An Outline of the Bible Context
The bible is a holy book from where Christians derive morals and reflect on their lives based on its teachings. It is written chronologically starting with an explanation of the beginning of human existence onwards to the spread of mankind in the entire world. The New Interpreter’s Study Bible presents a commentary on the bible history and readings compiling them according to their mutual relationship. The Holy Scripture has been composed by human authors in the ancient Greek context, however; it contains a distinctive mode of presently (Micklesen 134). The literature employed in the entire book is quite different and it encompasses the historical- critical method.
Genesis is the first book in the bible that explains the beginning of life and the creation of the whole world. Petersen and Roberts identify that there are two creation stories in Genesis chapter one and two in the Bible (6). The first creation story found in Genesis chapter one, describes the earth as a dark and formless void that is suspended over primeval waters. On the contrary, the second version states that the world began as a dry desert that had no single source of water. The two versions contradict but Petersen and Roberts assert that the second version was recorded before the first theory of creation was recorded (9). In a critical thinking context, the two theories do not correlate because the first version describes the earth as a habitable environment that promised happiness to mankind. But the second version presents earth as a wilderness and it is evident that a desert has been associated with adverse effects. It is in this way that an individual accounts for a critical view for different stages in biblical revelation.
The second critical biblical approach lies in the figurative language employed in the bible. It tries very much to avoid a full description of a character; for example, Joseph is only defined as a handsome man and no further description is presented (Petersen and Roberts 45). Personal description is avoided and readers are left to figure out; for instance, a reader will decipher that Jacob is a cunning character because he is constantly seen deceiving his brother and Laban his brother-in-law. Similarly, the suspense is employed in the bible; for example, it singles out the history of Abraham and excludes other families. In addition, the Bible uses narrative exegesis to explain the events and occurrences recorded in it (Micklesen 124). This method is still used up to date and it helps the reader to distinguish between the persona, the author and other related characters. Narrative exegesis helps in facilitating the identification of the characters (Petersen and Roberts 47). Additionally, the Bible gives the reader an opportunity to evaluate and reflect his life according to its teachings. Evaluation is a method of literary analysis where the reader can comprehend and learn from the message being portrayed. On the hand, the Holy Scripture includes personal biographies where the authors are still the persona.
The history presented in the book of Genesis aligns with the critical analysis of literature reading. First of all, it involves narration, it employs figurative language and also it creates suspense (Petersen and Roberts 121). In addition, the bible has personal biographies that have individual people lives illustrated in it. Therefore, the bible utilizes stylistic methods and historical and critical writing methods.
Mickelsen, A B. Interpreting the Bible. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, 1966. Print.
Petersen, David and Roberts, Beverly. The new interpreter’s bible one-volume commentary. (2010). Abingdon press. Web.
Haiti after 2010 Earthquake
Building Code Which Were Not Enforced
Some of the building codes that were not adhered to that led to the collapse of building after the earthquake included the disregard for the building codes by the constructors, neglect of the people to get building permits, ignorance of the government inspections, among other factors (DesRoches, 2011). If the building codes had been followed to the latter, the known places capable of earthquake attack could not have been put under construction. This would have totally prevented any collapse of the building or fatality. At the same time, weak building materials would not have been used. Places known to be earthquake zones would have been constructed using seismic resistance materials, and this could have arrested the situation (Lies, 2011). The building codes advocates for a person to get building permit from the relevant authorities. If this was followed, the necessary advice would have been offered thus reducing the impact of the seismic shocks through early warning. As construction continues, allowing inspectors to inspect the building thoroughly would have ensured that minimal errors in the stability of the building. There was also a poor building safety record.
Construction Methods Used in the Collapsed Buildings
According to the building experts, earthquake resistant building is likely to cost more than unstructured buildings. Due to the poverty level in Haiti, many of the walls of the buildings were constructed using cement earth, stones or bricks. This reduced the costs but left the buildings being weak. At the same time, many of the constructions in Haiti had been constructed along hills and slopes and had no proper foundations thus making them easy target.
Advancements Made After The Earthquake
Prior to the earthquake, formwork was being used as a partitioning alternative to wood in the buildings. At the same time, heavy masonry walls instead of steel, cement and aggregate was being used ad it led to the buildings having low ductile and strength (Lies, 2011). After the earthquake, the construction advancement in Haiti embraced the use of reinforced concrete and steel frame construction. Instead of the formwork, it has was emphasized that the inside walls be built with masonry. Other advanced technologies included the use of dampers to absorb shocks and enable the buildings to withstand seismic shocks and the use of steel elements when constructing buildings (Lies, 2011).
Emphasis of Construction Today
The emphasis on the constructions in Haiti entails better construction for a better protection. In this, the relevant authorities have been involved in making and adopting building standards, implementing them to reduce any impact that seismic waves would bring (Bilham, 2010). At the same time, the modern buildings have been designed to have better foundations and built based on the building codes set.
Major Changes Occurring in Haiti Today
After the earthquake, some considerable steps have been taken in regard to the education and health status of the Haitians. Although the people are very poor, they are very rich in cultural values and this makes the country attract many tourists who come in large numbers to view the various scenarios of the state. Politically, the state is not stable since it has been faced with corrupt officials and political violence. The country has been having increased hotel construction and has been guaranteeing its visitors safety. The crime rate has been reducing and it is ranked the lowest in the Caribbean. The country has an untapped and unexploited market that has been helping many small ventures to become giants. The refurbishment of the hotel and tourism industry has helped the country generate foreign exchange while at the same time providing direct and indirect employment to the majority of the poor citizens.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Bilham, R. (2010). Lessons from the Haiti earthquake. Nature, 463(7283), 878-879.
DesRoches, R., Comerio, M., Eberhard, M., Mooney, W., & Rix, G. J. (2011). Overview of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Earthquake Spectra, 27(S1), S1-S21.
Lies, A. (2011). The earthquake in Haiti. Edina, Minn: ABDO Pub.
Intelligence v Intelligence-led Policing
It simply refers to information that has been analyzed to help policy makers in the decision making process, particularly decisions about possible threats to the security of a given country (Dutton, 2014, p.1). The term intelligence is used by FBI and the intelligence committee of the United States in three distinct ways: Foremost, it is a product that comprises of information that has been refined to attain the needs of the policy makers. In addition, it is a process that can enable an individual to identify, gather, and analyze information. Lastly, it refers to the individual organization that converts raw information into a complete intelligence product useful for decision makers and the entire community of these organizations.
It is aimed at finding out the main criminal activities. After identifying and quantifying crime problems through intelligence evaluations, the main criminals can now be investigated and prosecuted. Targeting persons and groups that are accountable for vital wrong activities in Kent resulted in the decline of these activities. The U.S intelligence-led policing have gained from the current progress of fusion centers that caters for multiagency policing requirements. These fusion centers are responsible for offering information to management, patrol officers, and other agencies that take part in particular criminal activities (Ratcliffe, 2008, p.120). For instance, they may hold up anti-terrorism and other specific aims of an offense. The centers may look for various personal and public databases to collect and analyze information. They may also come up with their own intelligence products, giving general idea of terror and criminal activities. Several fusion centers were founded in the United States since 2003. Presently, there are at least 25 states that have fusion centers. The Lowa fusion center is one of the state’s Law that is used to enforce programs aimed at preventing terrorism.
These centers serve as a clearinghouse for all homeland security for the potentially applicable that enables them to interpret data and information appropriately, evaluate, and come up with preventive measures. It has varied goals for instance; having an information management system that is centralized, offering a center for statewide strategic intelligence.
Fusion centers are also provided with finances through state and centralized sources. The major objective of a center can be limited to anti-terrorism, but in most cases it may include important offenses, or targets various categories of crime for example armed robbery, identity theft, money laundering, cigarette smoking, and document fraud. Good policing simply implies good means of preventing terrorism (Ratcliffe, 2008, p.120). This implies that professional policing of any type is significant in uncovering intelligence related with both conventional crimes and terrorists groups. This approach assists in balancing the present emphasis on anti-terrorism activities with the traditional anticrime attempts. Majority of the line officer want to describe their responsibility in terms of fighting terrorism. Intelligence-led policing can assist in expounding their contributions in this view.
It is the essential information to safeguard the nation. The Director of National Intelligence is responsible for establishing intelligence needs basing on the received instructions from the homeland and national security advisors, and the president (FBI, 2014, p. 1). The establishment of the requirements is based on vital information required to defend the United States from criminal intimidation and national security. The Director of FBI and attorney general take part in formulating the requirements of the public intelligence.
Planning and Direction
It entails managing of the whole project, from gathering of information to distributing an intelligence product to the customer. It also involves coming up with plans that satisfy requirements imposed on FBI, as well as looking for particular collection requirements depending on the needs of FBI. The leader of intelligence planning and direction for FBI is the executive assistant director for the National Security Branch.
It refers to assembling of information that focuses on the requirements. Collection of intelligence can effect from activities like discussions, searches, and human resource operation.
Processing and Exploitation
It refers to changing the collected information into a type that is utilizable by analysts. This is carried out through various methods for instance reducing data, translating languages, and decryption. Processing involves recording raw data into databases where it can be used by various analysts.
Analysis and Production
It is described as the changing of unprocessed information into intelligence. It involves incorporating, assessing, and scrutinizing the available data, and preparing intelligence products. The relevance and dependability of information is evaluated and weighed (Lowenthal, 2006, p. 24). The information then becomes useful in producing intelligence. The raw intelligence is called the dots that refer to personal pieces of information circulated independently. Finished intelligence reports “connect dots” by making sure that the information is relevant to the context and coming up with conclusions.
It refers to the delivery of unprocessed or processed intelligence information to the customers whose needs instigated the intelligence requirements. The dissemination of information by FBI is through three ways: Intelligence Information Reports (IIRs), FBI Intelligence Bulletins, and FBI Intelligence Assessments. The intelligence products of FBI are offered on every day to the head of the state, attorney general, and clients in the entire FBI. The FBI intelligence customers come up with information depending on the information they receive (Shulsky & Schmitt, 2002). The choices may result in imposing additional needs which results in a continued FBI intelligence cycle.
Dutton, J. A. (2014). Lesson 7: the intelligence process. Retrieved on 11 March 2014 from: <https://courseware.e-education.psu.edu/courses/bootcamp/lo07/09.html>
FBI. (2014). Intelligence defined. Retrieved on 11 March 2014 from: <http://www.fbi.gov/about- us/intelligence/defined>
Lowenthal, M. (2006). Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy. (3rd Ed). Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Ratcliffe, J. H. & Guidetti, R. (2008). State police investigative structure and the adoption of intelligence- led policing. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies \& Management, 31 (1), pp. 109-128.
Shulsky, A. N. & Schmitt, G. J. (2002). Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Secret Intelligence. Washington, D.C.: Brassey’s, Inc.
Justice and crime
An Ethical Police Officer
An ethical police officer is one who never betrays his or her integrity by engaging in unethical behaviors and who is able to hold himself or herself accountable for any actions that he/she undertakes. He/she is that person who upholds the rule of law and acts impartially, justly and looks at the interest of those people whom he/she serves. An ethical police officer promotes understanding and preserves the dignity of human beings.
Unethical Law Enforcement Officer
An unethical police officer is an officer who even upon taking oath of office/work engages in acts that do not depict the characters of police officers. By this I mean, it is he/she who serves with partiality and engages in antisocial and unethical behavior, an example of this is how Ernest Cecil, a police officer at metro police assisted his nephew who was a drug dealer. It is indicated that he and another officer stopped a cocaine dealer, handcuffed the man and took the 3kgs of cocaine, which was given to Cecil to sell on the street. This shows unethical conducts of the officer.
Appropriateness of an officer accepting a free cup of coffee
Though it has not been proved that accepting free coffee leads to increase or reduction of corruption, there is a notion that accepting a cup of coffee or eating a discounted meal may amount to the law enforcing officer acting with partiality towards the person who offers the cup of coffee. The act is inappropriate since it may degrade the role of the police. The officer getting free coffee or discounted lunch may be required to protect the business owner. The seller will do so expecting some preferential treatment from the officer on duty. By accepting the gratuities, the possibilities of being corrupted are many. By accepting free coffee, the owner of the coffee shop expects some preferential treatment by being protected the time the police are in the inn. The continued receiving of gratuities will amount to the officer falling on a slippery rope and become corrupt in future. The cost does not matter since whether a cup of coffee costs $5 or $ 1000 or a gratuity of $1000, it may lead to the police officer compromising his nature.
Whether a bad act makes a good law enforcement officer ethical or unethical
I think the end justifies the means. If a good law enforcing officer does a bad act, the results are negative consequences of the act. This being the case, a bad act explained in whatever means cannot produce ethical judgment, though it may seem so. What people do is to rationalize issues and assume that a bad act done can be justified to be ethical, which is a fallacy.
Should one compromise to be part of a team?
However good and important it might be to be in a team, one should not compromise his/her values in order to fit in the group. Take an example of a team that contains drug abusers of a peer group that smokes. Should a person smoke in order to be part of the group? Of course not. A person should always live by his/her principles. Good behaviors can be emulated but bad behaviors cannot be condoned.
Ethics of misrepresenting oneself
Utilitarianism theory advocates for an individual to undertake ethical principles that maximizes the happiness of the majority. In utilitarianism, the consequences of the acts matters more compared to the motive of the agent. For example, if one misrepresents him/herself to be a cop where in actual sense he/she is not and prevents unethical behavior, could this not be a good idea. Or if a law enforcing agent misrepresents him/herself as a drug dealer and arrests drug sellers, is it not fair and better since vices will be minimized in the society. In the light of the above, misrepresenting oneself during an undercover mission can be ethical as long as the moral standards are not violated. Under the utilitarianism theory, as a public servant, one is most loyal to the state, then the citizens and then to the force. The rationale behind this is that the agent that means to uphold the rule of law, the state, is given the most priority, then the law enforcement agency because it gives the mandate to the officers to undertake their duties. The last people who are given consideration are the citizens because they are supposed to be the law abiders.
Milestone ~ Final Project
The current administration’s economic policy
Economic policy refers to the actions that the current governments in their respective countries take to influence as well as to control how the economy is presently behaving. This caters for the settlement of operating interest rates as well as the countries budgets that are suggested by the governments. This in return has two roles to play in the field of economics, which is, to ensure economic growth and maintain tax revenues collectible amounts. In addition to this, economic policy stimulates other indicators of the economic boundaries as well, according to the economic periods that influence the manner in which the economy operates in the economic field. Depending on the economic period, the governments in their respective countries tend to alter their economic policies to protect certain interests that could benefit the government as well as the citizens.
Though the country has made attempts to enable it recover from a period of recession immediately at the end of the World War II, it still experiences some challenges in its economic growth. The realized economic growth rate at which its current sectors in the economy have been growing at has been estimated to be almost half of any other rate that has been recognized during the recovery periods. The recession period ended in 2009, and since then, 2.4% has been the estimated growth rate in the economy (Smith, Kellstedt & Goth, 2009). To address the issue, some economic policies have been implemented to ensure that the economy recovers from recession at attains a higher growth rate in all its sectors. The policies that have been suggested to be effective are the Keynesian policies, which are different from the applied policies during the great moderation period.
The bible prophesies that the economy would collapse in the last days. Though not mostly addressed by the media as well as governments, the bible calls for those who have been made too blind by the two parties, the government and the media, to open their eyes wide and see the fulfillment of these prophecies. It states that the last days would be characterized by the the collapse of the world economy, which will consequently attract superpowers and wars. Martial law on the rich elites as well as impoverishment would be seen. In these days, even the wealthy nations, like America, China and Japan are experiencing lapses in their economies, fulfilling what was prophesied (The Bible).
According to Gwartney, Stroup, Sobel
and Macpherson, business cycles have frequent rising and falling of the prices
of the stocks in the market commonly known as inflation and deflation
respectively. Another indicator of the
poor economic situation currently in the country is the high ratio of the debts
of the households to their income in their hands (Gwartney, 2009). Irrespective
of the traumatizing situation, America
has been on top in its economic growth making it a superpower globally, which
is another fulfillment of the prophecy from the bible. The main role of the
Keynesian policies that have been adopted currently is to heighten the impact
of the multiplier regarding fiscal policies. Nevertheless, these efforts do not
improve the situation to a great height. This is evidenced by the fact that the
multiplier of what the government has been spending is always below one
Gwartney, J. D. (2009). Economics: Private and public choice. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Gwartney, J. D. (2013). Microeconomics: Private and public choice / James D. Gwartney. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Smith, C. E., Kellstedt, L. A., & Goth, J. L. (2009). The Oxford handbook of religion and American politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
The Bible, NIV Version.
Importance of Play in Education
The article has been paraphrased from the article “Acknowledging Learning Through Play in Primary Grades” pg 146-147
Importance of Play in Education
There are three significant importance of play; cognitive, social and physical.
Cognitive skills are the ability to understand a given concept or idea through experience. Better understanding of facts requires an interactive engagement in the learning process; (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).This can be done by changing the classroom environment to be more accommodating. Teachers can make the class room environment playful thereby gives children opportunity to be able to make choices on their own and enjoy learning. The freedom of choices makes children have confidence. While playing children make certain decisions and therefore experience the effect their actions have. Through this, they learn from their actions. Children that are usually directed on what to do always miss out on the chance of bearing consequences for their own actions thus will not learn to control their actions. On the other hand, children that are left to make their own choices have an upper hand to make wise choices. Theorist like Dewey, Vygotsky and Piaget believed in interactive learning to nature cognitive skills (Mooney, 2000).During plays, children build their understanding of concepts as they share ideas, select activities and find solutions to problems.
Play is an important avenue of having child’s literacy skills put into practice hence develops language literacy. Learning begins in the use of language and listening. As children play, they have better understanding of language and its usefulness in interactions with people in their environment. During a play, children not only develop oral skills in a given language but also learn how to read and write it since at the end of primary age they are expected to be fluent in speaking and writing. Children’s involvement in plays gives them an opportunity to hear and practice new vocabularies therefore have better understanding of how language works. Primary teachers should place literacy materials such as signs to read, flannel boards, word spelling magnetic letters and tape players that record children’s own stories. These kinds of plays also help to develop children’s language skills.
Piaget believed in children interacting with materials around their environment in order to understand concepts (Mooney, 2000).Interactive learning builds knowledge about the world around children such as certain materials can assist in understanding certain concepts in mathematics and science. Puzzles aid in understanding spatial concepts, pattern blocks helps making geometric shapes while magnetic exploration allows children to understand magnetic forces and discover the difference between metals and non metals. These materials therefore enable children have better understanding of various mathematical and scientific concepts that can be applied through their lives (Elkind, 2007).
Teachers are put into task to aid children nature social skills that will enable them interact with people efficiently and effectively. Play ensures that children interact naturally. Children practice several social skills such as cooperating, negotiating, listening and sharing (Spodek & Saracho, 1998). While playing, children take on roles that characterize their life experiences such as one playing the role of daddy and the other the baby. Moreover, the social aspect of play enables children practice certain skills that are needed in the school curricula. Sociodramatic play provides an avenue to learn the values of currencies while playing store. Through cardboard spaceship, children learn new vocabularies while as children prepare menus while playing pretend restaurants they develop writing and reading skills. Furthermore as children play they may create or re-create rules of games so as to suit different scenarios. During conversations of creating game rules enables them to negotiate, discuss and analyze various scenarios of game.
Lastly, playing has been associated to healthy development of the body. Studies show that various plays enhance different parts of the body. A young infant’s play movement largely contributes to his locomotive movements. Children at the age of five months adopt the ability to reach and grasp by playing particular objects and surfaces that lie around them(Bourgeois,2005).By eleven months, infants prefer certain objects of play and would be able to manipulate them in more complex ways(Schneider,2009).Through manipulation of objects during the play, children gain object control skills such as ease of grasp of object(Bourgeois,2005).As children get older they acquire more locomotive skills as they play such as standing,sitting,walking and crawling.
The major reason of encouraging play in earlier years of life is to promote physical health as low physical activity level may lead to health problems at old age. Inactive children are more likely to be obese at childhood and as adults. Adult obesity causes heart diseases, cancer, diabetes and other complex medical conditions (Hassan, 2005). Children that rarely engage in play have greater health risk in factors such as high cholesterol levels, triglycerides and blood pressure. These factors may begin showing from as the age of four years. These studies should lend an urgency of increasing the levels of play in schools and at home. Therefore parents and teachers should enrich plays that strengthen physical development.
Bourgeois, K. S., Akhawar, A. W., Neal, S. A., & Lockman, J. J. (2005). Infant manual of objects, surfaces, and their interrelations. Infancy, 8, 233–252.
Brooks, J.G., & Brooks, M.G. (1993).In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms.Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Elkind, D. (2007).The power of play: How spontaneous, imaginative activities lead to happier, healthier children. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.
Hassan, M. K., Joshi, A. V., Madhavan S. S., & Amonkar, M. M. (2005). Obesity and health- related of life: A cross-sectional analysis of the US population. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1227–1232.
Mooney, C. G. (2000). Theories of childhood: An introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget and Vygotsky. St. Paul, MN: Reedleaf Press.
Schneider, H., & Lounsbery, M. (2008). Setting the stage for lifetime physical activity in early childhood. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 79(6), 19-23.
Spodek, B., & Saracho, O.N. (1998). The challenge of educational play. In D.Bergen (ED.), Readings from play as a medium for learning and development (pp.11-28). Olney, MD: Association for Childhood Education International.
Constantinian the Great
Between 306-337AD the Roman Empire was under the rule of Constantine the Great who was he first Roman Emperor to profess Christianity. This led to the development of a Christian Empire and by extension the growth of both the Byzantine Empire and the Western culture in the medieval period (Baker 5). Other than engaging in numerous battles and ruling Rome alone, Constantine the great is also celebrated for the introduction of new architectural design, the martyrium and the basilical Church (Krautheimer 123). This paper will focus on these architectural techniques, their functions and their origins.
Functions of the basilicas and martyrium
Constantinian basilicas were halls designed for large gatherings. These gatherings included among others gathering for the township, they acted as market places, gatherings for judicial sessions, military drills, theatres, reception halls for the wealthy and consequently as throne rooms for royal fortresses. The basilicas would later serve as Christian churches and places where the remains of the apostles were buried (Krautheimer 122).
One of the best-preserved Constantinian basilicas is the one at Trier. When Constantine ruled Trier as Caesar in the years between 305- 312 AD, the basilica was built. It served as the greatest audience hall in which the Constantine sat to receive reverence and bestow justice. This was because the basilica’s audience hall was attached to the palace. Other than the basilica at Trier, Constantine built another basilica in Rome that was attached to Lateran Roman palace. This basilica was to serve as a cathedral for the Christian bishop and his flock (Krautheimer 117-118).
It is important to note that Constantinian basilicas that served as cathedrals for Christian congregations fall in the same category in terms of design as the basilicas that Constantine laid down for other secular functions. All basilicas had an architectural role of public monumental buildings. They were built with Constantine’s monetary and political support as part of a political initiative. They were just as other basilicas meeting and audience halls. These basilicas shared similarities in size, modest construction and extravagant adornments (Krautheimer 130).
Constantinian basilicas were also built in commemoration of Apostles. This introduced a new form of architecture called the martyrium. A martyrium was a structure erected to bear witness of Christian faith. These were forms of commemoration of Christian martyrs often built on their tombs. They were sunken to bring pilgrims closer to the martyrs. Constantinian basilica at Holy Sepulchre was an example of a martyrium (Armstrong 13). This basilica took the plan of a cruciform, which was in contrast to the longitudinal plan of the other basilicas. The Holy Sepulchre and other martyriums of that time served as churches where the relics of the saints could be brought in addition to establishing the churches on top of the saints’ graves (Armstrong 13).
St. Peters basilica is also one of the great basilicas constricted under the commission of Emperor Constantine. It served as a cathedral for the Christin congregations and as a martyrium constructed in commemoration of St. Peter. In addition, the basilica served as a centre of numerous festivals including the festival of the cathedral of St. Peter on the 22nd February including the combined centenary of St. Peter and St. Paul on 29th June. During these events, Christians who wished to witness these celebrations thronged the basilica as it was designed to accommodate a throng of people (Bannister 31).
Origins of Constantinian basilicas
Architectures in the Roman antique thought in line with the grading of architectural categories and their sub categories. Ideally, the naming was determined by the purpose of the building. Each of these buildings were bestowed with suitable plans, vocabulary and stylist perception. This was concerning temples, funerary buildings, domestic architecture and public architecture. Basilicas, irrespective of their purpose, were property of the public realm. Their positions including their vocabulary had great amount of flexibility compared to other forms of buildings. The designs and eventual construction of basilicas advanced from a purely utilitarian perspective (Krautheimer 123). Those considered as public basilicas of reputation in Rome and other cities had to reflect the magnificence of the Empire and the authority of the divine ruler. This main aim was to use basilicas as tools of spreading political propaganda. Religious buildings in Rome were majorly conservative and the basilicas of this time retained their tractability until the year 300 AD when the architectural field went through a process of break-up and renaissance (Krautheimer 123).
This change in design had its preparation prior to its occurrence. These changes were to appear in both the function and the plan of the basilicas. Any public basilica for example, had both religious meanings and other ordinary functions. Within these new basilicas, the law was to be bestowed as business transactions were legitimately concluded before the image of the Emperor’s heavenly genius. In addition, the thermae basilicas also had this image or an alternative of some other divinity. The effigy whose usual place was the on the apses of the basilica was later relocated to religious edifices. This included the Synagogue at Alexandria, an enormous basilica, bestowed with double lanes but was destroyed in 116 A.D (Krautheimer 123-124).
By the beginning of the fourth century, the revitalization of the statue was complete. This meant that the presence of the Emperor in person or in effigy had become a predominant phenomenon in all basilicas. Under this structure, the borderline between religion, the law and governance in basilicas had been eliminated. This meant that any basilica was to have the sanctuary of the god of earth. The traditional design of basilicas had become obsolete. During the early reign of Constantine the main type of basilica was strictly a longitudinal structure housing throne rooms and accustomed bastions of the Emperor with lavish houses and cottages (Krautheimer 124-125). This included basilicas such as the one at Piazza Armerina built in early 300. As years progressed, basilica designs spread beyond the private and palace basilica. All monumental public basilicas became the responsibility and property of the Emperor (Krautheimer 125). The longitudinal basilica became the best of all basilicas. After 300, Constantinian church basilicas could be understood from the background of raising the church for anonymity and persecution. This made the building of church basilica a public affair (Krautheimer 126).
The construction of Constantinian basilicas and martyrium were an attempt to express power and authority in his the empire. Constantine being the first Emperor to profess Christianity used the opportunity to establish his dominance in the church (Baker 5). Initially basilicas served as market places, judicial offices and the Emperors lavish palaces (Krautheimer 122). With the acceptance of Christianity, basilicas were built to commemorate Christ’s apostles, have a place of worship for Christians and build a sanctuary for the emperor as the early God. The origin of basilicas is traceable to the traditional Roman architectural designs that through renaissance developed the technique of designing enormous buildings especially the longitudinal design that stood out as the best of all the basilicas ((Krautheimer 123, 126).
Armstrong, T, G. Constantine’s Churches: Symbols and Structure. Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 31, 1974
Baker, G P. Constantine the Great and the Christian Revolution. New York: Cooper Square
Press, pp. 5, 2001. Print.
Bannister, T. The Constantinian Basilica of Saint Peter at Rome. Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 31, 1968
Krautheimer, R. The Constantinian Basilica. Dumbarton Oaks Papers, Vol. 21, pp. 1967.
Hamilton and Jefferson
What are Hamilton and Jefferson’s main differences?
Hamilton is a supporter of the institution of a national bank to help ease the trouble of debt incurred in the revolution war. He is insistent that the congress uses the ‘necessary and proper’ cause in the constitution to come up with laws on how the bank will be formed and run. He is the leader of the Federalists who believe that America should have a strong central government that can gather and lend funs to industrialists. Jefferson on the other hand is a republican who feels that the strong central government might lead to tyranny. In this context, Jefferson is against the formation of the national bank by the congress on the premise that they are not allowed to do so unless this mandate falls under the ‘enumerable powers.’ He is assertive that this is not necessary and proper as required by the constitution.
Do you see any Places for Compromise?
There are few chances for compromise between these two persons. This is because their views are formed from their very divergent backgrounds. Hamilton is in favor of trade and industrialization while Jefferson supports farming and rural living. Hamilton is against anarchy while Jefferson is opposed to tyranny. There is little hope in the fact that the values they stand for are likely to benefit the nation only that their approaches conflict much.
How might these two viewpoints reflect or inform the creation of political parties?
The ideologies held by these two men can verily form a basis for the creation of political parties. The Republican stand is that states should wield more power than the central government, and are insistent on freedom. The Federalists on the other hard are more concerned about having order in the society made possible by a strong central government.
Managed Health Care Assignment
- How does managed health care control the health cost?
Managed care refers to the systems and techniques used to control the rendering of health services. It encompasses the process of organizing doctors, hospitals and other health stakeholders into groups in order to enhance the quality of the health care (Kerry and Pam 22). This organization ensures there is transparency in utilization of health funds and resources. In addition, in managed care patients’ charges are set to avoid exploitation by health facilities and they also employ their own staff to avoid doctors being paid by patients which made them exaggerate charges hence saving health cost.
- a) What is organizational integration?
Organizational integration refers to the collaboration among health care service providers and payer groups. The World Health Organization defines it as the organization and management of health services to enable health accessibility in efficient means and in a cost friendly manner (Stone et al 43). Insurance firms form integration with the health facilities to provide quality services to the people. In such integration, patients get insured by their employees and they can pay for their hospital bills through the insurance cover. Integration minimizes the stages and difficulties that a patient experiences while seeking medical attention. The collaboration forms a new structure which is much solid than individual components when it comes to handling of tasks.
- What is the purpose of the organization integration?
The main purpose of organization integration is to promote health safety and prioritizing the quality of the health care delivery systems. A coordinated health care system spawns efficiency and equality in resource allocation reducing costs and ensuring that the systems are financially sustainable (Stone et al 22). With the presence of adequate finances and technology, organization integration provides a link that can channel the resources efficiently from the government to the people. Integration helps in providing joint services by two interrelated health professions such as ante-natal and child health clinics.
- How the long term care financial aspect impact the quality of patient care?
Long-term financial aspect provides for adequate planning for future events to avoid adverse health outcomes in the republic. This implies that the government finances health researches and influence more scholars to focus on health related matters in order to predict the future. This ensures that the republic is prepared to tackle future health problems. Similarly, long-term financing enables the health organizations to purchase drugs in advance to avoid any chance of future shortage. Also, long term financing aids patients who are poor and cannot afford to access quality health care centers due to financial constraints. Finally, long term financing helps the government to save on its future expenditure reducing the probability of a national deficit.
- Discuss the preventive and therapeutic aspects of long-term care
Preventive adverse health care events result to a major financial relief to the government, health providers, insurer and the family of the patient. The United States uses the highest amount of its GDP to finance the general public’s health (Kerry and Pam 30). Therefore, long-term solutions can help to reduce the high expenditure dedicated to health care. On the other hand, therapeutic aspects refer to creating a comfortable atmosphere to the patients suffering from chronic diseases. This can help them feel relatively important in the society and they can be as productive as anybody else. Therapeutic education has decreased the number of admitted patients because they are encouraged and mentored to engage in activities that helps them and the community.
Kerry, James and Pam, Silberman. Managed Care Regulations: Impact On Quality? Quality Management in Health Care. (2000). 8(2):21-39
Stone, Patricia et al. Creating A Safe And High Quality Health Care Environment. (2008). NCBI
Oakhurst Dairy Business
Oakhurst was able to remain in northern New England due to the adoption of sustainable approaches. Most of the family dairy businesses were reduced completely because of external factors such as politics and changes in economic conditions. However, Oakhurst’s survival can be directed towards its strategy developed on lean manufacturing and operational efficiency, development of business value, and continued psychographic-oriented marketing and equity branding. These are the main reasons behind the survival of Oakhurst in the region.
The sustainable practices played an important role in the success of the business. Oakhurst dairy sustainable practices focused on branding, operational efficacy and commitment to the company’s environment and thus, assisted the small dairy processes and relaters. The business also took part in the U.S dairy Sustainability initiatives that mapped and recommended relevant programs to reduce the greenhouse gas effects in the industry. The sustainability helped to create a good public relation with the society and thus, led to the long-term existence in the market.
From 2011, the Bennett family faced many challenges in the operations of the diary business. Some of the challenges they faced include increased costs of fuel and energy, death of Stanley Bennett and lower rates of economic growth in the U.S. Bill Bennett sated that the year was difficult due to increased competition and lower margins. Oakhurst’s strategies to minimize the effects of carbon emissions helped in providing sustainable strategies and practices to control the challenges. The leadership of the business relied on the strategies to reduce carbon emissions to create innovative ways. This sought to improve operational efficiencies, reduction of operational costs and increased profitability in the dairy business. Therefore, Oakhurst was able to handle the carbon emission issues in the community through its operational efficiencies.
New and Improved Rewards at Work
Top employees’ performance is among the driving factors towards overall organizational performance. It is therefore important that employers ensure that employees perform at their optimum if results are to be achieved. Motivation therefore plays a vital role in the improvement of employee and organizational performance. A highly motivated staff often translates to better organizational performance. On the contrary, employees who feel cheated by the system and unappreciated, are likely to leave the organization in search of greener pastures. With the changing times however, reward programs are also undergoing rapid transformation to become more adaptable especially to the younger generation (Smith, 2001). While these rewards and incentives remain purposely for the improvement of bottom-line results as well as individual performance, the innovation in the provision of these rewards has proven quite helpful in engaging employees even more in their work (Datta, 2012). Traditional reward systems have included monetary perks on employees, which have so far been effective. Changes in the corporate and social spheres have however led to more innovative methods of employee rewards that include non-monetary rewards and recognition. These (non-monetary rewards) have been known to motivate employees, assisting in confidence building and job satisfaction. It is however important that these innovative reward programs are tied to specific jobs. Even more is the importance of making a choice between equity-based reward schemes and the creative approaches to come up with a more suitable reward program, as well as the integration of the new reward schemes with the more traditional schemes to allow for variety.
The changing workforce continues to put pressure on organizations to come up with dependable and innovative means of rewarding these young employees, for improper compensation easily leads to lose of these top, creative and innovative talents (Smith, 2011). Purposefully, rewards and benefits are meant to increase employee involvement in work and ultimately improve the company’s performance. Traditional reward programs have been pegged on the monetary benefits that employees get for their work in an organization. Monetary payment will therefore continue to play an important role in increasing employee job satisfaction, however, there are innovative reward schemes, which are not necessarily monetary, but go a long way in increasing employee engagement at the work place. Such benefits cost the company much less in terms of the wage bill, but increase the overall company performance.
The current age of online sales, entertainment and virtually anything poses one of the most innovative ways of rewarding employees, and at the same time improving the company’s compensation strategy. By allowing employees to access social networks at work, use organization email for their personal communication and doing online shopping helps boost the morale of the employees, while improving their performance at work. The online rewards however go beyond these personal communication and shopping into instant feedback programs in which employees get to know the results of their work, which is broadcast across the company website, giving them recognition. Through such a program, employees are capable of seeing, “which colleagues have been honored, or view their department’s success in achieving safety benchmarks” this in essence, eliminates, “the disconnect between a job well done and an award received three months after the fact” (Smith, 2011).
Such a reward and benefits program therefore increases the employees’ confidence in the organization as well as job satisfaction. More importantly, the benefits program works towards the retention of employees and top talent in the organization. Rewards and benefits in this case therefore would include flexible work schedule and a relaxed dress code. Such rewards help in changing the attitude of the employees towards the company and their jobs in particular. The fact that the relationship between employees and the organization is benefits based on the performance of the employees, therefore, demands for care in the rewards program. To put it aptly, “the equity in rewards is a form of implicit stipulation where the organization promises a just and apportioning of rewards as a signal of an objective exchange of rewards for performance” (Datta, 2012, p. 480). Therefore, it is “incumbent on the organization to offer distributive justice through inducements to correctly reward current contribution and effect desired contributions” (Datta, 2012, p. 480).
Compensation has largely been set on the basis of industry and geography within which the employees work (Allen & Helms, 2002). This traditional form of compensation and reward revolves around the HR research on the base levels within a particular industry, market or geographic location. The current shifts in employee compensation however lean towards a more personal-based approach, shunning the traditional job-based tactic. This methodology now focuses on the competencies, skills and knowledge that an individual employee possesses. This is in tandem with industry demand in intellectual capital and technological evolutions in which these two determine the compensation levels rather than the total number of employees. For this trend therefore, benefits and compensations are pegged on an individual’s talent, instead of the job. This compensation therefore goes beyond their base salaries into the benefits, which by definition refer to “compensation other than an hourly wage or salary” (Beam & McFadden, 2001, p.5).
Given that sometimes the number of employees may be overwhelming to the organization (Beam & McFadden, 2001), it is important that in determining the benefits accorded to employees, the benefits be not only meaningful to the employees, but cost effective to the organization, even as they bring in results. A comprehensive reward program that recognizes the employee contribution, even as it offers monetary rewards is thus beneficial to both the organization and the employees. Organizations should therefore align reward systems with its strategies (Allen & Helms, 2002).
For instance, reward systems for product differentiation are more sensible if awarded to employees who foster innovation in the provision of products and services. The rewards, which may include recognition from the management, should however be regular and timely if the effect is to be felt, and modify employee behavior towards the achievement of strategic goals (Allen & Helms, 2002). Such a reward, therefore, provides benefits for specific job descriptions, as seen in awarding recognition, tuition reimbursement or payment for further studies to employees who show innovation in their work.
In search of cost reduction strategies and increase of profits, employees can therefore peg benefits on employees who come up with the best, executable and rewarding ideas. This is especially important, as earlier stated, given the number of employees that an organization may have (Beam & McFadden, 2001). Indiscriminately giving benefits may therefore prove expensive for the organization in light of such huge numbers in employees. Thus, employees who come up with strategies that can help minimize cost for organization can be awarded company stock, membership in company clubs or facilities as a way of motivating them, while challenging other members of the staff to do the same.
Rewarding specific jobs, also referred to as variable pay works as a means of employees’ recognition for their role in helping the company achieve its objectives. Additionally, such benefits act as carrots dangled at employees for their current and future performances (Allen & Helms, 2002). While such benefits are often based on the financial performance of a company, they can be diversified to include such specific job performance as quality in provision of goods or services, increased departmental productivity, milestones in organizational safety as well as teamwork.
While traditionally a reserve of high-ranking executives, variable pay presents an innovative benefits scheme even for lower cadre employees. Merit pay is one such benefit scheme that provides increases in an individual employee’s pay based on the employee’s performance. An evaluation of the employee’s performance therefore determines the increase awarded, and is ultimately embedded on the employee’s salary base. The same applies to a team-based reward, which accords benefits in relation to a team’s achievements. The achievement in this case can be the successful completion of a project or beating a deadline and attaining sales targets (Datta, 2012). Benefits in this case could include monetary rewards, but such benefits as time offs, an excursion or team treats can act as benefits for such exemplary performances.
Even in using these innovative reward schemes, it is important to be cautious in balancing their effectiveness with the equity-based reward schemes. By definition, an effective reward scheme is “a system that is data-driven, equitable, and objective rather than built on biases, prejudices, stereotypes, and conjecture” (Datta, 2012, p. 480). Therefore, there is need for any reward system used to be hinged upon performance and not dubious and unfathomable criterion that will only sow disgruntlement upon employees. Emphasis on clarity, equity and performance for the reward scheme is thus put in the sense that, “performance appraisal systems are more effective when there is a connection between the results of the performance management system and the reward system of the organization” (Lawler, 2003, p. 399).
In a sense, creative reward systems have proven efficient in their motivation of employees. The system has however not been effective, especially in relation towards the rest of the employees in the organization. In reference to GE’s “forced ranking” 20/70/10, the distribution was efficient in rewarding employees within the organization, since it emphasized on rewarding employees who deserved benefits for their performance (Datta, 2012). The results of such a scheme were, on the other hand, disastrous to the organization. The scheme “was unsuccessful because it diluted employee morale and “created a ‘zero-sum game’ that dissuaded collaboration and teamwork” (Robbins, 2005, p. 531). Such a creative rewards program was not only ineffective; it was also the source of a lawsuit.
While innovative reward schemes have a way of increasing the motivation of employees in the organization, they can also be a source of many other organizational problems including unhealthy competition among employees. Ineffective and inequitable reward schemes are likely the cause of changed employee perception, which effectively lead to less motivation of employees in prospective tasks (Datta, 2012). The result of reduced motivation among employees usually has a spiraling effect on the organization and its performance. Thus, not only do employees perform poorly, they also poorly handle customers, which degenerate into a bad organizational image and decreased organizational performance.
The use of an inequitable reward scheme, in favor of a creative approach can only compound problems within an organization. While such a reward scheme may induce individual morale and performance, as seen in GE, it can increase employees’ tendency into litigation against the organization. This is in addition to an overall perception of inequality within the organization, loss of confidence in employee aptitude and worst of all, spark disagreement and tendencies of sabotage towards colleagues, executives and the whole organization (Robbins, 2005). Consequently, an equity-based rewards program is more effective since no single individual, department or unit can be responsible for the overall performance of the organization.
The fact that innovative rewards programs may be prone to inequalities does not mean that innovation cannot be infused into the reward programs. Most organizations use total reward strategies, which offer monetary and nonmonetary rewards to employees (Heneman, 2007), and with them achieve better performance results. In their basic form, total reward programs may not necessarily work for the employees. It is therefore important that these strategies be tweaked to integrate innovation into the total rewards program.
Among the key element of integrating innovation into the total rewards program involves determining what the employees want, rewards that enhance the employee loyalty to the organization, then the development of a total rewards strategy that rewards employees on their value in the organization (Heneman, 2007). By finding out what employees want and working towards integrating these ideas into the total rewards strategies, a marriage between TRP and innovation occurs, which goes a long way in improving employee engagement, retention and positive perception to the organization, and ultimately improve organizational performance.
There is therefore a need to formulate a process that will ensure the optimization of TRP. The first stage for TRP optimization would be the assessment of the current TRP (Heneman, 2007). This assessment will determine the impact of the TRP on employee performance and general organizational performance. The assessment should also be in depth, and look into industry benchmarks, examine current policies as well as collect employee views towards the incumbent TRPs (Heneman, 2007).
The second phase of the process is designing the reward program. It is important that the whole process be undertaken by a team to make the work easier. In the second phase therefore, the team “identifies which employee and organizational attributes to reward and which types of rewards to offer. The team should contemplate all sorts of reward strategies, such as, compensation, benefits, personal and professional development, and work environment” (Heneman, 2007, p. 9).
With the design in place, the next phase should be the execution of the program. Here, the team implements the program with consideration of the eligibility of employees to the program. The team also needs to lobby for support of the program from top management, and put in place measures to determine employee qualification to the rewards program (Heneman, 2007). These should be consistent and valid to avoid any disgruntlement among employees who may feel the program is biased.
final phase of the program, as it is with every program, is the evaluation
phase that measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the program rolled out.
The evaluation in this case looks at the actual results against the set goals.
The goal of the assessment is therefore to relay to the management the
effectiveness of the TRP and assure it of the program’s success.
Allen, R. & Helms, M. (2002). Employee perceptions of relationships between strategy rewards and organizational performance. Journal of Business Strategies, 19 (2). 115-139.
Beam, B. T. & McFadden, J. J. (2001). Employee Benefits. New York: McGraw-Hill
Datta, P. (2012). An applied organizational rewards distribution system. Management Decisions, 50(3):479-501
Heneman, R. L. (2007). Implementing Total Reward Strategies. Duke Street, Alexandria, VA: SHRM Foundation
Lawler, E.E. II (2003). Reward practices and performance management system effectiveness. Organizational Dynamics, 32 (4): 396-404.
Robbins, S.P. (2005). Organizational Behavior, 11th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
Smith, M. (2001). Streamlined rewards, improved results. Potentials, 34(5):66-76
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
The history of the world has been shaped to some extent by the signing of treaties to end wars. One such treaty is that of Guadalupe hidalgo that effectively ended the US-Mexican war. This paper discusses this treaty and highlights how it came about. It also intends to investigate what happened to the Mexicans who found themselves in a new country following the signing of the treaty.
The treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo remains one of the oldest in the history of the United States. It came about as an aftermath of the hostilities that was taking place between the United States and Mexico. The war began in April 1946 and went on up to late 1947. Numerous battles characterized this war and approximately forty thousand soldiers lost their lives. Most of these were Mexican soldiers and only a handful of the US soldiers lost their lives in direct battle. A large number of the American soldiers only succumbed to diseases they contracted in the military camps.
Twelve battles were fought during the US-Mexican war. The Mexico City happened in September 1848. The United States soldiers capitalized on victory in the previous battle to pursue Mexican soldiers who were now retreating to the western parts of the city. General Antonio Lopez and General Winfiled Scott led the Mexican troupes and American troupes respectively. During this final battle, over three thousand Mexican soldiers were killed. After consultations, a delegation of Mexican politicians gave up the war and surrendered the city to the Americans.
The media performed an essential responsibility during this war. Using the telegraph and other print media, information spread at fast rates. Publishers provided information to the fighting troupes as well as the public. In Mexico, the media was used to praise and criticize the war depending on which side of the political movements one supported.
In the aftermath of the military engagement between the US and Mexico, the Mexican government agreed to meet with Nicholas Trist, the United States peace commissioner, to formulate the terms and conditions of the peace deal. Negotiations began, and the key issues discussed were geographical boundary, property rights, and the citizenship of Mexican citizens in the new territories. When an agreement had been reached, General Trist drew up a draft in English, which was translated into Spanish. The treaty was officially signed on February 2, 1848. Ratification followed the signing by both the American and Mexican congress. This was despite opposition from some quarters in both the US and Mexico.
The Mexicans who found themselves in the American territory after the treaty had to deal with issues of civil and property rights apart from social and political inequality. There have been numerous unsuccessful attempts through the courts by the Mexicans to reclaim their land from the United States. The Mexicans in the ceded territory were also unable to acquire full citizenship. This was contrary to the promise of full US citizenship that was preserved in the treaty. They were later offered citizenship but were still considered as foreigners by the Native Americans. The Mexicans in the ceded regions were treated as a minority.
In summary, the treaty was only good because it stopped the bloodshed that was going on in the war. In terms of tangible benefits, the Mexicans were shortchanged because the promises enshrined in the treaty were not upheld. The consequences of the treaty continue to be experienced to date between the United States and Mexico.
The Boeing Company
The Boeing Company was founded in 1916, by William E. Boeing as an aircraft manufacturing plant in the US. At its onset, it had a meager 28 employees whose operating expenses were approximately $700 per week. During this early period spanning approximately 30 years, the company was involved in massive mergers and acquisition in a bid to increase its infrastructure, employee skills, and to alleviate competition from emerging companies. Therefore, following this successful business strategy, the company has grown and diversified its operations to become the second largest global aircraft manufacturer and the second largest aerospace and defense contractor going by revenue accumulation and sales volumes. It has an employee base of approximately 170,000 and is a stock component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
The company’s operations are divided into five main sections: the Boeing defense, space, and security (BDS), Boeing Capital, Boeing Shared Services group, Engineering, Operations and technology, and the Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA). Based on its 2013 annual sales figures, it is currently 30th in the ‘Fortune 500 list’ and 95th in the ‘Fortune Global 500’ list. Its aircraft manufacturing division is responsible for at least 40% of its total revenues generated and its planes are considered as being a part of 75% of the global airline companies, and operate aircrafts in 150 countries globally. Its main competitor is the airbus located in Europe, which is considered as the largest aircraft manufacturer owing to its sales and revenue volumes. In the defense and space division, the company’s main competitors are Lockheed, Gen dynamics, Raytheon, and Rockwell.
The company has continually upgraded and reformed its financial portfolio to suit its growth and development plans. For instance, between 2011 and 2013, the company has reduced the number of its employees by 2000 in a bid to reduce its operating expenses, with the current annual revenue per employee estimated at $514,388. Between 2009 and 2013, the company has also increased its asset valuation from $62.053 billion to its current $92.663 billion. During this same period, its debt has reduced from $12.924 billion to 9.635 billion. The current ratio is used to measure a company’s abilities to pay its debt within the current fiscal year, though investors prefer a low current since it shows ability to grow its portfolio using its current assets. Currently, the company’s current ratio is approximately 1.26, which shows a positive outlook for the company.
In 2013, the company’s net revenues were approximately $86.623 billion, which represented a 5.81% increase from the previous fiscal year. The net profit for this same period increased from $3.9 billion in 2012 to $4.585 billion, with the net profit margin increasing from 4.8% in 2012 to 5.3% in 2013. The operating cash flow is derived from the company’s earnings from sale of products or services. It is generated from a company’s income taxes from earnings before taxes and depreciation (EBITDA), and is used by an investor to check on the value company’s earnings. Currently, Boeing is considered to have an operating cash flow of approximately $8.18 billion, which is a partial figure that financial analysts have used to predict that Boeing has a meager 14% chance of experiencing financial distress in the ensuing two years.
At the NASDAQ, the company’s stock is priced at $121.89, and has had a 52-week high of $144.571 and a 52-week low of $83.52, which represents an 83% lower value than its current value. The company’s average stock daily volumes traded is approximately 4,942,159 compared with a total volume of 6,065,600. The earnings per share (EPS) are the portion of the company’s stock that is apportioned to every share of common stock. Currently, Boeing’s earning per share is estimated at 5.96, which is at or near that of its competitors in both the aircraft manufacturing and defense and aerospace industries. Investors to determine the company’s profitability, especially when compared with its competitors usually use EPS. The price to earnings is another key feature used by investors to determine a company’s earnings and profitability. For instance, a lower PE denotes lower earnings and lower profitability for a company. Boeing’s price to earnings is estimated at 21.57, which is currently higher than those of its major competitors, such as Lockheed (18.23) and General Dynamics (16.73).
According to the company’s dividends growth rate, there has been an incessant increase in the dividends payable to shareholders over the past fiscal years. Data indicates that the dividend payable to shareholders has increased from $1.233 billion in 2009 to $1.642 billion as of December 2013. This increase is representative of the company’s rise in profit margins and reduction in the debt ratio. Another measure of a company’s profit and growth sustainability is the use of the retained earnings. These retained earnings are the portion of the income generated by a company that is left after deductions of taxes, dividends payout, and distribution to the company owners. This amount is used by investors to ascertain a company’s suitability to maintain its growth forecasts through profit retention, rather than liability acquisition. In 2013, Boeing’s retention earnings were estimated at $32.96 billion. The high value of Boeing’s retained earnings is in line with industrial averages that have to retain their income to sustain various investments in the manufacturing sector.
The book value per share is another measure used by investors to ascertain if a stock has been overvalued or undervalued. It is useful for the investor to liquidate his shares safely based on the book value per share since it can act as a price determinant of the common shares. This value is however devoid of such considerations as intangible assets like goodwill, intellectual property, and brands. If the book value per share is currently higher than its current traded stock price, then the company can be considered as been undervalued. Boeing’s book value per share is labeled at 19.90, whose value is considered as being below average when compared to other related companies and their competitors.
In investment circles, firms that have the capability to generate cash flow margins that are more than 5% are considered as sources of income. In the case of Boeing, the company has managed an average cash flow margin of approximately 4%, which is considered as being relatively medium. It is projected that this cash flow margin will be maintained at 3.3% over a five-year term, which shows good ratings for the company. Therefore, based on the data generated from the above analysis, it is plausible to confidently advice clients to hold on to their shares of Boeing since based on current and future projections, the company’s future is bright and its stock will experience a robust growth.
Education and Crime
Education has been held as a strong pillar in the growth of the economy. Scholars have also studied effects of education on other aspects of life. This paper looks at the effects of education on crime by establishing how education impacts on crime. It evaluates the three significant impacts of education on crime mainly, the income effect, time availability and patience and risk aversion nature of educated people. The major benefit of education has been to increase the ability to earn legit income. This reduces the probability that one will be attracted to criminal practices.
The United States of America and the Kingdom republic of Saudi Arabia are two different nations whose policies on education are greatly varying. International reports have portrayed Saudi Arabia as a relatively safe place in comparison to the US. This paper compares and contrasts the incidences of crimes in the two countries. It also evaluates their policies on education and relates them to prevalence of crime. The paper seeks to find out whether education has contributed to reduced crime rates in Saudi Arabia.
Traditionally, education has been endorsed for its benefits to the individual student by enhancing their future earnings. Many people have ignored the social returns to education, and instead, uphold the private returns. The society has had the notion that benefits of schooling can only be drawn from the curriculum course studied. People underestimate the values acquired from the hidden school curriculum that includes honesty, hard work and good citizenship. Other than expanding an individual’s income capacity, education has also been proved to have elements of social returns to the society. One of the social benefits of education as proved by Machin and others is its contribution in reducing crimes (2010). Although many scholars are enthusiastic to establish the private returns on education, as opposed to the social returns, analysts have proven that the level of education attained has a negative correlation to the probability of committing crime (Lochner & Moretti, 2001). This research paper will relate the effects of education on crime. It also provides a comprehensive comparison of education and crime in the United States of America (USA) and Saud Arabia.
How Education Impacts on Crime
Socio-economists have deduced that education may have a negative impact on crime; however, it may not necessarily change one decision to participate in crime (Lochner & Moretti, 2001). To begin with, the income effect of education is an uncontested theory in explaining how schooling reduces incidences of crime. According to Lochner and Moretti, education increases the returns from legitimate sources; increasing the opportunity cost of crimes. An educated person has a higher probability of being in a salaried employment or a successful business venture. Thus, he/she is not likely to be tempted by easy income from crimes. The dual further notes that educated people would find the time spent in custodies more costly with respect to the high wage that they would otherwise be earning.
In addition to higher future income, schooling ensures that children and young adult spends a lot of their time in a learning institution. They, thus, have little time to loom in the streets where they can acquire criminal behaviors. A study by Witte and Tauchen (1994), established that the time spent at school or work in a year is negatively correlated to the probability of getting arrested in that year. Since the need to commit crime is an acquired attribute, exposing young children to criminal activities will increase their likelihood of obtaining the crude behavior. After graduations, moreover, educated people are more likely to join formal employment where they identify themselves with a particular social class. Among the educated class in the society, criminals are despised; thus, the stigma from an earlier imprisonment is high. A person may not be fully accepted back to the society after serving a term in prison. Individuals will, therefore, avoid any crime in fear of being segregated by their fellows.
Education has also been proved to shape a person’s attitude, making them more patient and risk averse. Lochner and Moretti explain that educated people are patient and ready to wait for future returns (2001). They also tend to be risk averse and thus tend to be cautious about the cost of future punishments. On the other hand, school dropouts are myopic and only think instant result. For example, they view schooling in terms of strict curricula, exhausting tests and foregone earning opportunities, as opposed to how it prepares them for future careers.
Conversely, education has also been found to increase particular forms of crime. There are specific crimes that require skills to implement such as cybercrimes and electronic frauds. These crimes- also referred to as ‘white collar crimes’ are organized by highly qualified professionals. According to Machin et al (2010), education may also increase the earnings from criminal activities while reducing the probability of getting caught since the culprits have a high mastery of the technical procedures involved. It is estimated that a rise in average education level may lead to an associated 11 percent increase in white-collar arrests (Witte & Tauchen, 2004). However, this positive effect of education on crimes is marginally insignificant.
Education and Crime in the US
The rates of crime in the US have reduced considerably over the last decades. According to the annual Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) Uniform Crime Report (UCR) the rates of crime in the past 20 years had reduced by half by the 2012 (2013). However, the FBI reports that the prevalence of both violent and property crimes around in the US is alarming. Some states are more prone to crime than others are; in addition, various crimes such as rape, homicide are more prevalent in some states. For example, the homicides with firearms in California were 12 times as much as those reported in Washington in 2012.
The cost of crimes in the US is substantially high and a real burden to the government budget. According to the Alliance for Excellent Education, the local governments spend over $200 billion on crime related cases per year (2013). This excludes the overall burden of crime in the society, which includes loss of properties, lives, expenses of medical care and the unquantifiable trauma following criminal attacks. The government has also registered huge losses comprising of a decline in tax as a result of crime related deaths, bloating police payrolls and the cost of administering the increased number of criminal court cases. The country is, obliged to look for ways to minimize crime activities. One of effective method of curbing the rates of crime in the US has been by increasing the number of post high school graduates, increasing the self-reliant population.
Distribution of violent crimes around the states in the US is negatively correlated to the level of education attained by the residents. According to an analysis by the Justice Policy Institute (JPI), states with high proportion of the population with high school diplomas had lower incidences of violent crimes (2007). In their study, the JPI further established that states with higher rates of college enrollment reported less violent crimes. The overall JPI analysis reveals that the more a given state invests in education, the lower the amount spent on crimes. For example, North Carolina realized a 5.9% decline in crimes between 2000 -2005, the period within which it increased its average cost of education by 45%. Over the same period, Tennessee, which had increased its investment in education by 1.7%, reported an increase of 6.4% (JPI, 2007, p.5).
Studies have identified a significant contribution of public education in reducing crimes since majority crime convicts are uneducated. For example, 75 percent of prison inmates in the US in 1997 had not completed high school education (JPI, 2007). According to the Alliance for Excellent Education, investing in public education would go a long way in solving crime challenges than investing in security personnel. The typical cost of educating a single student in the US today approximates to $12,643. This is relatively low compared to the average annual cost of maintaining an inmate, which is $28,323. The Alliance for Excellent Education further established that increasing the male graduation rate by 10% could reduce murder and assault case by at least 20% and theft and robbery cases by 13% (2013 p2). This can save the nation a devastating figure of $19.7 billion annually.
The US federal government has devolved its education system, in which education policies and curriculum are set at a state government’s level. However, the respective state policies are geared towards ensuring that the maximum social returns to education are enjoyed. To begin with, various states have set a compulsory age starting from 5 to 8 and ending at 16 to 18 years through which a child should be confined in a school (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2013). This ensures that children are not only taught good morals in school, but also have minimal exposure to the wrong doers in the streets. Obligatory education has also been found to increase the literacy level in the US to approximately 99%. According to analysts, increased literacy is among the factors that have contributed to reduced crime rates in the US.
Education and Crime in Saudi Arabia
The crime rates in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have been reporting low due to their strict observation of the Muslim religion. However, the crime analysts Sheptycki and others’ research work has disputed this presumption (2012). In their book Transnational and Comparative Criminology, Sheptycki et al has revealed that crime rate in Saudi Arabia is not as low as reported by the country’s government. According to him, several crimes go unreported since the citizens have no trust with the rudimentary judicial process. However, foreign ministries of different countries are in concurrence that crime rate in Saudi Arabia is low compared to other developed countries.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, despite the heavy punishment on crime offenders, reports cases of, drug trafficking, murder, theft and terrorism. However, the rate of these crimes in Saudi Arabia is relatively lower than in the US. While the crime index in the US stands at 50.52 %, in Saudi Arabia it is only 31% (Peiffer, 2004). Nonetheless, some crimes are more common in Saudi Arabia than in the US. For example, rape is among the most prevalent crimes in Saudi Arabia but least reported in the US. There is scant information about rape cases since majority of the victims do not report. This is because, victims do not anticipate getting justice from the court cases, in some cases, the rape victim may be punished while the culprit is set free. . For example, a 19-year-old rape victim was found guilty of immorality and jailed for six months, and with 100 lashes when she alleged having been raped by seven men.
The Saudi Arabia’s major methods of curbing crimes are through strict rules and regulations, imposing tough punishment to offenders and investing on police forces. According to Peiffer (2004) judicial system of Saudi Arabia has been criticized by human rights activists all over the world. The Kingdom is among the few nations that practice human execution to date. If arrested of what they categorize as major crimes, which includes drug trafficking, sorcery and witchcraft, the law authorizes your execution. Other crimes also attract a fine of instant hand chopping. Of concern, are the claims that crime suspects are not given fair hearing. They are denied the opportunity to be represented by an attorney and are often tortured and forced to plead guilty.
While various governments identify the power of education in curbing crimes, there is no available data to prove that the government of Saudi Arabia recognizes the effect of education on crime. They, however, emphasize on the need of quality education for the growth of the economy. Their education curriculum is highly dominated by the Islam teachings aimed at equipping the learners with a deep knowledge of Qu’ran. The religious focus of the Saudi Arabian education system is, according to sociologists, propagating the philosophy of hate towards non-Muslims. It is designed to make the learners believe Muslims are at war with other religions. Thus, it increases the rates of crime in the Kingdom through promoting Islamism terrorism.
Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is controlled by three different authorities namely the Ministry of Education, the General Organization for technical Education and the Ministry of Higher Education (Hamdan, 2005). Unlike in the United States where education is compulsory, education in Saudi Arabia is optional. Parents are at liberty to decide whether to send their children to school. This has contributed to high illiteracy level in the country where only 84.7% of men and 70.8% of women are literate. Studies in other parts of the world have concluded that high illiteracy level in the community may increase crime rates (Peiffer 2004). Illiteracy could, therefore, be a causative factor of crimes in Saudi Arabia.
Until recently, education arrangement in Saudi Arabia was segregated along sex divide. According to Hamdan (2005), boys are regarded as according to the Muslim teachings and are thus given special education. Contrary to the US where boys and girls are taught in the same class, education in Saudi Arabia is administered as three different systems, which include boys, girls, and the traditional Muslim education for boys. This division instills the vice of gender discrimination in young boys, which they are likely to hold on to adulthood. The view that women are inferior and should be subjective to men has been cited as a factor that contributes to high incidences of rape crimes in Saudi Arabia (Hamdan, 2005). Notably, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia needs to work on its education systems and its response to crime. Although the rates of crime are considerably low in Saudi as compared to the US, their approach and the policies that have seen reduced crimes are not recommendable. The punishments of chopping hands and killing are uncivilized and inhumane. Furthermore, studies on human execution have not proved that it significantly reduces crimes. Their justice system has also been flawed to its unprocedural practices. Generally, any human being should be given a fair hearing and suspects need to be treated as innocent until proven otherwise.
The government of Saudi Arabia’s main objective of the education system is to leap the private returns on education. They aim at developing religion, values while expanding their children’s capacity. However, they need to wake up to the social returns to education. Instead of the high cost of increasing police presence in the streets as a way of curbing crimes, they can increase their investment. This will see them kill two birds with one stone since increasing the literacy level will benefit the country both economically and socially.
Education is a powerful tool in the reduction of crime rates. Investing in education may considerably reduce the incidences of crimes in a country. The effects of education on crimes is a long term venture since educating today’s generation culminates to a safe and secure tomorrow. Education contributes to reduced crime rates by increasing one’s income from legitimate sources, reducing the time available to learn and execute crime and changing one’s attitude towards crime. While education itself has not proven to affect one’s decision on whether to participate in crime, several studies have established a negative correlation between education and crime.
The education system in the US is slightly different from the system in Saudi Arabia. The major difference identified in this paper, however, is their attitudes towards education. The US is consciously trying to leap both the social and economic benefits of education. They use education as a tool to fight crimes among other social vices. In contrast, Saudi Arabia uses education to propel their religious culture, a factor that has indirectly fuelled crimes. Although Saudi Arabia is allegedly among the religions with reduced crime rates, it is important to note that most of the crimes in this kingdom are not reported. Their methods of controlling crimes are outdated and needs to be reformed.
Alliance for Excellent Education (2013). Saving Futures, Saving Dollars: The Impact of Education on Crime Reduction and Earnings . Retrieved from: http://all4ed.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/SavingFutures.pdf
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2013). FBI Releases 2012 Crime Statistics. National press releases.Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/news/pressrel/press-releases/fbi-releases-2012-crime-statistics
Hamdan, A. (2005). Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements. International Education Journal, 6(1), 42-64. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ854954.pdf
Justice Policy Institute (2007). Education and Public Safety. Retrieved from: http://www.justicepolicy.org/images/upload/07-08_rep_educationandpublicsafety_ps-ac.pdf
Lochner, L., & Moretti, E. (2001). The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from prison inmates, arrests, and self-reports (No. w8605). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w8605.pdf?new_window=1
Machin, S., Marie, O., & Vujić, S. (2011). The Crime Reducing Effect of Education. The Economic Journal, 121(552), 463-484. Retrieved from: http://arno.unimaas.nl/show.cgi?fid=20638
Peiffer, E. (2004). Death Penalty in Traditional Islamic Law and as Interpreted in Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, The. Wm. & Mary J. Women & L., 11, 507. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132HYPERLINK “http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132&context=wmjowl”&HYPERLINK “http://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1132&context=wmjowl”context=wmjowl
Sheptycki, J., & Wardak, A. (Eds.). (2012). Transnational and comparative criminology. Routledge.
Witte, A. D. & Tauchen, H. (1994). Work and Crime: an exploration using panel data (No. w4794). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from: http://www.nber.org/papers/w4794.pdf
The American Civil War
The American civil war was a time of national strife in America that lasted between April eighteen sixty one and May eighteen sixty five. The war nearly resulted in the splitting of the nation as several states in the South declared secession from the nation mainly due to their differences in opinion regarding slavery and its expansion into the North. By the time the civil war came into conclusion, several revolutionary legislations had been made including the abolishment of slavery, it also consequently led to the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, the incumbent president. As shown below, there were several events that built up animosity before the war started.
Historically, slavery was not practiced in all of the states in the nation. The fifteen states that practiced it – slave states- were; Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, South Carolina, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Missouri , Arkansas, Florida and Texas. The previous regimes and the leaders of Northern states had been opposed to the expansion of slavery into other regions and through their majority in the Senate and Congress had always defeated pro-slavery motions in parliament through majority vote. The USA however was expanding and had conquered California and Northern Mexico and therefore wanted to make them part of the union which caused division since they were slave states and their admission would have led to the practice spreading due to their increase in numbers. Cuba also wanted to be recognized as US territory and was a slave state and its admission was therefore another source of disagreement in congress. As of eighteen sixty four, the states that did not support slavery, free states, were; New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Maine, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin.
In the compromise of 1850, the south slave owners lost the right to practice slave trade in the capital city however, this did not bar them from having slaves or practicing slavery in Washington, simply from exchanging them for goods, services, cash or other slaves. The compromise of 1850 however allowed for slave owners to pursue slaves even in northern territories that were against the practice. The new laws also made it compulsory for all citizens to return slaves who they knew had escaped from their masters irrespective of the territory that they were in which was a gain for the slave owners. The state of California was however lost as a slave state as it was admitted into the union as a free state where slavery was not allowed (McWilliams 43).
The Kansas- Nebraska Act was created in order to have the railroad expanded and make several areas available for farming specifically in Kansas and Nebraska. The status of slavery in various states was a cause of several political stalemates and in order for the railway project to progress, it was decided that through popular vote the respective states would decide if they wanted to allow or bar slavery. The act therefore undid some of the clauses of the 1850 compromise (Fehrenbacher 96). The Dred-Scott decision was a Supreme Court ruling that set the precedents that Africans did not have any citizen rights and could therefore not represent themselves in court; it also stated that slavery was not to be regulated by the federal government as it was a state’s choice (Fehrenbacher 138).
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was one of the direct causes of the civil war as there was strong opposition of it from the Northerners who felt that as Kansas was initially a free state it should not have slavery as an electoral issue. The act led to many pro-slavery members going to Kansas to vote so as to try and make it into a slave state which is what led to the Bleeding Kansas period where pro-slavery immigrants would engage the anti-slavery supporters in skirmishes in attempts to get the political views of Kansas to change. The bleeding Kansas incident showed how popular sovereignty can on occasions lead to a violent confrontation due to an extremely polarizing issue which has two or more parties feeling that their existence rests on the vote going their way. The incidents also show that just because an idea is right it does not mean that it will receive the political backing of everybody and it can even lead to conflict.
The American Civil War was a conflict that lasted for four years in the nineteenth century that resulted in the abolition of slavery and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln four days after the secessionists surrendered. The origin of the conflict was in the legal status of slavery with the Northern states strongly opposing it while Southern states strongly supported it. Middle ground was reached at the compromise of 1850 however, the treaty of Nebraska-Arkansas undid many of the agreements made in it, making it the starting point of the civil war. As more is studied on it, we can learn more on conflict resolution and how violent outcomes can be avoided.
Fehrenbacher, Edward. Slavery, Law, and Politics: The Dred Scott Case in Historical Perspective. Oxford: Oxford Press. 1981.
McWilliams, Carey. California, the great exception. California: First California. 1974.