstances by encouraging a person to query and even change personal
postulations. Personal reflection helps to develop ethical and moral
responsibilities that are core to effective business leadership. Research has
confirmed that through reflection, a person can acquire emotional astuteness
and in due course leadership skills (Mišić, 2013). This
plays a key role in promoting universal patterns of thinking that are
fundamental to successful leadership. Consequently, it may help one to acquire
business leadership skills, particularly in a work-based learning environment.
Business leadership constitutes great self-awareness
coupled with psychological and social intellect. Good leaders are the ones who
understand their weaknesses and strengths and are familiar with the emotional
needs of the employees (Schiffer, 2017). Leaders that have emotional and social
intelligence are skillful at exploiting the behavioral cues of the employees.
They use the signs to determine the emotional needs and moods of the workers
and react accordingly. There is no doubt that some individuals naturally possess
emotional and social astuteness as well as high self-consciousness. However, it
does not mean that those who do not possess the attributes are disadvantaged.
One can acquire the traits through contact with instruments such as the DISC
Behavioral Styles framework. This framework gives individuals ideas about their
ideal character traits and behavioral styles. Therefore, it leaves people in a
better position to enhance their leadership skills. Once a leader understands
their strengths and weaknesses, they can work towards improving their business
leadership capabilities by leveraging the strengths and moderating the
Effective business leadership is a skill and not an innate character. The perception that one is in a leadership position because of their inherent qualities may be unfortunate. The thought of a hereditary leader is a practical joke. A person cannot be an effective business leader without a professional knowledge of the company. One can learn business leadership skills through support, training, and experience. Research proves that the most effective leaders are those with a clear knowledge of the primary goals of the organization. Nevertheless, being a professional alone does not constitute an effective business leader. One must possess learned management and leadership skills to be an effective leader as the natural traits are not sufficient to make one successful (D’Auria, 2015). An individual can learn business leadership skills by enrolling for management courses. Besides, one can acquire leadership skills through mentorship programs or accumulation of experience. Being a successful business leader is not a one-time issue because it takes much time to attain effective leadership qualities. A person acquires successful business leadership abilities through persistent learning and practice. Practicing leadership skills enables an individual to be dynamic at any level of their profession in spite of the nature of the organization. Enrolling in an MBA program goes a long way to helping the student become an effective leader.
The majority of successful business leaders were not born
as managers. Many argue that they learned how to lead. They never woke up one
day and decided to lead. Instead, one person (the leadership teacher) instilled
in them the qualities and skills of leadership. Many leaders hold that after
learning, they nurtured the leadership skills through taking risks. They were
keen to take risks in areas that many workers were reluctant to try. One can
learn effective business leadership abilities by volunteering to do hard and at
times challenging assignments. Additionally, one can foster business leadership
skills through performance (Schiffer, 2017). For one to become a business
leader, they have to demonstrate superior achievements. Such performance acts
as a stage in which leaders can enhance their skills. It also builds
self-confidence that enables one to retain and develop leadership skills.
Organizations with employees from diverse backgrounds perform well, provided their leaders have skills to manage diversity. Employees from diverse backgrounds are endowed with different skills and experiences that are invaluable to an organization (Ibarra & Hansen, 2011). As a result, leaders should be in a position to assemble and lead a workforce comprising employees with diverse backgrounds, cultures, disciplines, and generations. A diverse workforce can gather information, brainstorm, and come up with a productive conclusion. Jabbour, Gordono, Martinez, & Battistelle (2011) posit that the cognitive assortment of a heterogeneous group engages many different perspectives that can result in resourcefulness. Diversity enhances decision-making within an organization. The minority members of a group express their criticism leading to the team coming up with the best decision. According to Jabbour et al. (2011), diversity has a symbolic effect. A diverse workforce serves as a sign of a collectively just institution. An organization with a diverse workforce has a high chance of attracting and retaining skilled workers. Diversity enhances the legality of business. It makes potential candidates believe that the firm values equality and treats all employees uniformly regardless of their cultural backgrounds. Jabbour et al. (2011) argue that diversity can also boost the sales of an organization as many customers prefer to shop in an enterprise with a heterogeneous workforce.
Leaders should have the capacity to bring together a workforce comprising people from different cultural backgrounds, disciplines, as well as generations. According to Olsen and Martins (2012), managing team diversity helps an organization to reposition itself and broaden its perspectives, approach, and strategic tactics. Additionally, managing team diversity helps an organization to benefit from culture-specific and synergistic advantages associated with a diverse workforce. Olsen and Martins (2012) argue that diversity management boosts the competitive edge of the business. In the contemporary business world, organizations should have the capacity and agility to change. Olsen and Martins (2012) affirm that the ability and agility to change necessitate the dexterity to learn and effective learning incorporates diversity. Managing team diversity enables an enterprise to reach a wider customer base and boost employee productivity.
The capacity to manage a diverse team is an essential skill in the technological industry. The technical industry is innovation-oriented. Therefore, it requires a workforce with diverse background and experiences. The industry needs a manager to utilize a synergistic approach to exploit the knowledge of a diverse workforce and produce better outcomes. A manager is supposed to use the cultures of the employees to establish organizational systems. For instance, Dion Weisler, the chief executive officer of Hewlett Packard (HP), applies the synergistic approach to bring out the potential of his diverse workforce. Jabbour et al. (2011) allege that Weisler encourages cultural synergy by establishing disparities in community, workplace, and marketplace. Hewlett Packard comprises employees with various frames of reference. The employees enable the company to analyze problems from different perspectives and come up with novel ways of handling challenges.
address the limitations associated with diversity, organizational leaders
should often communicate to promote cooperation amid employees. Bringing
employees together in times of crisis and involving them in decision-making may
help to eliminate the in-group and out-group mentality that hinders
cooperation. Additionally, organizational leaders should establish rules for
workers to understand the anticipated consistencies (Rawat & Basergekar,
2016). Corporate leaders should help the employees to appreciate that conflict
is inevitable in a diverse workforce. Nevertheless, it should not deter them
from pursuing organizational goals.
one is born as a business leader. Anyone can learn effective business leadership
skills as long as they are determined to be a leader. For one to be an
effective leader, they have to exhibit several skills. A person has to be open
to learning. Additionally, one has to be good at listening and communicating.
The perception that successful business leaders are born with particular
leadership chromosomes is unrealistic. One can learn and nurture effective
business leadership skills through interacting with employees from different
departments. Besides, after learning, a person can cultivate business
leadership abilities by reflecting on failures and achievements. Understanding
one’s strengths and weaknesses serve as the starting point of a journey to
effective business leadership. People can learn effective business leadership
in MBA programs. Diversity management, one of the hot topics in the program, is
critical to an organization. It helps to build the reputation of an enterprise,
thus boosting its sales volume and ability to attract and retain skilled
workers. A diverse workforce promotes creativity in an organization. Employees
with different backgrounds share experiences and come up with innovative ideas
that help to improve organizational performance. Corporate leaders have the
duty of promoting diversity.
D’Auria, J. (2015). Learn to avoid or overcome leadership obstacles. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(5), 52-54. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=100515828&S=R&D=aph&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep7U4yOvqOLCmr0%2BeprNSrqe4S7CWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGntUmxrbRMuePfgeyx43zx
Derue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. E. D., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta‐analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 7-52. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=58139236&S=R&D=bth&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep7U4yOvqOLCmr0%2BeprNSrq24SbaWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGntUmxrbRMuePfgeyx43zx
Ibarra, H., & Hansen, M. T. (2011). Are you a collaborative leader? Harvard Business Review, 89(7/8), 68-74. Retrieved from http://krinetix.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Harvard-Business-Review-Are-You-a-Collaborative-Leader.pdf
Jabbour, C., Gordono, F., Martinez, J., & Battistelle, R. (2011). Diversity management: Challenges, benefits, and the role of human resource management in Brazilian organizations. Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 30(1), 58-74. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/02610151111110072
Mišić, M. (2013). The role of human resource management in professional development and promotion of women in organizations. Journal of Engineering Management and Competitiveness, 3(1), 22-26. Retrieved from http://www.tfzr.uns.ac.rs/jemc/files/Vol3No1/V3N12013-05.pdf
Olsen, J. E., & Martins, L. L. (2012). Understanding organizational diversity management programs: A theoretical framework and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(8), 1168-1187. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=82300914&S=R&D=bth&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep7U4yOvqOLCmr0%2BeprJSsq%2B4SrGWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGntUmxrbRMuePfgeyx43zx
Rawat, P. S., & Basergekar, P. (2016). Managing workplace diversity: Performance of minority employees. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 51(3), 488-502. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=114168286&S=R&D=bth&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep7U4yOvqOLCmr0%2BeprJSsa24SLGWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGntUmxrbRMuePfgeyx43zx
Schiffer, E. (2017). The dreaded team assignment: Developing essential leadership skills. Techniques, 92(4), 30-35. Retrieved from http://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=122072578&S=R&D=tfh&EbscoContent=dGJyMMvl7ESep7U4yOvqOLCmr0%2BeprJSs6u4TLaWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGntUmxrbRMuePfgeyx43zx
The concept of personhood among different communities is a rich source of culture that describes what it means to be a person. Personhood is more than a genetic composition of an individual. Rather, a person, being more than just a genetic structure, is a unique entity whose existence can affect the lives of other individuals. The fact that human beings are homo sapiens does not necessarily mean that they are individuals. Other creatures can also be described as having personhood in different circumstances. For example, in communities such as the Runa in Amazon, members of the community argue that jaguars are persons because they can see humans in the way other people view themselves (Kohn 2). For this reason, the community in Ruma calls the jaguar Runa Puma. Runa means person and puma mean predator. Therefore, the biological makeup of an individual does not account for personhood. Rather, for an individual to be referred to a person, the individual needs to have a free will with different desires compared to other characters. Furthermore, diverse communities around the world have different ideas and arguments about the concept of personhood. The concept of personhood is different in many cultures because different people practice different beliefs and doctrines (Appell-Warren and Laura 24). Therefore, the idea of an individual may not be similar across all communities. For example, religion and cultural practices among the various people can influence how people define ‘personhood.’ this paper will discuss the concept of personhood among diverse communities. The article will provide a different definition of the concept of personhood; it will show how it applies to diverse communities. Furthermore, the paper will also highlight how the idea of personhood helps communities to thrive.
Personhood among the Kiluna people
The Kiluna people are Arawak-speaking native people living in Brazil. The total number of Kilunas residing in the Amazon is between 2500 and 3000 (Pollock 310). The Kiluna people refer to two major concepts when they discuss the idea of personhood. The two concepts are waidi and ettedi. Wadi means wild while ettedi means sociable. The two concepts also differentiate other important factors such as the wildness of the forests and the friendly village; collective activity and solitariness; gardening and hunting; man and woman and speech and silence (Pollock 312). Every factor in among the Kiluna people falls under the category of wadi or ettedi. Furthermore, the Kiluna people attribute the concept of personhood through natural substances. For example, the production of semen describes the wild character of the Kiluna men. Also, the production of breast milk among women represents the concept of ettedi. Among the Kiluna people, when children reach the adolescent stage, they are allowed to misbehave because of hormonal imbalances. During teen age, the Kiluna people understand that the boys are producing semen while girls are growing breasts. According to Pollock (315), the Kiluna people possess spirits when they are infants. When an individual dies, the spirit (kurime) settles in the underground realm of spirits where it is transformed to peccary, which is reincarnated in the human world. According to Pollock (326), the Kiluna people have no concepts to describe the mind, mental illness or mindful bodies. Among the Kiluna people, the men wear clothes with good smells to attract the women. They believe that good smells among the men signify less wildness while bad smells signify extreme wildness. Therefore, it is common for people to wear clothes with good smells to show the women that they intend to be caring.
The concept of personhood among the Igbo
Among the Igbo people in Africa, the concept of personhood is embedded in a set of rights and responsibilities (Irele and Biodun 210). The rights and responsibilities are acquired through social recognition and participation in communal life. When a person is born, the individual moves from being referred as an ‘it’ to an ‘adult’ and ‘ancestor.’ After birth, an individual will go through a series of initiation rites before the community accepts to view the individual as a person. Furthermore, the concept of personhood does not stop after the community conducts initiation rites. However, other community practices and events such as procreation, old age, death and the journey to the spirit world all refer to the concept of personhood. Among the Igbo, the developmental stages of personhood do not represent age groups. However, the developmental stages towards personhood are marked by responsibilities within a particular age group (Irele and Biodun 212). It is impossible for an individual to be elevated to a higher form of personhood without performing the sacred duties and responsibilities that are required by the community in each age group. Also, communal rites such as marriage cannot occur if an individual has not satisfied the community that they have the knowledge and resource to take care of a family. Also, the Igbo people believe that achieving recognition and personhood depends on an individual’s ability to use community norms to make decisions. For example, an individual cannot hold the title elder because of old age. However, elder hood and personhood are synonymous to excellence and achievements in the community. Also, it is possible for younger adults to receive social recognition in the community because of their achievements. The Igbo people have a deeper understanding of concepts, such as personhood. Being referred as a man, father and husband among the Igbo men do not just describe the biological features of a man. However, the titles signify an understanding of mutual obligations. It is the responsibility of a man to protect and feed his family. Failure to meet the requirements as a man will prevent an individual from mutual acceptance as a person. Laziness and weakness are unacceptable among the Igbo people (Irele and Biodun 235). An individual should be able to contribute to the community. Therefore, for an individual to be achieving personhood in the community, they should be ready to work hard and meet the obligations and needs of the community.
In conclusion, the concept of personhood varies among different communities. The difference in cultural attributes and obligations shows that the concept of personhood is not similar among different people. Cultural differentiation in regards to community practices and religion is a reason behind the difference in personhood. However, all communities have a concept of personhood that determines how individuals should behave and conduct their affairs in the community. The concept of personhood enables communities to identify the social roles of men, women and children. It helps communities to have a rich understanding of their obligations in the community. Without the concept of personhood, there would be no hierarchical structure in the community. The concept of personhood is a rich source of culture, which supports civilization.
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Appell-Warren, Laura P. Personhood: An Examination of the History and Use of an Anthropological Concept. , 2014. Print.
Irele, Abiola, and Biodun Jeyifo. The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought: Abol-impe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Kohn, Eduardo. How Forests Think. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013. Print.
Pollock, Donald. “Personhood And Illness Among The Kulina.” Medical Anthropology Quarterly, vol 10, no. 3, 1996, pp. 319-341.
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Research currently shows that memory loss is highly connected with high intake of cholesterol related foods. This may cause a person to be diagnosed with dementia which is a risk associated with lack of good memory (Dr. Leslie et al., para 2).
The findings of literature review related to memory loss were that it involves a strain of all nurses that are in charge of memory loss patients (Brodaty et al., para 4). Therefore, it was decided that these nurses should seek related information based on their professionalism so as to offer comprehensive care to patients of memory loss. Also, memory loss victims bring in a lot of constraints to their nurses as they have to strain more to be at par with their care (Brodaty et al., para 4). Therefore, it is necessary that these nurses acquire professional skills and abilities to enable them to overcome any strains they face while caring for their memory loss patients.
Memory loss leads to impairment of thinking skills. It directly causes one to be diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease (Kandel et al., para 1). One’s brain stops functioning and displays fewer abilities to connect networks of one’s words, meaning, and ideas. This eventually deters one from being able to retrieve any information they previously gathered (Kandel et al., para 1).
on psychology theory, memory loss is associated with aging factors. As one
grows older, they have more things to think about and fewer things to remember
(Craik et al., para 1). Findings of this research were that older people have a
declining rate of cognitive abilities while young people have vibrant cognitive
skills. Therefore, the conclusion was that psychological theory states that old
people are less healthy and have fewer abilities to connect their network of
thinking clearly (Craik et al., para 1). Their physical strength is also
reduced, and this reduces their ability to involve themselves in activities
that trigger the brain to think. Hence, they are associated with high memory
loss (Craik et al., para 1).
Brodaty Henry, Thomson Cathy, Thomson Claire and Fine Michael. “International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.” Wiley Online Library. 2005. Web. July 19. 2017. www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gps.1322/full
Craik Fergus I. M. and Byrd Mark. “Aging and Cognitive Deficits.” Springer Link. 2017. Web. July 19. 2017. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4178-9_11
Kandel, E.R., Dudai, Y., and Mayford, M. R. “The molecular and systems biology of memory.” Cell, Volume 157 (Issue 1). 2014. Web. July 19. 2017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0092867414002906
Leslie R. Wagstaff, Melinda W. Mitton, Beth McLendon Arvik and P. Murali Doraiswamy. “Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy. Wiley Online Library. 2003. Web. July 19. 2017. www.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1592/phco.23.7.871.32720/full
Efficiency and Adaptation
Part I: Economics of Species Relationships
The symbiotic correlation linking the Ethiopian wolves and gelada monkeys is a unique one. Research has shown that these two species help each other when hunting for their food. The monkeys show little concern when the gelada wolves enter in their herd. This relationship between the species has helped ensure that each of them benefits from it. Gelada monkeys live in the Ethiopian’s grasslands and mostly graze on grass and seeds in large flocks. On the other hand, Ethiopian wolves feed on mammals such as rodents that live in the territory of the monkeys.
The wolf hunting sessions are mostly successful when the monkeys (Luntz, 2015) accompany them. This is because the monkeys help flush out rodents from their hiding places which the wolves feed on. Additionally, the rodents compete with the monkeys for the major food sources and thus when the wolves feed on them; they benefit the monkeys since their competitors reduce. Because of this relationship, the two species will continue multiplying in long run.
Both the monkeys and the wolves have to incur some costs to ensure their symbiotic relationship remains. Wolves have to sacrifice and not jeopardize the monkeys by eating them since they help them spot the rodents without being seen by them. On the other hand, the monkeys have to ensure they accompany the wolves during the hunting sessions to ensure they are secure from them.
The relationship between these two species will change if the resources become scarce. This is because the wolves would take the opportunity and start eating the young geladas. This would make the species become rivals and the monkeys would run away from the wolves (Luntz, 2015).
Part II: Case Study: Production Costs for Kodak
Variable costs are those costs that vary depending on a firm’s production volume. Variable costs incurred by the Kodak business include; packaging cost, operating and the non-operating costs. As the company produces more imaging products, packaging cost increases. Additionally, the operating cost includes the entertainment costs, office supply costs, salary and wages, sales and marketing costs among others. On the other hand, the non-operating costs include the interest expenses on a loan. Fixed costs include the rent, insurance, and office supplies, which remains constant regardless of the output. Long run costs are incurred when the firm changes its production levels in order to realize its targeted profits. Long run costs include the cost of expanding a company, cost of entering a market, and the cost of changing the production level (Tjader, et al., 2014).
Competition and the Shut-down Decision
The business faces competition from Fujifilm, which entered the U.S. market and provided low priced films and supplies (Lucas & Goh, 2009). Fujifilm won the sponsorship rights and started taking the market share from Kodak. Fuji firm provide specialty transparency films which competed with Kodak’s Kodachrome. Additionally, Fuji competitive edge in higher negative films helped within a tighter grain structure. Kodak would consider shutting down if its revenue received from the sale of the imaging products could not take care of the fixed expenses of manufacture. In such a case, the company would incur great losses when producing as compared to when it is not in production. Additionally, for a firm to continue operating, the total revenue must be greater than the total cost.
Parallels in the Business World
Kodak would be successful if it adopted a mutually beneficial relationship like that of the organisms in the wild (Najaf, Najaf & Shah, 2017). A similar interaction to that of the cattle and the antelopes would develop when Kodak competes for the resources and customers with other firms producing the same imaging products like Fujifilm a partnership develops. Additionally, if Kodak collaborates with the camera manufacturers we expect that both of them will benefit from the partnership. Kodak will buy cameras from the manufacturers and on the other hand, the camera manufacturers will get higher profits from the sales of the cameras. Just like the monkeys and the wolves benefit each other because of their symbiotic relationship, so will the Kodak and the camera manufacturers benefit.
Lucas, H. C., & Goh, J. M. (2009). Disruptive technology: How Kodak missed the digital photography revolution. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 18(1), 46-55.
Luntz, S. (2015). Symbiotic Partnership Between Monkeys and Wolves Discovered IFLScience. Accessed on July 17, 2017 at http://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/monkey-wolf-symbiosis/
Najaf, R., Najaf, K., & Shah, I. H. (2017). STRATEGIC ALLIANCES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND GLOBAL COMPETITION. Business and Management, 9(3), 287.
Tjader, Y., May, J. H., Shang, J., Vargas, L. G., & Gao, N. (2014). Firm-level outsourcing decision making: A balanced scorecard-based analytic network process model. International Journal of Production Economics, 147, 614-623.
Wang, J. L. (2014). Cost Accounting for Decision Making.
Business Essay Paper on “This Marvelous Bean”: Adopting Coffee into Old Regime French Culture and Diet
Many people believe that France is the birth place for café and coffee culture (Koslofsky 2017). The French people are obsessed with this very strong, entrenched café and coffee culture. Although previously the French coffee industry was deemed rigid and highly saturated, since 2013 it experienced major changes as French coffee consumers became increasingly open to other types of coffee (Landweber 2015). This spurred growth of branded coffee shops and increased the quantity of raw coffee beans being imported by small and medium-sized craft roasters. Consequently, this has changed the dynamics of international coffee market because France is becoming a prime market for many international coffee exporters from all over the globe.
According to Teuber (2009), the café and coffee culture in France is intrinsic to modern French food consumption. Additionally, these café have historical and cultural significance and many testify of their unique delicate dark café noir. Per Pendergrast (2010), many Parisian cafes have prominent place in history because it is where French freedom fighters plotted their rebellions and a hub for many famous philosophers and writers (Gordon 2015). However, unlike other coffee drinkers all over the world the lifestyle of French coffee lovers is unique, they prefer roasted coffee with 60% of French people espresso, and only 10% can stomach Americanos (Koslofsky 2017). In many countries, most caffeine drinkers grab to go coffee (carryout orders) but French coffee drinkers like to sit down and drink their coffee (Pendergrast 2010).
As the French coffee market continue to grow, there has been an increasingly demand by French government to improve their sustainability certification. Therefore to meet this increasing demand, many coffee brands have been forced to comply with sustainable certification labels such as Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance and organic labels, and UTZ Certified (Raynolds 2009). Coffee retailers and coffee chains like Starbucks also have to comply. FairTrade is a popular label among French consumers and leads the market with projected annual increase of 10% per annum. Additionally, staff welfare is paramount because coffee chains and retailers have to comply with the French workers welfare association (Raynolds 2009).
Generally, coffee is consumed in many parts of France and as mentioned above, 80% of coffee is consumed in cafes. Thus, choosing a strategic location in a big town with a heavy population must be a key parameter to consider before setting up (Luttinger and Dicum 2011). Particularly, Paris has a rich coffee culture and Marvin and Smith should consider setting their East African-inspired coffee shop in this big city because it will attract tourist as well as locals who appreciate different cultures. Additionally, Marvin and Smith should consider establishing layouts with relatively similar designs as French cafes that unique layout and décor with dark café noir because many coffee drinkers are adamant and consider many western culture cafes such as Starbucks a mediocre (Kraulis 2014).
Marvin and Smith coffee shop also should consider the logistics of their supplier, Gumutindo Coffee; normally French coffee is purchased from exporting countries by both international dealers and individual small scaled dealers (Murthy and Naidu 2012). Since Gumutindo Coffee is a known Fairtrade in Uganda, the best entry channel is directly to coffee roasters or manufacturers to eliminate the need for intermediaries. In order to promote an environment that is relaxing with an East African feel to it, Hank and Patty must train their staff especially baristas and must be given high wages to promote quality service and loyalty. They must ensure also that their products are fairly prices and roasted to the highest quality (Luttinger and Dicum 2011).
Hank and Patty should choose a marketing mix that will complement and solidify their marketing strategy; this should provide a concrete marketing approach to penetrate the French market. Murthy and Naidu (2012) suggested the choice of marketing mix must complement and strengthen the marketing strategy. Therefore, this section should contain a deep analysis of where Marvin and Smith coffee shop will stand in the market and industry when compared to its competitors. The marketing mix helps Hank and Patty find gaps in the market and exploit this to set their shop apart from others by solving new and emerging customer needs in France (Kleinman 2006).
This entails the contents of Marvin and Smith coffee shop menu. For example many French people prefer roasted coffee taste (espresso) which is a little bitter as compared to others coffee’s all over the world. Also, it is important that the product and service are of very good quality to attract customers. Other services such as free Wi-Fi and the themed nights should complement the products (Kleinman 2006).
Hank and Patty must also consider the cost effects of running this new coffee shop. They should keep in mind how much it cost to produce a quality coffee brand that market itself. Choosing a pricing method is important, they can either use the competitive pricing strategy, value pricing, or cost-plus pricing. Generally, Marvin and Smith coffee shop prices should examine their competitors and prices and come up with prices that match up their customers’ expectation and demand. Hank and Patty should set prices that will cover all the costs however they should not set too high prices because profit cannot be realized for each item.
Additionally, the shop should find out before rolling out more products their customers perception of the product value. The price of the product sends a message to the customers because it tells them the value you put on your products. Therefore, too low prices and customers will undervalue the product because imply you have a less value of the product, conversely, high prices indicate you place a higher value in your product (Kleinman 2006).
Social media and digital marketing is the best way that Marvin and Smith coffee shop should establish use in promoting its product, this way; they will reach a wide audience. They should also have an active website and engage in massive promotion. Marketing using coupons and competition is also important because it increase the number of engagements, likes, and followers(Kleinman 2006).
Marvin and Smith coffee shop should be set up in a strategic position where people coming to buy the products have ease accessing. Factors to consider include setting the shop in a central business district, parking area, busy malls, drive thru, and near industrial buildings.
Other elements that Hank and Patty should consider include packaging. The visual elements of the shop and products send a big message to the potential customers. Thus, the brands logo should sent a warm welcoming message. The shops décor, design, employee appearance, and general presentation of coffee are key factors to consider. It is also important to consider the positioning of the shop, factors such as where the shop stand in the market relative to competitors, where the shop stand in the hearts of the customers, and words that come to mind when a customer think of the quality, price, atmosphere, and service. Finally, understanding the people (both customers and staff) is necessary to set up a durable business (Kleinman 2006).
The decision for any business to expand globally presents a set of challenges because it means understanding the culture nuances of different nations and tailoring your products to match their demand and preference. For example in relation to Marvin and Smith coffee shop establishment in France the challenges that will be faced include the management structure, organization culture, gaining competitive advantage, and staffing.
Perceptibly, expanding the coffee shop to another country will present considerable challenges when it comes to the management of the chain of coffee shops. Going global will disrupt the existing business activities because Hank and Patty will be required to take on more responsibilities in the day-to-day activities in addition to the global initiative (Bonin and Goey 2009). Clearly the management structure of the shop will need more experts in establishing a beachhead team. Previously, many coffee chain shops such as Starbucks and Macdonald through trial and error tried to launch with executives from the parent company. This strategy did not work for the chains because the executives from the parent company did not understand the culture of the new countries.
Consequently, Hank and Patty must not repeat this mistake. Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson (2017) assert that entrepreneurs should not only invest on ideas but they should also invest in people. The management will help in solidifying the staff and people needed to keep the shop running. The best strategy is to use a proven interim team from France with deep domain expertise and knowledge of the culture and lifestyle of French coffee drinkers. On the other hand, t Hank and Patty can outsource interim management leadership to executive leadership organizations that will help in recruiting a permanent management team. The management team must clearly breakdown the organization structure, fill management gaps, describe the legal structure and ownership, and provide a board of advisory members (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson 2017).
Organization culture and structure are changing and evolving rapidly as quickly as they can be identified. Enterprises such as this Marvin and Smith shop must assess the diverse cultures effect on the organization structure. Many organizations present and discuss their organization culture and strategy in distinct tête-à-têtes. Per Clark 2016, this leads to problems when it comes to realizing their business goals. The organization culture of Marvin and Smith coffee shop is vital in achieving desirable performance. To succeed in this saturated French market, Marvin and Smith coffee shop should position itself not only as a coffee seller but to also provide an environment that is both relaxing with an East African feel to it.
Hank and Patty must understand that organization culture is powerful because it is linked to the shops distinctive activities and capabilities and creating a strong culture needs a deep understanding of how to accomplish organization goals as a team. Therefore, Marvin and Smith management should invest on the positive attributes associated with the shop that are directly connected to the shops identity such as the distinct “East-African feel”.
Moreover, Hank and Patty must understand the notion and role that diversity and inclusivity play in creating a welcoming environment for customers from diverse cultures. This cuts across not only for customers but also their employees. They must invest in staff training; this can include short courses in coffee preparation, communication skills, management, and coffee tasting because employees who feel cared for will provide high quality customer service to customers. Letting employees bring their emotional energy to shop where they feel they have a stake help bring the shops culture and identity to life. For example, Starbucks have a strong culture that appreciates diversity in all levels of management and staffing, the employees at Starbuck feel appreciated because they are “partners “with the management (Bonin and Goey 2009).
Financial ratio analysis is the best analytic tool that is used by many organizations to verify overall the performance of the business. Ratio analysis is commonly used because ratios are easy calculated from a company’s balance sheet and statement of financial income. Common ratios include ROA, RAE, ROCE, Current ratio, Quick ratio, Total debt ratio, and Asset Turnover that show the profitability, solvency, and liquidity of a company (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson 2017). Thus the management of Marvin and Smith coffee shop should compute these ratios to pinpoint the strengths and weakness of the current shops in order to set viable strategies and initiatives to be used in establishing the new shops in France.
From the income statement and the balance sheet, the gross profit ratio gives the relationship between the shops gross profit and total net sales revenue. In this case
- Profitability ratios
- Gross profit ratio = gross profit/ net sales
Gross profit ratio = 208000/360000
This means the Marvin and Smith coffee shop may reduce their current selling price by 58% without making a loss.
Using the provided financial statement;
- Net profit ratio/ profit margin = net profit/net sales
Net profit ratio= 26800/360000
The Net profit is the ratio of after-tax profit to net sales. Marvin and Smith coffee shop net profit ratio will reveal the remaining profit after deducting administrative, financing, and cost of production expenditure. In this case, Marvin and Smith coffee shop managed their business affairs efficiently.
- Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)
This ratio is found by dividing net operating profit (EBIT) by capital employed. It shows how a company generates profit from capital employed (it shows how much profit each dollar of capital employed into the shop generated). For the case of Marvin and Smith coffee shop, Hank and Patty each contributed $50,000 and their friends helped them raise another $100,000. Thus, total capital employed is $200,000
ROCE = net operating profit/ employed capital
ROCE = 26,800/ 200,000
This means for each dollar Hank and Patty invested, the shop made 10 cents of profit. Normally, investors are keen on calculating this ratio because this ratio shows company’s average borrowing rate (Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson 2017).
- Liquidity ratios
- Current ratio
This ratio measures the shops ability to pay both of its short-term and long term obligations. This ratio is calculated by dividing the shops current assets by its current liabilities. A higher ratio point out that the company is more liquid. However, Hitt, Ireland, and Hoskisson (2017) suggests that the commonly acceptable current ratio is 2 and ratios less than one indicate that a company will have difficulty fulfilling its current obligations. Nevertheless, a very high current ratio is not desirable because it shows that the shop is not using its current assets efficiently.
Calculating this ratio for the case of Marvin and Smith coffee shop is as follows
Current ratio = current assets/current liabilities
Current ratio= 35,400/ 6,200
This shows that Marvin and Smith coffee shop is not using its current assets efficiently. Therefore, Hank and Patty must find ways to invest this capital efficiently. Ceteris paribus, creditors will always prefer to lend to companies with high current ratios. So Hank and Patty will not have trouble finding a creditor when they decide to expand to France.
- Acid test ratio/quick ratio
This ratio measure a company’s ability to pay its short-term obligations using its most liquid assets (assets that can be quickly converted to cash). Financial analysts regard this ratio as a measure of company’s financial strength or weakness because it shows the company’s short term liquidity.
Quick ratio= (current assets-inventory)/ current liabilities
So the quick ratio for this shop is
Quick ratio = 35,400- 8,000/6200
Although, the commonly accepted quick ratio is 1, this shops ratio is higher than one showing the coffee shop is in a better position when it comes to seeking investors and partners.
After calculating and analyzing the above ratios, it is clear that Marvin and Smith coffee shop has a pretty health financial position.
The overall viability of overseas expansion for Marvin and Smith coffee shop is credible because the shop is in a healthy position. At this point the business does not have external debt and loans, this together with the high quick and current ratios imply that the shop will not have trouble securing loans or finding a interested investor. Furthermore, the café and coffee culture in France is growing very fast with France being the fifth largest importer of coffee and its products. For this reason, Marvin and Smith shop should be established in French where there is prime growing market (Teuber 2009).
Benoit, K. (2011). Coffee production in Vietnam: France, Vietnam, plantation.
Bonin, H., & Goey, F. D. (2009). American Firms In Europe: Strategy, Identity, Perception And Performance (1880-1980). Genève, Librairie Droz.
Clark, S., 2016. Cafes, cosmopolitanism and red tape. CAUTHE 2016: The Changing Landscape of Tourism and Hospitality: The Impact of Emerging Markets and Emerging Destinations, p.1226.
Gordon, D.A., 2015. The Thinking Space. The Café as a Cultural Institution in Paris, Italy and Vienna.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. 2017. Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization: Concepts and cases (12th ed. + LMS Integrated for MindTap Management). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Competitiveness and globalization: Concepts and cases (12th ed, Part 4: Cases, pp. C30-C41). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Kleinman, S.S., 2006. Cafe culture in France and the United States: A comparative ethnographic study of the use of mobile information and communication technologies. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 14(4), pp.191-210.
Koslofsky, C., 2017. Parisian cafés in European perspective: contexts of consumption, 1660–1730. French History, 31(1), pp.39-62.
Kraulis, J. (2014). An armadillo in Paris.
Landweber, J., 2015. “This Marvelous Bean”: Adopting Coffee into Old Regime French Culture and Diet. French Historical Studies, 38(2), pp.193-223.
Luttinger, N. and Dicum, G., 2011. The coffee book: Anatomy of an industry from crop to the last drop. New Press, The.
Murthy, P.S. and Naidu, M.M., 2012. Sustainable management of coffee industry by-products and value addition—A review. Resources, Conservation and recycling, 66, pp.45-58.
Pendergrast, M., 2010. Uncommon grounds: The history of coffee and how it transformed our world. Basic Books.
Raynolds, L.T., 2009. Mainstreaming fair trade coffee: From partnership to traceability. World development, 37(6), pp.1083-1093.
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Annotated Bibliography: Bi Kidude and Tanzanian Culture
DeJaeghere, Joan. Educating entrepreneurial citizens: neoliberalism and youth livelihoods in Tanzania. Taylor & Francis, 2017.
The book describes various aspects of the Tanzanian culture and their respective applications to education and to lifestyle norms. It can be an essential starting point for the comparison of Tanzania’s culture at different temporal positions.
Duke, Selwyn. Influential beats: the cultural impact of music. The New American, 9 January 2014.
Duke describes the relationship between music and culture, asserting that as music changes across generations, so does culture. At the same time, music affects culture in more ways than culture affects music. To support this assertion, the author argues that music can enhance catharsis, can be therapeutic, and can perform different functions in social contexts. As the research makes an attempt to explain how the Tanzanian culture has changed over the years Vis a Vis the changes in Bi Kidude’s music, the article is an essential and relevant resource for guidance in this area.
Ebeli, Eva A. Indigenous musical culture in Ghana: A contemporary perspective. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies 3, 7(2015): 463- 468.
The article discusses the cultural changes that have occurred in Ghana based on musical progression. By mentioning that similar changes have been observed throughout Africa, Ebeli describes three perspectives to considering the role played by music in cultural development.
Lunsqui, Alexandre.Music and Globalization: Diversity, Banalization and Culturalization. Filigrane. Musique, esthétique, sciences, société. [En ligne], Musique et globalisation, Numéros de la revue. 2012.
The article discusses the changes that occur in cultural practices and their outcomes in musical and other artistic practices. The authors opine that as cultures change due to globalization, music is also likely to change in terms of preference as people follow the globalized and changed cultures. A piece that is acceptable today may not be acceptable in future. As such, the paper is relevant as it gives a baseline for consideration of changes that have been reported based on the perceptions of the citizens’ preference for Bi Kidude’s songs.
Musical Club and Bi Kidude. You Tube Videos. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnB7q2G63xU&list=PL7aOuZymyXB44ulmxOoSijyhyCAyr3BWC
The series consists of 167 videos from Bi Kidude and can be instrumental in understanding how the music has evolved throughout the years. It can thus help us in developing an understanding of how the Tanzanian culture and Bi Kidude’s music have interacted through the years.
Shapero, Dean. The impacts of technology on music star’s cultural influence. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 6, 1(2015):20-27.
Like in Lunsqui’s article, the article by Shapero discusses how technology has resulted in the change of how people perceive music in the cultural context. The author purports that media platforms have changed music consumption, especially among the youths, with greater emphasis being on the social connections created between artistes and their fans. This article also enhances the understanding that is to be developed of the relationship between an artiste’s creativity and the consumption of their music.
DeJaeghere, Joan. Educating entrepreneurial citizens: neoliberalism and youth livelihoods in Tanzania. Taylor & Francis, 2017.
Duke, Selwyn. Influential beats: the cultural impact of music. The New American, 9 January 2014.
Ebeli, Eva A. Indigenous musical culture in Ghana: A contemporary perspective. The International Journal of Humanities and Social Studies 3, 7(2015): 463- 468.
Lunsqui, Alexandre.Music and Globalization: Diversity, Banalization and Culturalization. Filigrane. Musique, esthétique, sciences, société. [En ligne], Musique et globalisation, Numéros de la revue. 2012.
Musical Club and Bi Kidude. You Tube Videos. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnB7q2G63xU&list=PL7aOuZymyXB44ulmxOoSijyhyCAyr3BWC
Shapero, Dean. The impacts of technology on music star’s cultural influence. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications 6, 1(2015):20-27.
Peer reviewed articles
Intercultural Analysis of “Lost in Translation”
Culture has the potential to affect the ways in which people behave or relates with one another. It is because culture is a set of interpretations that is shared among people with similar beliefs, norms, social practices, and values which causes them to behave in a certain way. When an individual who does not share the same set of interpretations, beliefs and norms finds themselves among such people, there is a possibility of them experiencing culture shock. There are always feelings of confusion and misunderstanding. The individual may take time to adjust to the new life style before which, they have to look for ways to communicate such as through non-verbal communication to create an understanding with the people around them. “Lost in translation” is an example of a film that clearly depicts intercultural relations through the characters Bob Harris and Charlotte as they relate with each other and the people of Tokyo.
Summary of the film
“Lost in translation” is an American drama and comedy film that Sofia Coppola directed and wrote in the year 2003. The main characters Harris and Charlotte meets in a Tokyo hotel and through their encounters, the audience gets to learn more about intercultural lifestyle. Harris is an American who specializes in films and has come to Tokyo mainly to advertise a film for the Suntory whisky (Lost in Translation (2003) – IMDb, n.d.). On the other hand, Charlotte is a young woman who has recently graduated though her marriage life is not working properly as expected. After encountering each other in the hotel, the Harris and Charlotte develop a friendship. It is evident that Charlotte is used to the Japanese lifestyle and culture while Harris is struggling to understand their lifestyle and mode of communication leading to confusion. However, as he spends more time with Charlotte, he adjusts to Japanese lifestyle and culture making his stay in the country more comfortable.
Analysis of intercultural communication
Throughout the film, it is evident that there is more than one culture involved. Harris is from America and barely understands the ways of Japanese people in Tokyo. In this regard, the producer of the film decided to use the concept of non-verbal communication to show how Harris managed to manage through his daily life and relationships in Tokyo before finally adjusting to the new culture. Non-verbal communication has been used in the film mainly to create meaning in the life of the main character Harris who is an American since he cannot speak Japanese language. While arriving in Tokyo, it is evident through his facial expression which is more of a non-verbal communication strategy that Harris is overwhelmed with everything. It is because everything from the lit-up signage and the buildings are all written in Japanese language making it hard for him to read or comprehend what they mean (Lost in Translation (2003) – IMDb, n.d.). He is not even impressed by a billboard of his where he is promoting a whisky product showing that he is not happy being in a foreign country where he does not understand anything. All these ordeals make him miss home especially his wife and children regardless of the fact that their relationship has been shaky.
On his arrival at the hotel, the negative impacts of intercultural relationships is seen as he cannot fully comprehend what the Japanese people are telling him which forces him to try to understand their messages through non-verbal communication. In this case, the aspect of interpersonal perception which was discussed in the textbooks reveals itself in the film. The interpersonal perception in this case involves the process of interpreting and also observing the ways in which people behaves and perceives things. It is the only way in which Harris was able to make sense of the world around him without which, his mission to Tokyo could have not turn out successful as expected.
However, things turned out better for Harris when he met Charlotte who is also an American. They find a strong connection based on the fact that they share the same culture thus easily understand each other. Though the two are in an environment where they seem vulnerable because of cultural difference that can lead to stereotype, it is evident that Charlotte has a strong connection with the Japanese people that is why she has few friends she can relate with properly. However, just like Harris, she too does not understand Japanese language. While in hospital, the audiences are able to point out how she struggles to understand the doctor’s explanation regarding what was wrong with her toe. It is evident that the Japanese people are stereotyping on the American since they cannot understand their language. The two Japanese ladies at the hospital whom the audience see laughing at Charlotte and Harris because they cannot understand the doctor’s prescriptions are perfect examples of stereotype related to intercultural relations.
In the end, though Harris and Charlotte underwent through culture shock in Tokyo which led to the feelings of confusion, anger and loss as a result to difference in language and social rules between the American and Japanese culture, the two managed to adjust to life after finding each other. After learning more about Japanese culture, Harris came to appreciate their lifestyle and this is seen when he calls his wife informing her that he is considering living a healthier lifestyle something which he acquired from the Japanese cuisine. He also managed to have fun while speaking with the Japanese people rather than considering himself as an outsider.
Lost in Translation (2003) – IMDb. (n.d.). The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Retrieved May 13, 2012, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0335266/