Emissions trading which is also known as cap and trade is an approach that is market based used for purposes of controlling pollution through provision of economic incentives for reduction in emission of pollutants. A central power (often government body) is mandated with the task of setting the limit or cap on the pollutant amount that should be emitted.
This limit is sold or in some cases allocated to firms usually in form of emission permits that represent the appropriate discharge or emit. Firms are supposed to have a couple of permits that are equivalent to the level of emissions they make. The permits number should be more than the set limit or cap that limits average emissions to the stated level. Firms interested in increasing their emissions volume must be willing to buy the permits from those in need of few permits.
Permit transfer is known as trade and in effect, buyers pay a polluting charge while sellers are rewarded for their reduced emission. Consequently, those in a position to reduce emissions do so cheaply and they are able to achieve reduction of pollution at the lowest possible cost to the society.
Emissions’ trading is preferable because:
- It is an economically efficient strategy for attaining the desired emission target or reduction cap
- It is designed specifically to deliver an environmental objective.
- It delivers a price signal that is clear and against which abatement investments are measured.
There are various air pollutant programs that are active. For instance in the case of greenhouse gases, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme is the largest and its purpose is that of avoiding climate change that is dangerous. In the US, a national market is available for the purpose of reducing acid rain and numerous regional nitrogen oxides markets. Other pollutant markets however are often small and far localized.
The major goal of any emissions trading is minimization of costs associated with meeting set emissions cap or target. Usually, the cap is a limit that is enforceable and it is lowered over certain duration with the aim of reaching reduction target at a national level. In some of the systems, the proportion of traded permits should be periodically retired leading to net emissions reduction over time.
In most of the emissions trading systems, organizations that don’t pollute and with no obligations can also take part in trading. Therefore, environmental groups have the right to buy and retire emission permits driving the price of those permits remaining high in accordance to demand law. Corporations might retire allowances prematurely as well by donating such to non-profit entities and hence be eligible for tax reductions.
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Commercial revolution refers to the era of European colonialism, mercantilism and economic expansion. This period lasted from the thirteenth century till the start of the eighteenth century and was succeeded by industrial revolution in the middle eighteenth century. Europeans made the rediscovery of silks, spices as well as other commodities which were rare in Europe. Because of this development, the longing for trade was created and in during the second middle Ages half, trade expanded.
Through discovery voyages, European states were searching for new trading routes during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowing European powers the opportunity to build new and vast networks for international trade. Additionally, nations also sought after wealth sources. New economic practices and theories were also created for the purpose of dealing with the new found wealth.
As a result of the contending national interest, Europeans were driven by the desire to increase the power they had over the world through colonial empires. In essence, commercial revolution was marked by increases in general commerce as well as the expansion of financial services like insurance, investing as well as banking.
There are two circumstances that led to commercial revolution. Overseas trade preceded commercial revolution and it had many consequences which included Britain’s fleet expansion. This was an English phenomenon however the Scotts became highly engaged later on. Trade went through 3 long growth periods. In 1475-1550, existing English broadcloths markets and that of other woollens expanded rapidly due to the fact that import regions had become prosperous and they even enjoyed great purchasing power. Secondly, there was rise of new trades due to cheaper English sugar re-exports, calicoes and tobacco which created new markets.
The term commercial revolution was coined during the mid twentieth century by Roberto Sabatino Lopez, an economic historian for the purpose of shifting attention from English Industrial Revolution. In one of his best books “The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages” (1971 available in various reprints) the author argues the key contributor to medieval period was creation of commercial economy by the Europeans which was centered on Italo-Byzantine eastern Mediterranean. Eventually though, this extended to Italian city states as well as other areas of Europe.
The revolution lasted from the thirteenth century through to the eighteenth century. Historians such as Robert S. Lopez, Irving W. Raymond and Peter Spufford indicate the revolution begun in the 13th century and not later. There were several factors that contributed to this period and they include technological, monetary as well as geopolitical factors. During this period the center of European economy shifted from one that was Islamic Mediterranean to Western Europe. This change was a result of successful Africa circumnavigation which opened sea trading with the east.
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Best Essay Format
It is always very important that you know how to choose the best essay format that can facilitate you in writing an outstanding essay paper. By using a properly written essay format, you are able to easily craft a good paper that will attract better results on submission. Read on for insights on how to make an informed choice for essay format.
Knowing how to choose the best essay format will enable you to get proper guidance on how to craft an essay paper. A format refers to a plan or ‘blueprint’ showing how your essay paper will look. Basically, it is an outline of the ideas or points that you intend to discuss in the essay, according to the right order.
Benefits of knowing how to choose the best essay format
Essays are common assignments at school and knowing how to choose the right format will help you in writing top notch essay papers for the entire period of your studies.
Choosing the best essay format is the easiest way to organize your thoughts and information related to the subject of the paper. A good format will significantly help in the clarification of points for a unique essay.
Writing an essay paper always begins with an outline. Besides, the way your outline or format is written dictates how the final essay will look. Therefore, it is always recommended that you know how to choose the best essay format in order to create a unique paper.
In fact, the best essay format will make your work even much easier and fast when it comes to writing the paper. The best essay format will set the pace and tone of the paper so that you have a defined starting point when writing.
Tips on how to choose the best essay format
Students often take different approaches when outlining essay papers. Besides, there are also various essay writing styles to choose from including APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. However, not all can successfully work for you since each has guidelines that must be followed to the latter.
There are certain factors that you should consider in order to choose the right essay format for your paper.
Carefully read the following guidelines to find out how to choose the best essay format.
Consider the type of essay
Whenever you are given an essay assignment to write, it is important that you first determine the type in order to establish the appropriate approach or format to take. In many cases, specifications are given on whether the essay is argumentative, descriptive, comparison or cause and effect essay. If you are not given specifications on the format for the essay, it is advisable that you first get clarification to avoid mistakes.
Understanding the type of essay that you are asked to write will enable you to easily determine what to go for since you will have better knowledge of the requirements.
For instance, a critical analysis essay paper requires you to begin by identifying the purpose of the author, which has to be clearly outlined in the format.
Get to know the topic of the paper
In order for you to make the right choice on an ideal essay format, it is advisable that you also get to know what the paper is about. Understanding the topic will make it less hectic to formulate the right format for a compelling discussion.
In case you do not have proper knowledge of the topic, there is no doubt that even writing the essay will be challenging. Try to do some research on the subject in order to make the right choice for a good essay format.
Understand the purpose of the paper and target audience
Every essay is always written for a particular reason, which must be clearly shown in the text. In order to effectively deliver this, you have to know how to choose the best essay format for the specific paper that you want to write.
For instance, if your paper is a comparison essay, you will need to identify and use a format that can enable you to effectively and fairly present differences and similarities between two subjects to be discussed in the paper.
Based on your audience or readers, there is always a unique approach in writing that appeals to a particular group of people. Therefore, it is also critical that you know your intended readers in advance, so as to choose the best essay format.
Consider the standard essay format
Although there are various formats, it is always advisable that you go for one you are comfortable working with. The standard essay format is straightforward and requires that your format is segmented into three parts; introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion.
The standard format will help you to enhance smooth flow of ideas in the paper. However, it should only be a structure highlighting the key aspects of the paper precisely. Details and explanations should be reserved for the essay. However, the format must give a clear representation of the actual essay.
Look into the length of the discussion
When choosing an essay format, you should also consider the points that will be covered in the paper. Some essays are quite short while others can also be written in several pages. Knowing the number of words for the essay and its length can assist you in picking an ideal format to effectively address all the intended ideas.
By knowing the length of your discussion, you will be able to choose a format that can offer proper guidance on how to comprehensively handle every section of the paper. Remember the length of the essay will also determine how the structure should be drafted and its contents.
Qualities of the best essay format
When choosing the right format for an essay, it should be noted that the format is only a guide or plan. In some instances, there are formats with detailed instructions such that you only need to fill in the blanks with the points for the paper.
The following are some of the qualities of a good essay format that you should also look out for when making choices.
- Clearly show the main sections of the essay i.e. introduction, body and conclusion.
- Highlight the thesis statement
- Indicate the topic sentences for the essay
- Have provisions for examples or evidences that will be used in supporting the argument.
- The format should also clearly show the title of the paper
The best format for an essay paper should also be precise and without too much vague words that could end up confusing the writer. In fact, always ensure that you choose a format which you can easily use in writing the paper without any problem.
An ideal essay format should be one that can enable you to deliver a logical and proper argument when writing the paper. In case you are planning to use formats written by others, it is advisable that you choose those that have been crafted by professionals for the best results.
Examples of the best essay formats
Reading professionally written sample essay formats can also help you in knowing how to choose the best essay format for your paper. The following are some that should carefully read in order to always make the right choices on appropriate essay formats.
Sample format for an essay paper
- Main Points
- Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to the thesis
- Intro and explanation of point
- How pointe relates to the thesis
- Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to the thesis
- Restate subject
- Summarize Main Points
- Restate Thesis
Simply follow this link to find the sample essay format; mcdaniel.edu.
Sample Argumentative essay format
- 1-2 paragraphs tops
- Optional elements
- Required elements
- Optional 1-2 sentences tops
- Purpose; Lays foundation for proving the paper
- Summary or works to be discussed
- Definition of key terms
- Explanation of key theories
- Supporting Evidence Paragraph #1
- Topic sentence
- Explain topic sentence
- Introduce evidence
- State evidence
- Explain evidence
- Concluding sentence
Supporting Evidence Paragraph #2, 3…
Read the whole sample argumentative essay format on this link.
Model essay structure
- Arouse readers interest
- Set the scene
- Explain how you interpret the question set
- Define or explain key terms
- Identify issues that will be explored
- Give a brief outline of how the issues will be handled, in order.
- Argument/ Main Body
- Paragraph One…
Find the whole sample essay format at; web.anglia.ac.uk.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper on a Movie
A reflection paper is less formal as compared to the traditional academic paper. When your tutor asks you to do a reflection paper on a movie, you have to delve into personal observations. Here, you do not build an argument using supporting evidence and credible sources. Instead, you bring out your feelings and thoughts about the movie under analysis. Your greatest task is structuring the paper from personal experience and reasoning, especially after watching the film. This is no easy task. Deep knowledge on how to write a reflection paper on a movie will help you overcome most of these challenges.
See what this handout contains:
- Reflection paper writing tips
- Movie reflection papers
- Examples of movie reflection papers
While this guide contains well-researched strategies from authentic sources, it is a tool to make your writing assignment simpler and not stringent rules to follow. Be flexible and make adjustments any time to meet your homework needs. Are you ready? Let us goo…
Getting Started: How to write a reflection paper on a movie
Always remember that a reflection paper is about you. It gives you a chance to express your thoughts over a book, movie, speech or a debate you attended. In this section, you will find everything you need to know to overcome the challenges of writing a flawless movie reflection paper.
Unless you get instructions from your tutor, always write your reflection paper in the first person. Besides, include concrete examples and cite experts where possible to support your opinion.
To write a good reflection paper on a movie, you need to understand the film. This allows you to give a balanced and informed opinion. As such, take your time to watch the movie several times until you master the theme of the producer.
The following guidelines should help you master how to write a reflection paper on a movie.
Hints to remember when writing a reflection paper on a movie
Do not repeat the story. A response paper is far away from narrating the story to your audience. Do not try this. In fact, do not even bother writing a synopsis of the movie because you do not need it. Your focus should be on the major themes in the film.
Retelling a movie to your audience makes it hard for them to understand what the film is all about even though they may get a clue of what transpired. The secret of a good movie is never in the action but in the message.
In the first paragraph of your reflection paper, introduce the reader to your topic. Say what you are discussing as revealed in the movie.
Provide proper bibliographical information – As you figure out how to write a reflection paper on a movie, be sure to acknowledge every source you use to develop your reflection paper. Format your bibliography using standard styles like APA, MLA, and Chicago and ASA format. For reviews, do not include full copies instead capture the bibliographical reference. For web reviews, make sure you provide correct URLs. Also, adhere to standard referencing rules as you do in text citation of your paper.
Organize your paper in paragraphs. A good reflection paper should have paragraphs, without which your ideas will be disorganized. It would be meaningless to have a perfect storyline yet your ideas are jumbled up. You can also use headlines to demarcate different sections of your paper.
Bring out the movie’s central theme: – Though you have the freedom to talk about a range of issues as you articulate your opinion on the movie, do not forget the main theme of the film.
Present a flawless paper – Endeavour to write a perfect paper without common grammar and punctuation errors. Achieve this by proofreading your assignment. You can also give your final friend to a friend to read it and help you make final touches.
Do not do film critic. Remember that a reflection paper of a film is not a critique of the work. Forget about editing, lighting and other filmmaking processes. The issues, which the producer is passing across, are what matter. If you follow these tips on how to write a reflection paper on a movie, you score high in your coming assignments.
For better understanding of the tips above, let us examine the following example.
Example #1: Reflection Paper on a Movie ‘The Crash’
This movie helped me understand the issues of racial tension and animosity in our society today…It also allowed me to stop for a moment and reflect on my thinking and perception towards people of other races and how I would treat them in case we met…
Among the characters who caught my attention as I watched, the movie was Officer Ryan (Matt Dillon). He portrays a practical example of the effects of our actions to other people’s lives…
The locksmith guy also amazes me in the movie. It is interesting to imagine how he tolerated the crap from the Persian guy and Sandra Bullock…
Adapted from: web.pdx.edu
This is a good example of a reflection paper on a movie. The writer sticks to his opinions and thoughts about the film, as it captures issues of racial discrimination and animosity. To develop his reflection, the writer analyzes different characters in relation to racial segregation. He focuses on those who perpetrate the vice and those you overcome the arising challenges. Note that the writer sticks to the first person pronoun as we earlier discussed.
Hoping that this example has helped you gain more insights on how to write a reflection paper on a movie, let us look at a stepwise approach of handling this kind of assignment.
4 steps of writing a reflection paper on a movie
Movie reflection assignments should be the simplest and enjoyable. Imagine working on a paper that requires you to sit, watch movies and give your views. That sounds interesting.
Movies are a good teaching aid as they offer a different perspective on different issues in life. A reaction paper helps you understand specific materials and appreciate its relationship within your course. Here are some of the steps to help you achieve your objective:
Step 1: Treat the movie as a literature piece. As you watch the movie and piece together your reflection paper, see the film as other works of literature you have studied. Bring out the themes and motifs in the movie. Focus on the characters and state how they affected your perception. In addition, bring out the role of these characters in developing the theme.
Step 2: Select a good focus for your paper. If you are in a history class, your reflection paper may seek to establish the accuracy of the events plus where the movie takes artistic license. For example, explain your connection with the characters in the movie and if this would change if it were a book. Talk about the effectiveness of different characters. For example, who is the most sympathetic person in the movie? Capture scenes or events in the movie, which put you off as you watched.
Step 3: Select the elements to include. As you work out on how to write a reflection paper on a movie, always have in mind the production elements, which stand out in the film. How are the events of the story harmonizing to bring out the main theme?
Step 4: Review your paper. Always take time to go through your completed paper to confirm if you have captured everything according to the tutor’s instructions. Also, check grammar, punctuation, consistency, spelling and language clarity.
Examine the following examples as you reflect on this section:
Example # 2: Reflection papers on a movie
How I Met Your Mother Series is another example of a reflection paper. The writer discusses the movie from a personal point of view, giving opinions and thoughts. An excerpt from the series reads:
After watching how I met your mother, I got a deeper understanding of issues of relationships in our society. I was thrilled by how relationships affect everyone in life regardless of their age or gender. I also find the movie captivating and informing in addressing some of the causes of divorce and separation in the American society today.
You can read the whole essay here and get more wisdom on how to write a reflection paper on a movie.
With this handout, you have all it takes to perfect your reflection writing skills. Read and reread these tops and apply. You’ll do great!
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Also referred to as the Scopes Monkey trial or the Scopes Evolution trial, Scopes Trial is a trial that started on July 10th, 1925. In the trail, John Thomas Scopes who was a high school coach and substitute teacher was charged with having violated the Butler Act by giving lessons on the theory of evolution to his students. According to the act, it was regarded as offensive to teach about any theory that was against the biblical theory of creation. Thus, Thomas Scopes was charged with going against the law by teaching his students that man had descended from apes.
The trial of Thomas Scopes occurred in Dayton, Tennessee. However, it is indicated that the trial was a move that had earlier on been planned together with other events in order to raise public attention. Those who orchestrated the events were local businessmen whose main intentions were that from the publicity stunt, they would be able to get more money trickling into the town. One thing about the entire trial is that the defendant was not even sure of whether he had at one point in time, taught his pupils about the evolution theory.
Just as expected by the businessmen who orchestrated the Scopes Trial, the events attracted many reports from the region. In fact, the trial became the first one to be broadcast on radio. Thomas James accepted to incriminate himself and undergo trial in the hope that the Butler Act would be challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union. Many students were encouraged to testify against Scopes during the trial. At the conclusion of the trial, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. However, the verdict was later on thrown out after an appeal. The impact was that for the next five years, all textbooks in Tennessee were not to bear any mention of the phrase, evolution.
The ruling of Scopes case was a victorious signal for anti-evolutionists. As a result of the ruling, the law would remain in place for the next 42 years. However, it was repealed in 1967. The ruling came as a scare to many teachers such that teaching evolution in class was forgotten. It was only after the act was repealed that evolution began appearing in textbooks and being mentioned in classrooms.
As expected by the orchestrators, the Scopes trial drew a lot of publicity that eventually was good for business in town. The streets that led to the local courthouse were filled with hawkers, vendors and people doing various kinds of businesses. In fact, even booksellers made a killing from the trial since many people were flocking the courts to get a piece of the story. Evangelists too were not left out, most created open-air tabernacles where they encouraged the faithful to read their bibles.
The Scopes trial brought into the light, a trial as well as a theological contest on whether it is right to teach modern science with regards to the creation theory in schools.
Franchising Pros and Cons
To many entrepreneurs who have been successful in building business empires, franchising is an option that may be running through their minds. Franchising is one of the ways of expanding a business and you too may be moved to try it out. However, it is very important to note that just like any other models of business, franchising also has its benefits and demerits. Getting to know them will help you as an entrepreneur to make an informed choice on whether to franchise or not.
One of the pros of franchising is that it can be helpful in obtaining new talent for good business. Many people who are highly qualified and hard workers often tend to invest in running businesses instead of being employed by others in exchange for salaries. Thus, there is a higher chance that by franchising, you are able to get the best talent that can work towards building the business compared to hiring someone to work for you.
Franchising is also a way of obtaining expansion capital for the business without a lot of stress. Since franchisees pay to acquire outlets within the chain, you are able to significantly increase the number of locations without necessarily having to tap a great chunk of your own capital or even moving up and down in search of loans from banks.
When making comparison between starting your own business and franchising, you will realize that franchising is less risky and even costly. Since franchising involves the use of a brand that is already established in the market, there are several costs that are already avoided. Besides, it should also be noted that even though franchisors do not provide financing, many have better working relationships with lenders that can help with issues about financing.
Franchising limits creativity and flexibility on the part of the entrepreneur who is franchising. The reason for this is because the contracts always come with rules that set very explicit standards. In most occasions, the investor who has franchised is not allowed to make any change to the brand but stick to what its owner stipulates. Even if you have a new idea, the franchisor has to agree to it before it is rolled out. This can curtail the efforts of the franchisee to develop the business in the way that he or she likes.
Another con of franchising is that the success of the franchisee is based on the franchisor. The reputation that the franchisee will have in the market shall be a representation of the franchisor’s. This means that any problem that is encountered by the franchisor in the course of doing business will directly impact the franchisee. In fact, investors who fail to do their research well before franchising always find themselves stuck for years after signing the contract.
Just like any other ventures that people may think of investing in, there is no guarantee that franchising is risk-free and more profitable. Choosing to franchise or not is a decision that requires proper research and consultations.
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Pros and Cons of Peer to Peer File Sharing
There many pros and cons of peer to peer file sharing. Peer to peer file sharing refers to sharing of files in a network of connected personal computers. The connected computers share resources in a network that does not involve a separate computer acting as a server.
Peer to peer file sharing is a strategy that is gaining popularity among software corporations. Although this strategy has proved to be beneficial to companies, it has some faults or disadvantages as well. Among the pros of peer to peer file sharing include its easy installation.
Installing peer to peer file sharing network is easy. Computers that are involved in this network are also easy to configure. Thus, it is suitable for companies that do not have a lot of time to spend in installing a file sharing network. If a company does not have an in-house IT department it can also use this network.
In this network, all contents and resources are shared by all peers. This is not the case with server-client network where the server shares the content and resources. This implies that as long as a computer is in the network it can access all files, contents or resources of the architecture.
Peer to peer file sharing network eliminates central dependency. This makes it more reliable because if one peer fails the entire system is not affected. Other peers continue functioning properly when one peer fails. This is not the case with a client-server architecture where the entire system goes down when the server fails.
In addition, peer to peer network does not require a system administrator all the time. The system makes every peer an administrator of their computer. Users are able to control their resources or the shared files. Establishing and maintaining a peer to peer file sharing network is also relatively cheaper.
Among the cons of peer to peer file sharing network include the decentralization of the entire system. This makes administering the system difficult because a single administrator cannot determine the entire accessibility of the settings of the whole network.
The entire network is also not secure. This is because peers can transmit spywares, viruses, malwares and Trojans. These threats can spread from one peer to the other very easily since in most cases nobody monitors the system.
Backup or data recovery is also difficult in a peer to peer file sharing network. Each computer in the network should have a backup system of its own. Peer to peer file sharing network is also not necessarily legal. For this reason, copyrighted files such as music and movies are easily transferred via this network. A good example of this is torrents that use peer to peer file sharing technology.
Generally, peer to peer file sharing network is good when used in connecting a small number of computers and where high security level is not necessary. However, in business networks where there is availability of sensitive data, peer to peer file sharing network is not suitable.
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P2P vs. Client Server Networks
A network can either be a peer to peer network or a client server network. To understand the two, a comparison of P2P vs. client server networks is important. Peer to peer network is also called a workgroup network while server-based network is also known as client/server network.
In a P2P network, several computers are connected without a server but they share information, content or resources. The system does not require a central location where users can be authenticated, files stored and resources accessed.
This implies that users have to remember the computers in a workgroup that has information or resources that they are looking for at any particular time. Users are also required to log in to every computer that has the information or resources that they want to access.
Information or resources are generally stored in multiple computers in a P2P network. This means that users have difficulties in tracking the information that they want. Backing up crucial business information is also difficult. For this reason, most small businesses do not have complete backups. In most cases, businesses have different versions of similar files on different PCs in a workgroup.
There are P2P networks where small businesses use a single computer to run the operating system of the client. This can be a Windows X Professional or Windows 98. In this case, the computer acts as a designated “server” in the network. However, despite helping in saving data at a central location, this does not offer a robust solution to the needs of small businesses such as documents collaboration.
A client server network is different. In a client server network, there is a computer that acts as the server and the central location for users to access and share resources in a single network. The data that all computers in the network can access and share is found in a single, central location.
This makes it easier for users to back up crucial business information. Every computer that is connected to a client server network is known as a client computer. In this network, each user has an account and a password that they use in logging in to this server and access the shared resources.
The operating system of the central computer or the server is designed in a way that enables it to handle the operations and loads of the system even when there are multiple client computers accessing the resources. In most client server networks, Windows SBS 2008 is used. This is because it offers a central point where users are authenticated. It also enables the users to access and store information or resources.
In terms of cost, P2P network is more effective than client server network. However, if you have an IT expert to manage it, you can install a client server network. P2P network is suitable for a business that has few employees sharing files and printer occasionally.
Both networks are used in sharing and accessing files, data or resources. They can also be used by small and large organizations depending on their financial capability and file sharing needs.
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Merger vs. Acquisition
The terms acquisition and merger are used like they were synonymous. However, these terms have a slight difference. A comparison of merger vs. acquisition shows the differences and similarities of these terms.
A purchase can be considered as an acquisition or merger depending on its hostility or friendliness as well as its announcement. Simply put, the difference between merger and acquisition depends on the way it is communicated as well as how the directors, shareholders and employees of the target company receive it.
A purchase is called an acquisition when a company takes over the other and establishes itself clearly as its new owner. From a point of view of legal experts, the target company stops existing once the takeover starts being effective. To them, the buyer is said to have swallowed the target business or company and the stock of the buyer continues being traded in the stock market.
On the other hand, a merger occurs when two companies, usually of a similar size come together and agree to move forward as one, new company instead of staying as separately operated and owned companies. This move is called a merger of equals in the world of business. The companies surrender their stocks and they issue a stock for the new company in their places.
However, mergers of equals in the real world are a rare occurrence. Usually, a company purchases another and the part of their deal is that the acquired company proclaims that the deal was a merger of equals. However, the move is a technical acquisition.
Companies do this because being bought usually has negative connotations. Therefore, calling the deal a merger is a technical way that top managers and deal makers use to make a takeover palatable.
It is important to note that a deal can be described as a merger if the CEOs of both companies agree to join the companies for their interest. However, when there is an unfriendly deal or when a target firm is not ready to be bought, this is usually called an acquisition.
Nevertheless, both merger and acquisition are aspects of corporate finance, strategic management and management that deal with combining, buying and selling different firms and similar entities as well. They can help a company to grow in its location, sector or in a new location or field without establishing subsidiaries or other entities.
Both acquisition and merger can be defined as forms of restructuring because they lead to recognition of an entity while providing positive value and growth. A sector or industry consolidation occurs when there are many acquisitions and mergers because resources of small firms are concentrated and used in establishing larger firms. Both acquisition and merger can lead to financial and economic consolidation of the involved entities.
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Merger Pros and Cons
Considering the merger pros and cons can enable you to determine whether this business move is beneficial to shareholders and top executives of the involved firms or it is done in the interest of the public. Just like most business moves, a merger has its pros and cons.
One of the pros of a merger is the establishment of network economies. In some business sectors, it is important to offer a national or regional network. This implies that economies of scale are very significant because a regional or national network can mean that firms pull resources to offer more efficient services.
A merger can also boost research that is needed to develop a business or an industrial sector. For companies to create new products or invent new technologies, they need to spend money in research, analysis and development. A merger makes companies more profitable because it brings the funds required for research from the two or more companies together. This is vital for industries like those involved in drug research.
Monopoly regulation is another pro of a merger. A company can gain monopoly in a sector that it specializes in through a merger. This is because the companies that come together use their resources in developing products for the same niche of consumers. By benefiting from the economies of scale that comes with a merger, consumers are saved from possible monopoly prices.
A merger enables a company to avoid duplication. Mergers are sensible in certain industries. For instance, if businesses are competing for passengers on the same road, consumers can benefit from having a single firm with low charges in the region. Apart from this, a merger can also reduce congestion and benefit the environment.
Nevertheless, a merger has its cons as well. These include higher prices that come from reduced competition. A newly established firm has monopoly power due to the reduced competition which gives it a larger market share. Thus, the company can increase prices and consumers will pay if there are no competitors in a region.
A merger can leave consumers with fewer choices. This implies that they will buy the products or hire services of a newly formed company even if they are not pleased by them.
In some cases, a merger can cause job losses. This is usually a concern for most parties especially if the takeover is hostile or caused by the need for an asset stripping. A company that wants to merge might do so because it wants to eliminate some of the under-performing sectors.
A merger can also lead to diseconomies of scale. The newly established company can experience diseconomies of scale due to its increased size. Once a merger has taken place, the new firm that is larger than the initial ones may not have the capacity to ensure effective control and it might have difficulties in motivating workers. Workers who feel like they are a mere part of a large multinational can also be less motivated to perform.
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Example of an Essay Introduction
A good example of an essay introduction should give you ideas of how your essay introduction should look like. The introduction of your essay should act like the map for the readers- follow the link for more information. It ought to provide the necessary contextual or background information of the topic while presenting a thesis statement. In the introduction, you should address the why, what and how of the essay topic. Tell readers what the essay is about, why the topic is useful or important and how you will argue out your point. Writing the introduction may seem intimidating but with proper preparation and a sample to guide you, writing a great introduction becomes easy.
Importance of using a good example of an essay introduction
A good essay introduction example acts like an illustration. It should be a straightforward, simple essay that you will ever come across. You can use a good essay sample severally as a guide for writing future essays since all essays both informational and argumentative require the support that is provided by good illustrations or samples- See nore at www.wju.edu.
For instance, when writing an essay on racial stereotyping via television, your introduction should have a thesis that shows that your intention is to highlight examples of instances of this stereotyping in the essay. Further analysis of the examples that you provide should go into the body of the essay. The introduction should basically show readers the racial stereotyping that your introduction will be analyzing in a brief manner.
Use essay introduction sample as a template
You cannot include the essay introduction sample in your essay. However, you can use the introduction sample as a template to guide you in writing the introduction of your essay. If you read the introduction carefully and follow the sentences of the introduction just the way they are written, you can easily come up with a good introduction of your essay. Note that you should not copy anything from the essay introduction sample but make it a template to guide you in writing an entirely new introduction of your essay.
While using the sample introduction as a template:
- Follow the formatting of the introduction sample.
- Notice where the writer puts transitions.
- Take note of the topic sentences, where they are placed in the introduction and how they flow in the introduction.
- Come up with an introduction that has the same structure and style using the most appropriate words on the basis of your topic.
Use the example of an essay introduction to know how to structure sentences
The structure of the sentences that you use in the introduction gives it flow and style. Basically, there are different sentences that you can include in the introduction. While using the sample essay introduction, take note of the variety of sentences in the introduction. For instance, if a sentence in the essay introduction sample starts with an adverb phrase, you can also start yours with an adverb phrase if appropriate. However, strive to ensure the uniqueness of your essay introduction.
Essay introduction examples that you can use as your guide for writing essay introduction
In Coles Myer Ltd, a major retail group in Australia, Office-works is considered a branch on its own. Its launch was in 1994 with an aim of specifically catering for small business needs, students and home offices. It has about 40 stores though it is adding new ones all over Australia. It supplies a wide array of products including all types of office supplies, computers and stationary, furniture, bathroom and office kitchen supply. Office-works as a company experiences both business buying and consumer buying. This essay will use it as an example to illustrate different business and consumer buying. The essay will also assess its marketing strategy to establish the way it is incorporated in its operations and assess its influence by business and consumer buyers. Finally, the essay will provide suggestions on the best ways of expanding the marketing strategy further in order to meet the specific needs of buyers.
- Background information: This example of an essay introduction starts with background information regarding Office-works, a branch of Coles Myer Ltd, on which the essay is to be written, “In Coles Myer Ltd, a major retail group in Australia, Office-works is considered a branch of its own. Its launch was in 1994 with an aim of specifically catering for small business needs, students and home offices. It has about 40 stores though it is adding new ones all over Australia. It supplies a wide array of products including all types of office supplies, computers and stationary, furniture, bathroom and office kitchen supply.”
- Thesis statement: The background information provided in the introduction is followed by thesis statement or the controlling idea of the essay, “Office-works as a company experiences both business buying and consumer buying.”
- Outline: The sample essay introduction ends by providing an outline of the essay by telling readers how the essay will be written, “This essay will use it as an example to illustrate different business and consumer buying. The essay will also assess its marketing strategy to establish the way it is incorporated in its operations and assess its influence by business and consumer buyers. Finally, the essay will provide suggestions on the best ways of expanding the marketing strategy further in order to meet the specific needs of buyers.”
A sure way to success is learning lessons that failure teaches you. The United States of America is an example of success that came from failure. After learning from the Article of Confederation’s weakness, the founding fathers established the Constitution which is the document that America is based on. Another example is Google Inc., a major search engine which emerged after learning from the failure of competitors. Rod Johnson’s story is another example of how success can come from failure after he established a recruitment firm from his experience of being jobless. This essay will use these examples to show how failure lessons can lead to success when taken positively.
- Thesis statement: This essay starts with the controlling idea, “A sure way to success is learning lessons that failure teaches you.”
- Supporting evidence: After stating the thesis, the writer presents supporting evidence “The United States of America is an example of success that came from failure. After learning from the Article of Confederation’s weakness, the founding fathers established the Constitution which is the document that America is based on. Another example is Google Inc., a major search engine which emerged after learning from the failure of competitors. Rod Johnson’s story is another example of how success can come from failure after he established a recruitment firm from his experience of being jobless.”
- Outline: This example of an essay introduction ends with an outline of how the essay will be developed, “This essay will explain use these examples to show how failure lessons can lead to success when taken positively.”
One of the major crimes in the United States is identity theft. In the history of human beings, unscrupulous people have presented themselves as other people for political, financial, and social gain. By ensuring the right demeanor as well as appearance, people have presented themselves as bishops, kings and other prominent people. In the contemporary world, identity theft is a prevalent problem. All that people need to steal other people identity is personal information which includes social security number and names. The crime leaves the victims with ruined names to clear. This essay will show how innocent victims have suffered severe damage due to identity theft and why the government should implement regulations for ending it- follow the link for more information.
- Thesis statement: This sample of an essay introduction starts with a thesis statement, “One of the major crimes in the United States is identity theft.”
- Background information: Thesis statement is followed by background information about the topic, “In the history of human beings, unscrupulous people have presented themselves as other people for political, financial, and social gain. By ensuring the right demeanor as well as appearance, people have presented themselves as bishops, kings and other prominent people. In the contemporary world, identity theft is a prevalent problem. All that people need to steal other people identity is personal information which includes social security number and names. The crime leaves victims with ruined names to clear.”
- Outline: The end of this example of an essay introduction is an outline of how the essay will be developed, “This essay will show how innocent victims have suffered severe damage due to identity theft and why the government should implement regulations for ending it.”
Note that the organization of information in the introduction examples varies. For instance, while the thesis statement comes almost at the end of the first sample, it comes at the beginning of the second introduction example. Even the information of the introduction samples varies on the basis of the topic. Therefore, look for an essay introduction sample that includes all the relevant information in an order that suits its topic and use it as a guide when writing your own essay introduction.
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Rhetorical Analysis Example
One of the best ways of understanding rhetorical analysis is reading a well-written rhetorical analysis example. Rhetorical analysis is a form of close reading or criticism in which rhetoric principles are employed in examining the interactions between the author, text or content and the audience-follow the link grammar.about.com for more information. It is a writing in which the content or the message is separated from the rhetorical strategies or methods that have been used to convey the content successfully.
Rhetorical analysis can be applied on any text or even image. This analysis is commonly done on essays, advertisements, speeches, photographs, poems, web pages, and even bumper stickers. When rhetorical analysis is done on literary works, it considers the works as instruments that have been structured artistically for communication purposes rather than simple aesthetic objects. Simply put, rhetorical analysis is interested more on what a literary work is rather than what it is all about. To write a good rhetorical analysis especially for the first time, you need a well-written example to guide you.
Understand the question of a rhetorical analysis example that you use
In most cases, you will be asked or ask a question that requires you to write a rhetorical analysis. This question is the prompt for writing a rhetorical analysis. A rhetorical question is a question that a speaker poses without expecting a direct reply. Communicators use such questions in strategizing, posturing or setting the audience up to be persuaded or influenced. You have been subjected to messages that try to persuade or influence you in various ways. For instance, advertisements try to convince you to purchase a new car using rhetorical strategies.
To understand the modern life’s machinations, it is important to understand the intentions and techniques that underpin different messages that you encounter each day. Asking and answering rhetorical questions through analysis of different forms of communication is the best way of understanding or interpreting messages via a process of examining patterns and devices that are included in the text. Rhetorical analysis is highly transferable and multifaceted since it can be used in analyzing speeches, advertisements and other communications- See the this link for more information.
Using a rhetorical analysis example in writing your rhetorical analysis
Once you have a good example of a rhetorical analysis, read it carefully against the text or literary work that it analyzes.
A good sample of a rhetorical analysis should include the following:
- Summary of the main idea or argument of the work that is being analyzed.
- A breakdown of the main argument into small pieces.
- Identification of the major details or points that creates the main argument or thesis
A good example of a rhetorical analysis should analyze how the main argument is constructed by the author as well as the supporting details. It should also identify how the author uses ethos, logos and pathos as well as other rhetorical strategies or tropes- follow the link condor.depaul.edu for more information. After reading a rhetorical analysis sample, keep it away before you start writing yours. Remember that even if you are writing a rhetorical analysis on the same work as the example, your analysis should be completely unique.
Steps in writing a rhetorical analysis
A rhetorical analysis example should act like your writing guide. It should give you an idea of how the analysis should be written.
To write your analysis after reading and analyzing a rhetorical analysis sample follow these steps:
- Start by analyzing and understanding the prompt for writing your analysis as well as the effect that your analysis is required to analyze.
- Identify the author and the intended audience.
- Study and understand the work that you are supposed to analyze.
- Identify the techniques or strategies used in the work and select the ones to discuss in your analysis.
- Deal with the hidden questions including what the effects of the strategies or techniques are.
- Actual writing
- Analyze the angle taken by the author.
This entails identifying how the author selects or controls what is revealed to the audience. The author can do this by employing words that have specific connotations or using a specific style or tone.
In the article, Indian, by Jane Tompkins- found here, the author tries to depict the process of her research as objective. She does this by presenting the systematic way via which she consulted different historical accounts including primary sources by colonists and trained historians’ analyses in varying thought schools. The reader can ultimately see the process of the research via the perspective of Tompkins. She implicitly arrives at this point towards the end of the essay. This insight is highlighted through the use of the first-person approach which is unusual in academic articles. For example, she uses first person to tell readers that she did not care whether she had what she knew interfered with by real exemplars. This draws the attention of the readers to the reality that her approach to the research was influenced by personal feelings. Her persona as an academician also comes out clearly. For instance, the use of “antifoundationalist epistemology” terms indicates that she has undergone academic training.
- Determine the purpose of the work
Consider and discuss the motivation of the author. The author can be writing to express an opinion or idea, respond to a certain occasion, explore a particular topic or attempt to answer a question. Inform readers about a specific topic, synthesize, analyze or interpret data, persuade readers, advocate for something or reflect on a specific topic.
There are many reasons why Tompkins wrote her article. However, her main reasons include responding to the issue of finding the reality or truth in different historical accounts, inform the audience about how writers construct history, and reflect on the issue of avoiding single perspective as well as attempting to convince readers to be skeptical in the process of research.
- Come up with a thesis statement for your analysis
The thesis statement of your analysis should argue the most vital rhetorical features of the work and their impact. Focus on the features that are prevalent in the work and ones that you find interesting and possible for you to describe persuasively- as seen in the link writingcenter.tamu.edu.
- Identify and discuss the audience
Analyze the work to determine who the work is authored for. A good rhetorical analysis example indicates clearly who the audience of the work under analysis is and your work should also reveal this.
Tompkins targets academic readers who understand historical research process. However her use of simplified language and first-person approach makes her essay accessible to more readers who may include educated readers in general and undergraduate students.
- Identify and discuss claims
Determine the kind of claims that the author makes in his/her work. The author can make fact claims, policy claims or value claims.
Tompkins makes a value claim when she analyzes how facts are interpreted by other authors. She ends the essay with a value claim about the essence of going past moral relativism in making claims about the truth on the basis of the best reconciliation of varying viewpoints possible.
- Identify and discuss refutations and concessions
Refutations include how the author indicates the problems in a different viewpoint while arguing his/her position. Concessions acknowledge the merit of another perspective.
Tompkins acknowledges relativism as being a useful and appealing tactic sometimes when handling irreconcilable historical accounts. However, she concludes that there are historical situations, including extreme brutality and genocide that require moral judgment that is more definitive.
- Identify and discuss rhetorical appeals
These are mainly logos, pathos and ethos.
- Ethos refers to how the author tries to depict herself as a credible personal.
Tompkins establishes professional credibility by systematically showing readers the process of her research and different sources that she consulted while writing her article using a narrative.
- Logos appeals to logic
Through systematic explanation of the process of her research, Tompkins creates the logical sequence that readers can follow.
- Pathos appeal to the emotions of the audience
Tompkins starts her article by giving her childhood’s personal account about the Indians. She also uses first-person, which is not the case for most academic works, to establish a personal bond with her audience.
Where to find a good rhetorical analysis example
You must use a good rhetorical analysis sample as your writing guide to write an excellent rhetorical analysis.
Here are links to such samples:
- Equality search rhetorical analysis sample- isucomm.iastate.edu
- Sample rhetorical analysis on The Final Feminist Frontier- www.stlcc.edu
- Rhetorical analysis of why I will not purchase an iPad by Cory Doctrow- owl.excelsior.edu
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Rhetorical Analysis Essay Outline
Knowing how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline is the best way to organize your thoughts and ideas in proper format for a good paper. A well written outline will offer you a better plan on how to craft the various sections of your rhetorical essay paper. In fact, writing an outline enables you to set the pace and tone of the essay while also putting things in proper order.
A good rhetorical analysis essay outline will make the task of writing your paper quite easy and fast since it contains the basic points to be discussed. An outline is a framework of how you intend to present the essay from start to conclusion. This implies it should show all the ideas that you are planning to share in the paper, according to how they will be presented.
Although the definition of a rhetorical analysis essay sets it on a different plane with other types of essays or academic papers, the writing formats are almost similar. Therefore, the skills on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline can as well be applied in other papers.
Writing an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay requires careful thought, reasoning, contrast and comparison of ideas. By being able to deliver a good one, you can significantly enhance your writing and general communication skills.
Tips on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline
At the time of writing a rhetorical analysis essay outline, you must have done thorough research on the topic and identified various ideas to use in analyzing the given piece. However, there are a few pointers that you should take note of in order to deliver a unique and well organized outline for the paper.
One of the most important things to note when writing an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay is that the paper is not a summary, instead should explore and give a detailed account of the various elements of rhetoric used in the piece being analyzed. This means that your outline should highlight all the aspects without being too brief.
The points presented in the outline are the ones that will be discussed in the essay paper, thus, you have to carefully go through each of them to ensure that they will effectively serve the intended purpose.
Refine your thesis statement to reflect the specific claim that you intend to explain in the essay. Remember it is the thesis that will guide you on the points to include in the outline.
Some of the key elements to look into include the speaker, occasion, audience and purpose. Besides, you should also consider the topic or subject of the essay. It is also important that you look into the tone of the ideas that you plan to discuss.
Before writing an outline for a rhetorical analysis essay, it is also advisable that you re-examine the appeals of the paper. These include the ethos, pathos and logos.
You should also clearly define the style details that could make your paper to look and sound unique. These include elements like imagery, diction, syntax, and tone among others.
Another point that you need to consider is clarity. In order to avoid problems when writing the essay, it is advisable that you use simple language for easy reference. In the case whereby you are unable to use catch phrases, write full sentences or statements.
When choosing the points to list in the outline, try to always go for strong points that can make your argument more compelling. In case there is something that you are not sure of, it is important that you research on it to acquire sufficient information.
Since you will be required to give references to your sources in the essay, always make sure that all your sources are credible. It is recommended that you do away with information that does not have a reliable source since such would make readers to doubt your facts, and even end up spoiling the entire paper.
It should also be noted that an outline is not an actual essay but a simple plan. This implies you should simply list your points precisely without giving too much details. However, the outline must reflect the actual points or ideas that will be discussed in the final paper.
The best way to write a rhetorical analysis essay paper is through chronological order. Thus, your outline should also be crafted in a similar order for the best results.
Procedures on how to write a rhetorical analysis essay outline
After making sure that all your points are in order, you can now proceed to writing the rhetorical analysis essay outline. The steps outlined below will guide you on how to craft a good outline for a rhetorical analysis essay.
The introduction to a rhetorical essay should give general information or summary about the subject being analyzed so readers can know what to expect in the discussion. In the outline, list the key points that will be used in telling readers about the topic.
It is also advisable that you clearly write your thesis the way it will be put in the essay. In the thesis, you should also hint how the argument will be supported in the paper.
In the introduction, you should also list the SOAPS for your analysis, just so you don’t forget when writing.
The outline should show how every paragraph in the essay will be presented with regards to content and order.
The best way to organize the body paragraphs for your essay is through separating them into sections that highlight the ethos, pathos and logos. This will help in bringing out the rhetorical appeal of your paper.
Under the logos section, list at least one claim and highlight how it will be evaluated in relation to the subject of analysis.
For ethos, show how you will analyze how the speaker or writer has applied his or her position to enhance credibility.
In the case of pathos, you can simply list the details that may change the perception of readers or viewers on the subject of analysis.
In order to give the paper more weight, it is advisable that you list more than two evidences or quotes to help in explaining your appeals.
It is also advisable that you write a short statement indicating how you will wrap up the discussion by highlighting the consequences and impacts of the appeals.
The main aspects of a conclusion are restatement of the thesis and main ideas and giving directions to further research if necessary. Simply write a short statement indicating how you will re-phrase the thesis in the final part of the paper.
You should also list the key points of the paper that will be briefly illustrated in the conclusion to remind readers of the discussion. On the other hand, you can also simply write a short sentence to show how you will summarize the points discussed in the paper.
In case there is need for further studies on the subject, you should also indicate in the outline, how you will present it in the essay.
Examples of rhetorical analysis essay outline
It is also recommended that you read rhetorical analysis essay outline samples in order to easily find out how a good one should be crafted. The following are some examples to inspire you in writing.
Sample Outline for a Rhetorical Analysis Essay
- Introduction: Background and Thesis
- Background Information
Information about the work
- Title, author, publication info
- Statement of the author’s topic and argument
- Thesis Statement
- Main reaction to the writer’s argument (Evaluation)
- Support with specific, analytical reasons (Appeals)
- Body: Analysis, Interpretation and Evaluation
- Main Point 1: Use of Logos in source …
(Read the whole outline on this link.
Detailed sample Rhetorical Analysis essay Outline
- Introduce an article from the New York Times entitled, ‘’Is This the Nastiest Election Ever?’’ authored by Peter Manseau
- Purpose: To persuade the audience that this election is no worse in terms of ‘’dirty campaigning’’ than any other election in history.
- Audience: Readers of the New York Times, specifically Americans interested in the upcoming election.
- Context: Several weeks from the election
- Thesis: Pater Manseau of New York Times uses rhetorical strategies like ethos and logos…
Find the entire sample here.
Sample outline for a rhetorical analysis essay; The Use of Appeals in King’s ‘’Letter from Birmingham Jail’’
Thesis Statement: Although one might think that Martin Luther King Jr., would perceive the clergy men who wrote ‘’A Call for Unity’’ a hostile audience, he wisely answers them as if they were, not ardent segregationists, but a wavering audience not aware of the entire argument.
- Ethos: A strong ethical is mounted establishing credibility
- Many outside Authorities…
Follow this link to read the whole sample.
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What Is English Argumentative Essay?
Are you questioning what an English argumentative essay is? You are not alone; there are many students who are trying to speculate over the same. An argumentative is a paper that requires a writer to take a stance and defend it. When writing the paper, you have to gather evidence from personal experience, historical examples, literature and research to support his or her viewpoint.
Additionally, the paper must contain elements that persuade target audience beyond reasonable doubt to see things from your point of view. For this reason, you must plan and prepare before embarking on the writing process. You will have to gather crucial evidence and present a well thought and well-reasoned claim based on the debatable subject.
What is an English argumentative essay and why get oriented before writing?
With clear understanding of what an English argumentative paper is, you need to get oriented with the writing process. It is a simple and yet a challenging process therefore, you need to
Choose a subject you are passionate about. Whether you choose to disagree or agree with a given point, always settle for a topic that you can strongly argue about. In this case, you ought to focus on both sides of the subject including pros and cons of the subject.
Pay attention to target audience, what they believe in and prepare to discuss major points that your audience will be interested in
Be ready to take a stance once you have considered both sides of the argument and understood the needs of your target audience. Always focus on ideas that will strongly present your argument and defend your thoughts. A good research in this case is essential therefore,
- Get reliable information to support your position
- Collect facts, reports and statistics from reliable sources that your audience can fully trust
- Study the other side of the argument and your side as well to avoid any surprises
Note that getting oriented before writing is imperative because it makes the writing process simple and effective. For this reason, master the above points to start writing.
How to write an English argumentative essay
Always write an argumentative paper in a way that convinces target audience to take your side and in a way that makes sense. Therefore, it is wise to assume that you have different opinions amongst your audience since target audience will always judge the strength of your argument.
- Write an introduction and establish credibility of what is an English argumentative essay based on your topic. Target audience need to know and be convinced that you have clearly studied the topic, you are open about it and also fair minded about the subject.
- Write a solid thesis statement at the end of introduction
- Support your thesis with 3 of your best and strongest arguments. These will form the outline of your paper
- Remember to back up your argument with specific and argumentative essay by
- Using statistics and facts
- Using solid examples
- Stating areas that you share with your opponents; note that your opponents have to feel that their ideas are significant and that they are intelligent people
- Focus on the other side, explain their beliefs and try to find arguments that oppose this stance
How do you organize an English argumentative essay?
Organizing an essay is very crucial. It helps you to present your ideas and argument in a logical manner. For an argumentative essay, there are three models you can settle for including
Write a solid introduction
Understand the other side’s argument and have a transition back to your side
State your weakest argument; this can be in the middle of your body paragraphs
Make your strongest argument at the end of body paragraphs and
Conclude the paper
Write a catchy introduction
Make your strongest argument
State your weakest argument
Make your second strongest argument at the end and a transition back to the other side’s argument
State the other side’s argument and
Conclude the paper
Write an introduction
State the other side’s argument, followed by your argument and a transition back to the other side
State your weakest point and make a transition back to the other side’s weakest point
State your strongest point at the end of your body paragraphs and
Conclude your essay by
- restating the topic and its significance,
- restating the claim, addressing the opposing point of view
- offering an explanation as to why readers should agree with your position because it shows that you understand the topic well and demonstrates lack of bias
- Call for action or an overview of further research recommendation
The above models are highly recommended for English argumentative papers. However, it is wise that you consider an academic model that will enhance your writing process or one that you are comfortable with and ensure that your points are well organized as follows
- General information: write a hook introduction; tell your readers about the topic sentence etc.
- Focus on the direction that your paper will take: telling
- Get more specific in your writing: showing
- Support your argument to enhance the level of trust that the target audience has for you and the position you take: data
- Write a conclusion with a brief wrap up or warrant and strengthen your argument by diminishing the argument made by the opposition
Most importantly, check your argument for logic and strength. Determine whether the arguments you make are reasonable by asking yourself whether
- You are generalizing and with sufficient information
- You are stereotyping
- Are your analogies based on what you are familiar with
- Are your causes and effects real and not related to something else
- Do you have sufficient options and
- Do your conclusions follow all your arguments logically?
- Are you overusing emotions or not
By answering these questions as you try to understand what an English argumentative essay is, you will determine the strength of your argument.
In general, when organizing your argumentative essay, you should move from general to more specific details. Therefore, whenever you begin a new subject, think of an inverted pyramid where broad details sit at the top. As the paper progresses, you become more and more focused on what is an English argumentative essay and end with specific and more detailed information that support your argument or claim.
Lastly, explain to target audience the reasons as to why and why the information she has connects to or supports your thesis. This should be a very brief wrap up.
What is an English argumentative essay- the Dos and Don’ts?
- With an idea of what an English argumentative essay is, you should always write using a passionate and professional language
- Cite experts who hold the same position as you
- Provide evidence, facts, and statistics and support your stance
- Provide reasons to fully support your claim
- Address the argument of the other side and refute their claims
- Ensure that all paragraphs contain the four elements of a good paragraph including transition, topic sentence, specific evidence, analysis and a brief wrap up sentence.
- Use weak qualifiers such s I think, I believe or just tell us
- Claim to specialized or an expert if you are not
- Avoid using strictly religious or moral claim to support your argument
- Assume that target audience will automatically agree with your argument
- Do not make others look bad in your statements
Examples of English argumentative essays
Topic: Is Death Penalty Justified?
Is death penalty justified? Who has the right to away the lives of others or your life? Should legal recommendations override the life of humans? Indeed issues related to death and life generates different opinions and has been sentimental throughout history. This is largely based on the fact that they define the value of a given society towards human life…………………………………………..
For this essay, visit this link and learn how an argumentative essay is written.
Topic: Changes in Gender Impact
For many years, students in American history classes have been learning about the foundation of colonies in the British North America (Cott & Pleck, 1979, p. 52). They have widely explored the political and economic developments of these colonies. Besides, they have been widely taught on how the colonies struggled to achieve their independence……………………………………………….. (Visit the link and check out the full version of this essay)
Topic: Financial Education and Management Curriculum
Financial management refers to the effective use of limited resources availed in different viable plans. This is usually achieved through participation in a wide range of viable development projects. The management leads to accountability via effective management funds available through regular audits as well as record keeping activities. It is therefore an important discipline in the economic sector because it involves making crucial financial decisions…………………………………………… (This Premuim essays link leads you to the above essay among other argumentative papers that you can always refer to)
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Effects of Long-Term Benzodiazepine Use
Benzodiazepine is a group of drugs (diazepam, nitrazepam, alprazolam, temazepam and oxazepam) used to treat restlessness in people who are hospitalized, anxiety, mania, alcohol withdrawal, sleeping problems, agitation and epileptic seizures or fists. There are different types of benzodiazepines including intermediate, long and short acting.
The medication which is widely used in neurology, psychiatry and other branches of medicine can be sniffed, taken by mouth and in some cases, intravenously. The drugs have also been used as induction agents in medical schools during anesthetic practice.
Medics always advice that just like any other drug, benzodiazepines should be used for short term since they are effective. Benzodiazepines also have side effects including short term and long term effects. Short term effects include anxiety disorders and this commonly affects anyone under the benzodiazepine treatment.
On long term use, the drugs can easily lead to dependence. Today, this is considered a risk. Taking the drugs intravenously is also a concern across different parts of the globe because cases of drug abuse have been reported. Even so, there are patients who do not suffer any side effects following the use of benzodiazepines. However,
- If you know someone who has been prescribed benzodiazepine
- If you have been prescribed with the drug or
- You are concerned with addiction or the withdrawal effects of the medication, it is essential that you understand the effects of benzodiazepine treatment over a long haul
This review will therefore take a look at the effects of benzodiazepine use
Effects of long term benzodiazepine use that you should know
Common effects of long term benzodiazepine use include unusual sleep behaviors and anterograde amnesia. These may occur especially if you are using traditional benzodiazepines and more specifically triazolam use.
Next day drowsiness also known as hangover effect is a common with the drugs when used for a long time. This is common with flurazepam and diazepam. The group of benzodiazepine has sedative effects that usually carry on to the next day. As a result, they can easily impair daily activities and driving. The effects are worse amongst the elderly.
Severe allergies including angioedema and anaphylaxis are also associated with long term use of benzodiazepine. They are rare effects of long term benzodiazepine use and usually disappear within a day or two
Long term use of the medication can also lead to addiction, tolerance, abuse or dependence. Benzodiazepines including alprazolam, lorazepam and triazolam are known as potent benzodiazepines and have shorter elimination half-lives. Therefore, they can cause dependence and tolerance following prolonged use.
Research also reveals withdrawal reactions as some of the effects associated with medications that are short acting. The effects are common if you suddenly stop medication after long term use.
Higher doses of benzodiazepine can also lead to rebound insomnia.
Similarly, research shows that benzodiazepine should not be used during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. The drugs can harm the baby.
Use of benzodiazepine by the elderly can lead to many side effects whether a patient is under short acting or long acting benzodiazepine. The drugs can lead to
- Over sedation based on age related factors
- Hip fractures and falls especially if a patient is under the treatment of long acting benzodiazepines
- Impaired blood pressure management and balance control. These have been closely linked to short and long acting drugs.
- Memory loss, mood swing and worsening sleep are also common effects of long term benzodiazepine use amongst the elderly.
- In other cases, coma and unconsciousness can occur. As a result, medics’ advice that elderly persons should use the drugs moderately and if possible, benzodiazepines should be avoided in persons above the age of 65.
Severe effects of long term benzodiazepine use
Long term use of benzodiazepine drugs can also lead to serious health issues including cardiac and respiratory arrest. These effects of long term benzodiazepine use are common if a patient is receiving intravenous (IV) benzodiazepines. Other reactions following the administration of IV medication include
- Nausea and vomiting
- Skin rash
- Double vision and blurred vision
- Injection site reactions
- Slow heart rate
- Respiratory depression and
- Cardiac arrhythmias
Other major effects of benzodiazepines include sleepiness, memory and concentration problems and unsteadiness
Drug abuse and addiction are also now considered possible risks and severe effects of benzodiazepine use. This is why medics advice patients to follow the doctor’s prescription and watch out for addiction signs when under treatment.
How can you tell that you are addicted to benzodiazepine?
Using benzodiazepines for a long time leads to addiction in around 4 in every 10 patients. This can lead to full blown tolerance especially with dose escalation to many times the recommended treatment levels. It is reported that patients under high doses of benzodiazepine treatment can be emotionally and physically dependent on the drugs and can easily suffer psychotic disorder and severe withdrawal if medication is dropped.
Therefore it is wise that you watch out for these signs to prevent addiction
- lack of sleep
- agitation and feeling tense
- if you feel bad after taking the drugs
- if you have to take more and more benzodiazepines to achieve a certain effect
- when you crave the drugs
- Sensitivity to light and blurred vision
Summary on the effects of long term benzodiazepine use
In general, effects benzodiazepine use can be reviewed under different categories including
Psychological effects- they affect behavioral, psychomotor and cognitive abilities of a patient. These effects include anxiety, sleepiness, depression, and episodes of amnesia as well as panic attacks. According to research, 17mg of diazepam or valium over a long time can lead to substantial cognitive impairment. Withdrawal following the use of the same drug for more than three months can also occur.
Physical effects– these include dizziness, vertigo, dysarthria and ataxia. In the elderly, lack of coordination is common and can easily lead to falls. Severe physical effects of benzodiazepine use including weight gain, impairment of sexual function, menstrual disorders and body rash.
Hip fracture is common amongst the elderly under benzodiazepine medication. In different research studies, zolpidem can increase the risk of falls and hip fracture by 2.55 times amongst patients aged 65 years and above.
Real side effects– long term use of benzodiazepines can also cause real life effects such as impairments when driving a car. According to epidemiological research, road traffic and domestic accidents have been widely reported following term use of the medication.
Overdose and dependence risk-overdose risk is also considered a long term effect of benzodiazepine use. This is specifically great when benzodiazepine is used with other drugs including opioids and alcohol. In this case, it is imperative to strictly adhere to a doctor’s prescription and advice.
It is therefore essential to note that driving while under benzodiazepine treatment is equal to driving under influence and more specifically, with blood alcohol level of 0.050 and 0.079 percent.
Withdrawal effects- these are effects that occur after giving up on the use of benzodiazepine after a long time. They are the most challenging effects of long term benzodiazepine use and they include twitching of muscles
- dizziness and tremors
- irritability and anxiety
- heightening of senses and altered perception
- poor concentration
- bizarre dreams, fatigue and sleeping problems
- paranoia, hallucinations and delusions
Expert advice on how to prevent effects of long term benzodiazepine use
As mentioned earlier, there are patients who do not suffer any side effects of long term benzodiazepine use. However, in such cases, one can easily get addicted to the drugs. As a result, it is essential to avoid long term effects of benzodiazepine use and addiction by
- following the doctor’s prescription and
- Ensure that the drugs are used with caution and in short term (less than four weeks). This prevents long term effects as well as addiction.
- Always have a natural alertness rhythm during the day and sleepiness at a night. Avoid going to bed until you feel sleepy.
- Have a good sleeping environment based on your needs. An ideal sleep environment should not be too hot, too cold, or too humid. It should be quite and dark
- Avoid anything that interferes with sleep when you are about to sleep. This includes nicotine, alcohol and caffeine.
- Avoid strenuous evening effects while under benzodiazepine medication
- In the event of anxiety, take time to resolve them before taking medication and before bedtime
- Exercise distraction and relaxation techniques and avoid daytime naps while under benzodiazepine drugs
- Note than despite the fact that benzodiazepines are known for their effectiveness, they should only be used for short term. They become less favorable and pose adverse effects when treatment is prolonged. What’s more, efficacy will always wane and risks become even more when you become addicted to the drugs.
- It is additionally important to note that patients with severe panic attacks, anxiety and insomnia disorders can be effectively treated with short term use of benzodiazepines. However, a medic should offer a comprehensive treatment strategy for full management of the panic, insomnia and anxiety and to prevent long term usage as well as related effects.
Using benzodiazepine with other drugs
The effects of using benzodiazepine with heroine, alcohol, opiates and other drugs are unpredictable and dangerous. There have been cases of breathing difficulties among many patients. Breathing difficulties increase the risk of overdependence and death.