Neoliberalism is a phrase that is used in reference to a set of economic policies that have been widely popularized in the past 25 years. Through these policies, a situation is created whereby the rich grow richer while the poor continue to languish in abject poverty. This mainly occurs because through neoliberalism, the control of economic factors is moved from the public to the private sector. Thus, only handful individuals who already have some sort of power are able to make their way up in terms of economic gains.
Neoliberalism offers a suggestion that governments should cut down deficit spending, exercise limitation on subsidies, limit protectionism, privatize businesses that are run by the state, back deregulation and give and give way for private property developments. When looking at the concept of liberalism, it is also of great importance to bear in mind that it can as well be used in reference to religious and political ideas. However, the phrase neo suggests a new form of liberalism that gives capitalists the opportunity to make as much profits as they can even if it is at the expense of the majority of the population.
There are main points that one should always base their arguments when defining neoliberalism. One of them is the rule of the market. Neoliberalism seeks to excuse private enterprises from any bonds that may have been imposed on them by the state irrespective of the social impacts that it is deemed to cause. Besides, it also aims at reducing wages through de-unionization of workers and elimination of their rights. Besides, it also looks towards removing price controls, and ensuring free movement of goods, services and capital.
Another basic aspect of neoliberalism is that it significantly reduces the public spending on vital services like education and healthcare. In fact, it ensures that the government’s role in providing almost all kinds of essential services like road maintenance, water supply is withdrawn. With this, the safety nets for the poor are completely removed so that they are open to oppression. Neoliberalism is aimed at reducing government regulation of anything that has the potential of diminishing profits so that capitalists can make as much as they wish.
Neoliberalism also proposes that the state should sell a greater part of its assets like industries, banks, toll highways, hospitals, schools among others to private investors. In order to avoid public suspicion, all these are conducted under the banner of enhancing greater efficiency. However, the result is that it concentrates more wealth in just a few hands such that the public is pushed to paying more in order to meet its needs.
When all the issues highlighted above are brought together and successfully executed, the concept of community or public good is completely eliminated. Neoliberalism imposes a concept of individual responsibility whereby each and every person is entitled to use their own means to survive. Apart from just being used by governments, neoliberalism has also been imposed by many powerful institutions around the globe like the IMF, Inter American Development Bank, World Bank among others.
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How to Choose the Best Essay Format
Knowing how to choose the best essay format is very important because essays form an important part of your overall academics. To write good essays, you need creativity, imagination and have a good structure of your thoughts. Format refers to the way something is set out or arranged-follow the link oxforddictionaries.com for details. An essay format therefore refers to how a composition or essay is set out or arranged.
The basic format for essays considers essays as five-paragraph compositions or projects. Although this format is not the only one that is used in writing essays, it is useful as a model that should be kept in mind especially while starting to write essays- ckick here for more information.
Knowing how to choose the best essay format enables you to organize information properly
When writing an essay, it is important to ensure that every aspect of the essay is of the highest quality. You should ensure that the structure or format and style of your essay are correct to guarantee excellence and quality for your essay. By following the right format while writing your essay, you will be able to organize the information that you want to pass to the readers according to its importance or relevance.
When you follow the right essay format, you start your essay with an introduction that grabs the attention of the reader, introduce your thesis or the main point and elaborate the supporting points before wrapping up the message in a well-written conclusion. The right format also enables you to reference your information sources in a professional manner.
How to choose the best essay format and stick to it
The best essay format is the one that your teacher or lecturer assigns in the essay writing assignment.
To choose the best format for writing your essay:
- Read over the instructions of your essay writing assignment to find out if there is any information that specifies the essay format to use.
- Go through your course syllabus searching for information that might be indicating the right format for the essays written for that particular course.
- Ask your lecturer or teacher which format you should use in writing your essay.
In addition to the basic essay format, there are other formats like the APA format, MLA format, Harvard format and Chicago format. You can easily find websites that provide guidelines for using each of these formats online. Therefore, if your teacher or lecturer has not taught you how to use the specified format, use the internet to learn more about it.
Get your essay format right before you start writing your essay
Before you start drafting your essay, start by understanding how to use the best essay format. This is because if your essay fails to depict all aspects of the assigned essay format, the examiner will consider your essay as poorly written and therefore he/she will not even bother to read it keenly. Failing to follow essay formatting guidelines or instructions tells the examiner that you are incapable of following simple instructions. Thus, your examiner will judge your essay formatting ability and the content instantly. Therefore, pay close attention to the simple guidelines for formatting your essay before you start writing the essay and while writing it. After writing the essay, go through it carefully to ensure that you have adhered to all instructions of the format that you choose for your essay.
How to choose the best essay format on the basis of your essay type
Teachers and lecturers usually specify the kind of the essay that they want students to write. If your teacher or lecturer does not specify the format that you should use, choose a format for your essay on the basis of the kind of the essay that the assignment requires you to write. Be careful to ensure that the format that you choose is the best for your essay type. To do this, consider the target audience and purpose of the essay. Also understand the subject of your essay.
For instance, you cannot write an argumentative essay for a topic that states universal facts. It is also impossible to write a persuasive essay that tries to convince readers on something that already exists as an accepted fact. On the same note, a compare and contrast essay should have two things that have differences and similarities. Therefore, choose the format of your essay on the basis of the type of an essay that you are required to write, its purpose and topic. Traditionally, essays follow narrative writing, argumentative essays, cause and effect essays as well as compare and contrast essay formats.
Commonly used essay formats
APA and MLA are the most common essay formats. With APA essay format, essays ought to be typed and double-spaced on a standard-size paper. All sides should have 1inch margins. The used font should be clear and highly readable. 12 points, Times New Roman is the recommended font. A page header or running head should be included at the top of the pages. Page numbers should be flushed to the right while creating the running head which is the shortened essay title’s version. It should not be more than 50 characters inclusive of punctuation and spacing- follow the link for more information.
With MLA format, essays should be typed using 12 points Times New Roman as the font. They should be double-spaced without extra spacing between paragraphs. The upper corner of the essay on the left side should have a heading which should be your name, name of the instructor, your class and date. An essay written in MLA format should have margins of one-inch at the bottom, top, right and left. In every page, there should be a page number and last name of the author at the upper corner on the right side. The essay should have a centered title under the information on the header. First line of every paragraph ought to be indented for half an inch or five spaces. The text of the essay should be aligned left- follow the link ivcc.edu for more information.
The basic essay format
Most guides on how to choose the best essay format emphasize the importance of having the basic essay format in mind while writing an essay. With the basic essay format, your essay should have the following sections:
- The introductory paragraph
This is the first paragraph in an essay and it should capture the attention of your readers and get them involved in the essay. It should introduce the essay topic and include a thesis statement which tells readers what your essay is all about. The introduction should have general ideas to enhance comprehension of the topic or main claim by the readers before becoming specific in the thesis statement- follow the link uvu.edu for more information.
- Thesis statement
Thesis statement should be included in the introduction and it should state the main argument or idea of your essay, set the limit of your topic and indicate essay organization. It should work as the road map for your entire essay.
The main points or point presented by the thesis statement should be supported in the body. Each major point is developed in the body using one or even more paragraphs which provide more details. The provided details can be experiences, research findings and examples depending on the requirements of your essay writing assignment. Each paragraph of the body should have a topic sentence at the beginning, supporting details and the concluding sentence.
These are words or sentences that connect paragraphs in an essay. They maintain the smooth flow of the information of an essay. They can be two or one word such as “next”, “first” and “in addition”.
The conclusion section of an essay brings the main points together. It should refer readers back to the stated thesis statement. After reading the conclusion, readers should be left with something to think of and a sense of logical closure of the essay. The conclusion should show readers that the ideas that the essay brought up have been resolved. It can also address the argument’s implications.
If the essay includes research, credit should be given to the used sources using a references, works cited or bibliography page and in-text citations. How the used sources are given credit depends on the chosen overall format. Therefore, refer to the guidelines of MLA format, Chicago format, Turban format or APA format to know how to cite the sources that you use in writing your essay depending on your chosen format.
When you know how to choose the best essay format, the essays that you write will have coherence and unity. Sticking to the best format enhances the understanding of the reader because it makes your essay easy to read and ideas easy to follow.
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Visual merchandising refers to the manipulation and use of attractive sales merchandise or displays and floor plans in engaging customers as well as boosting the sales activity. It entails displaying the products that are being sold in ways that attract customers or capture their attention to the benefits and best features of the products.
Both services and goods can be sold using this strategy. A marketer needs to highlight the benefits and features of the service or product that they are marketing in the best way possible. The main aim of visual merchandising is to capture the attention of customers, attract, engage and motive them so that they can make a purchase.
Although visual merchandising is common in retail spaces that include trade shows and retail stores, it dates back to the 19th century. For instance, the giants of the 19th century such as the Marshall Field & Co. adopted visual merchandising as a way of attracting customers after shifting to retail business.
This company used the windows of their stores to display merchandise attractively. Eventually, the design beauty that was used in the window displays was moved indoors. This later became a part of the design of the interior stores and it reduced display windows in most suburban malls.
Visual merchandising is established on or used to augment the store’s retail design. In most cases, it is used as a way of setting a store in a manner that makes it appealing and attractive to customers. Visual merchandisers use different elements in creating the displays. These include lighting, color, product information, technologies like interactive installations and digital displays as well as sensory inputs that entail appeals to sound, touch and smell.
Methods of visual merchandising include the use of style and color, rhythm and symmetry, side and face presentation among others. Tools of visual merchandising include a floor map that helps a visual merchandiser in finding the best location for colorful stories of the footwear, clothes or garments in their shop. A floor map is like a floor plan.
There are different forms of visual merchandising. These include shelving, point of sale display, food merchandising and window displays among others. In an already saturated market, grocery stores, restaurants and convenience stores employ visual merchandising as a way of differentiating themselves from competitors. Window displays are used to communicate content, price and style to potential buyers.
The main goal of visual merchandising is to help in making sales. Visual merchandising gives a presentation of an image of what or who a shopper will be while or after using the displayed merchandise. When done properly, visual merchandising helps in converting walk-by shoppers into walk-in customers.
Nevertheless, visual merchandising requires artistic knowledge, creativity and understanding of the store design to be effective. Color plays a crucial role in attracting and converting potential shoppers into buyers or customers. This strategy makes a retail space the most efficient and most productive salesperson.
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Import Substitution Industrialization
Import substitution industrialization is an economic and trade theory that advocates for the replacement of foreign imports with products that are produced domestically. The premise of this theory is that a nation should try to reduce foreign dependency by producing industrialized products locally. Emerging markets and developing nations employ this economic theory to decrease dependency on the developed countries by increasing their self sufficiency.
The focus of countries that employ this theory is on the incubation and protection of the domestic infant producers or industries to enable them to emerge as the producers of goods that can compete with those of the developed countries. This policy also enhances self-sufficiency of the local economy.
Import substitution industrialization emerged during the post-World War II era in the Latin American nations. It uses different avenues that include subsidized loans from the government, tariffs and import quotas. Countries that practice import substitution industrialization policy aims at developing production channels for each stage of product’s development instead of focusing on the final products only.
This theory is considered as being counter-comparative advantage theory. Comparative advantage theory entails the specialization of countries in the production of items that have a specific advantage and engaging them in the international trade.
Import substitution industrialization theory has been advocated for by various economists including Friedrich List from the 18th centuries. However, it is used primarily in reference to the development economic theories of the 20th century. Its enactment is associated with the Global South countries that aimed at creating internal markets using this theory.
Import substitution industrialization works when a country leads in its economic development via subdivision of major industries, power generation and nationalization, embracing highly protectionist policies in trade and increasing taxation. Developing countries abandoned import substitution gradually from the 1980s to the 1990s as a result of structural indebtedness that was caused by policies that are related to this economic and trade theory. The World Bank and the IMF insisted that these countries abandon the theory by introducing market-driven liberalization structural adjustment programs in the Global South.
Although import substitution industrialization theory is considered as a development theory, it has political implementation as well as theoretical rationale. Some experts have argued that some or all industrialized nations followed the import substitution industrialization theory at some point. Mercantilist economic practices and theory adopted by some nations in the 18th, 17th and 16th century frequently advocated for the establishment of domestic import substitution and manufacturing.
Hamilton economic program especially the magnum and report opus by Alexander Hamilton advocated for self-sufficiency of the U.S with regards to manufactured goods. The American School is based on this program and it acted as an influential force during the industrialization of the United States in the 19th Century.
Nevertheless, economists have proved that although import substitution industrialization theory has apparent gains, it also produces high social and economic costs.
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Principles of How to Write a Rhetorical Analysis
A rhetorical analysis is an evaluation of how an author, speaker or creator of an original piece of work uses different strategies to make his or her argument. You can write a rhetorical analysis about a speech, film, text, painting or any other media, used to pass a message to a target audience. Thus, your task when you have such assignment is to find out the techniques, which the rhetorician uses to accomplish his objective. Besides, you may also include the effectiveness of these approaches. To gain more knowledge on how to write a rhetorical analysis, continue reading this guide.
In this article, you will find the following sections:
- Tips on rhetorical analysis
- Steps to follow when writing rhetorical analysis
- Selected examples of rhetorical analysis essays
This guide contains everything you need to enhance your rhetorical analysis ability. Do not read hurriedly; take your time, synthesize and apply these tips in your future assignments. Your plane to success is about to take off… are you ready? Here we go…
A summary of guidelines on how to write a rhetorical analysis
Every piece of literary work targets a specific audience. However, the challenge of passing the message is in influencing the listener, reader or viewer. Even more demanding is finding out the success of tools, which one applies to make a case.
A rhetorical piece influences the audience in the following three ways:
Entertaining – Creates light moment for the audience
Persuading – Tries to influence the audience to abandon their position on a subject or issue and support the author’s stand. It is common in political rallies, debates and argumentative writing.
Informing – Some rhetorical works explore a subject and offer insights to the audience to broaden their understanding of the subject matter and broaden their worldview.
Keep the three elements at the back of your mind as you delve into how to write a rhetorical analysis because they will help you evaluate an author’s strength or weakness.
Remember that as you work on your rhetorical analysis, you are not taking sides on whether you agree with the author or not. For the purpose of your assignment, stick to the ‘how’ the author makes his or her point and spare the critic for your critical analysis.
Elements to look out for when writing a rhetorical analysis
As you find out how a rhetorician applied various techniques in their work, your focus should aim at the following:
Target audience – These are the people the author had in mind while creating the piece of work. Ask yourself the people likely to read, watch or sit back and listen to that narration. If you can crack this nut, then you understand author’s mind.
Author’s purpose – Are you able to answer the ‘why’ question? What compelled the creator to put together that piece of work?
Organization of the work – Find out the structure of the work plus how this arrangement may affect the audience.
Language usage – What kind of language does the author use. Does this language match the level of the audience? Establish different ways the language complements the author’s efforts to influence the reader.
Appeals – Perhaps this is the most important element that will give you a grip on how to write a rhetorical analysis. These are the tools, which rhetorician use to build an argument. They include pathos, logos and ethos. Do not be anxious about these appeals, we have a whole section explaining each with relevant examples.
Supporting evidence – These are proofs, which the creator of the work gives to back their argument.
3 Easy Steps to follow when writing your rhetorical analysis
With the above background about rhetorical analysis, let us look at three simple steps to follow when handling your assignment. By the time you are through with the third step, you will have honed your skills to a standard level.
Step 1: How to spice an introduction when writing a rhetorical analysis
The introduction of your rhetorical analysis plays a major role because it sets the pace for the rest of your paper. It will give the reader a reason to read on or trash it and move to something else.
Apply the following tips to come up with an excellent introduction for your rhetorical analysis:
Start with a hook: Pique your reader from the word go. Begin your analysis with something interesting that captures attention. For example, you can use anecdotes to tell short stories, which relate to your assignment. You may also use startling statistics, a quote from a famous personality etc. All these will leave your audience longing to read subsequent sections of your rhetorical analysis. If you can hold their interest, then you are on the right path towards mastering how to write a rhetorical analysis.
State the purpose of your rhetorical analysis – Orient your readers by saying why you are writing the paper.
Give the context of your analysis – Do not go straight into analyzing the text. Contextualize your analysis to move with every reader at the same pace. People want to know where you are coming from before you show them the destination ahead.
Do not forget your thesis statement. This statement comes at the end of your introduction paragraph. It captures your main idea and gives direction to your paper. Thesis will also enhance the logical flow of your points.
Let us look at an example before we move to the next section.
Example: Rhetorical analysis Intro
“Cleaning: The Final Feminist Frontier” by Jessica Grose
[Hook]: ‘A woman’s work is never done’ is a common American saying, which most women grew up knowing it was true. [Context]: Jessica Grose, the author of “Cleaning: The Final Feminist Frontier,” is one such woman. [Author’s purpose]: In her article published by the New Republic in 2013, Jessica holds that while modern men are helping in childcare and cooking at home, cleaning unfairly remains a core responsibility of women. [Thesis Statement]: The author enhances her credibility through personal anecdotes and reliable sources, giving stats and applying emotional appeals successfully; but Grose’s argument weakens toward the end as she tries to woo the audience, denting her credibility.
Adapted from: stlcc.edu/Student_Resources/
This is a nice rhetorical analysis introduction. Study it and try drafting your own using the secrets of how to write a rhetorical analysis, which we have previously covered in this guide.
Step 2: How to create appealing body paragraphs for your rhetorical analysis
This is the analysis section of your paper. The body will carry the weight of your paper and determine the quality of time you invested in research.
Explain the strategies, which the rhetorician uses to develop his argument. It is important to discuss what the author is saying chronologically such that you move from section to section or paragraph to paragraph.
The epicenter of your rhetorical analysis is the appeals (ethos, logos and pathos)
Using ethos in your rhetorical analysis
This refers to how the author presents himself as a reliable authority on the issue at hand in order to earn the audience’s trust and respect. The author’s past reputation, knowledge on the topic and style of writing marks his credentials.
How to blend pathos in your rhetorical analysis
This is how the author makes emotional appeals to the reader or viewer. Rhetoricians always humanize a topic by hitting the human element of the issue. You can look for an instance where the author uses evokes sympathy from the audience. Also, bring out overuse of pathos, which always results into manipulation of the audience.
Crowning your rhetorical analysis with logos
The last appeal that will help you master how to write a rhetorical analysis is logos. This is the author’s claim and use of evidence to back it. Look for credible sources plus how the author weaves the points together.
Conclusion: Final step of writing a rhetorical analysis
At this stage, you have done all the donkeywork. Crown you work with a positive lasting impression. You can achieve this through:
Restating your thesis – Reword your thesis; explain how it harmonizes with the author’s main points.
Restating your main ideas – Be brief. Explain how these points support your thesis.
Call for action – State any action i.e. the need for further research. Also, challenge the audience to do something after reading your analysis.
At this point, you have enough tips on how to write a rhetorical analysis. What’s more, get on to your assignment and nail it, as simple as that.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper on a Book
Knowing how to write a reflection paper on a book is very important because your teacher or professor might ask you to write one as part of your coursework. A reflection paper refers to an essay that is two or three pages long and it allows you to share thoughts on your experience after reading a book or watching a movie and applying what you have learned from the experience to your education and life- follow this link for more information.
A reflection paper on a book is mostly academic in nature but it is less formal. It should be based on your experience and it allows you to react to personal feeling after reading a book. While writing a reflection paper on a book, you are expected to provide personal feelings and support them with examples while citing the knowledge of an expert if possible.
Why you should know how to write a reflection paper on a book
Writing reflection papers on books is important because it enables students to evaluate their experiences after reading books. When you know how to write a reflection paper, you can easily compose one analytically when required to do so. Remember that a reflection paper is not just a summary of opinions and experiences. Writing a reflection paper entails deconstruction and analysis. Your teacher or professor wants you to not just recap the events or story line of the book but to dig deeper while discussing specific aspects. The reflections, analysis and discussion should be based on personal opinion.
Reflective writing allows you a chance to connect to and engage with a reading critically. You can opt to focus on a section or passage or respond to the major theme or premise of a book. Although a reflection paper should be subjective or personal, it should have an academic tone- follow the link here for more information.Writing a reflective paper entails maintaining an informal approach while maintaining an organized or coherent structure. To do this effectively, you need knowledge because a reflection paper on a book should be a dialogue between the reader and you regarding a particular book.
A five steps guide on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Prepare to write the paper
The process of writing a reflection paper should start with proper preparation. If for instance the professor or teacher gave you a writing prompt, consider it thoroughly. Have the prompt in mind as you read the book that you are required to write your reflection paper on. This will enable you to come up with a reflection paper that meets all the specified requirements. After analyzing the prompt thoroughly, organize ideas to form an outline and take notes of the major points that you will cover in your paper. Arrange the points logically in the outline. This will keep you focused while writing the paper.
- Write the introduction
Although a reflection paper has a personal nature, you should not simply put your thoughts on a paper. Since it is an academic assignment, your introduction should be clear with a thesis statement. A good way of writing the introduction of a reflection paper is describing your initial expectations and attitude towards the book that you read. Let readers know what your first impression towards the book was and what your experience was after reading it.
- Include a thesis statement
Just like with most writing assignments, your reflection paper should have a central, unifying idea in the introduction. Therefore, come up with a thesis statement for your reflection paper that reflects your experience while indicating the specific knowledge that you acquired after reading the book. Your thesis statement should be the theme on which your reflection paper is based.
- Build the body
In the body, elaborate the thesis statement that you stated in the introduction. Do not express your experience in generalities in the body. Instead, demonstrate how you reached the conclusions after reading the book citing specific examples from it. For instance, you can quote excerpts from the book directly to support your observations. Such citations will enable you to illustrate the topic in a clearer manner and enable readers to see the importance of the experience as well as the knowledge that you acquired after reading the book.
- Write the conclusion
After supporting your thesis statement in the body using examples from the book that you are reflecting on, come up with a conclusion that ties the major points together. The conclusion should have a brief summary of the concluding feelings on the basis of the provided evidence and points. It should discuss the major points’ implication. Thus, after reading the conclusion of your reflection paper, readers should have a concise idea of the summary of the paper- follow the link classroom.synonym.com for more information.
Generally, when you grasp how to write a reflection paper on a book, you can easily organize your thoughts and opinions methodically in the paper. You also acquire more writing skills by practicing writing reflection papers. This way, you will eventually know how to describe your analysis, opinion and reactions after reading books.
Characteristics of a good reflection paper on a book
Regardless of the setting or purpose of a reflective paper, there are characteristics that can be used to identify it. Once you grasp these characteristics and how to ensure that your paper has them, count yourself among those who know how to write a reflection paper on a book.
They are as follows:
Your reflection paper should not be simple thoughts put down on a paper as they emerge from your head. It should not be like a personal diary. Instead, it should indicate a reflective form of writing that serves an academic purpose. It should be written with a goal which could be to accomplish something, learn, demonstrate, understand better or improve.
A good reflection paper on a book should explore or demonstrate your personal experiences or feelings towards a book that you have read. It should demonstrate your position regarding the book.
A reflective paper on a book should not simply tell or describe a story. It should indicate a higher order or critical thinking. Readers should see that you are analyzing the book, synthesizing its content and evaluating it to determine your attitude or perception towards it. It should meet the main goal of reflective writing which is to express your thoughts and reasons for thinking about the book in a particular way-follow the link trentu.ca for more information.
A good reflection paper should meet quality standards of clarity, precision, correctness and conciseness. Therefore, revise your paper and edit it thoroughly to ensure that it meets these quality standards.
Bonus hints and reminders on how to write a reflection paper on a book
- Although you are allowed to include your reactions and thoughts towards the book that you read or simply your experience, do not rely on them alone.
- Your reflection paper focuses on personal reactions, analysis and feelings towards a book than it would be the case for an analytical essay or formal research but you should ask your teacher or lecturer if you can use first person in writing the paper.
- Do more than simply summarize your reading because a reflection paper on a book is not a mere free-flow of thoughts or ideas-See more at resources.cleary.edu.
- Keep your reflective paper short by ensuring that it includes ideas that you can support with evidence from the book that you read only.
- Before revealing what you learnt from the book, ask yourself if it is necessary. This is important because of the subjective opinions and feelings that are usually expressed in reflective papers.
- Ensure that the main theme of the book that you are reflecting on comes out clearly in your paper. You can know the main theme of a book by reading the notes that you take while reading the book and in the preparation stage before you start writing the paper.
- Use sample reflection paper as a guide for writing because a good sample will enable you to know how to structure your reflection paper on a book properly. Here is a link to an example of a reflection paper on the book, African Fractals by Rogan Eglash that you can use as your practical guide for writing a reflection paper on a book; www.slideshare.net.
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The medieval period spans a period of over seven hundred years starting from the year 800. During this period, key advances were made in government, religion as well as society. The term “medieval” is derived from Latin and means “middle age”. The term was first introduced during the nineteenth century into English. This was during season of increased interest in history and art.
To date though, there is disagreement on when actually the medieval period begun with some historians arguing it was during the third century while others argue it was during the 4th century. Still there are those who argue this period was during the 5th century. The period is mostly associated with Roman Empire collapse which begun in 410 AD by most scholars. Similarly, scholars also disagree on when the period came to an end with some placing it towards the beginning of fifteenth century (Renaissance Period rise) while others place it in 1453 (when Constantinople was captured by Turkish forces,
William the Conqueror in 1066 led Norman Conquest of England and it caused feudalism and castles building. Feudalism developed continuously from that point till it reached its height. At that time, there weren’t much regional boundaries or unity outside large cities and as such, feudal system was form giving the societal climate a governmental structure basis.
Under this system, individuals had no option but that of serving under a superior. At the top, there was the king with knights, lords, nobles and the barons serving below him. Individuals were given protection in return for their services. Constitutional government basis can be traced to this period as well with signing of the Great Charter in 1215.
Following Charlemagne rule, Christianity spread quickly throughout Europe and service as the unifying force. This was greatly as a result of the 1054 Great Schism in which 2 religious competing authorities, Patriarch Michael I of Eastern Orthodox Church and Pope Leo IX of Roman Catholic Church excommunicated one another on the basis of authority dispute.
The crusades were a central part of this period as well. After the church split and Christianity expanded, crusades were launched with the aim of defending Christianity from the Islamic religion. Europeans amounting to the thousands found their way to Jerusalem where they waged war with the forces of Islam. They also settled in that area with the intention of regaining control over the Holy Land. For some time, the quest was a successful one and the crusades came to an effective end with the 1291 fall of Acre. Thousands died during these crusades however, the Europeans were enlightened with new technologies and they also discovered new trade routes.
Men, during medieval ages were supposed to be knowledgeable about fighting so they could serve the king upon demand. During this time, the soldiers were Archers, Foot Soldiers and Medieval Knights while some of the weapons used included crossbows, battle axes, spears, swords and flails etc.
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Officially known as European Recovery Program (ERP), the Marshall Plan was crafted by the US for purposes of rebuilding allied Europe country after World War 2. Among the driving reasons this was carried out was for the purposes of stopping communism. Though the Plan was named after George Marshall, the Secretary of state, other people within the department worked on it.
The plan begun in 1948 April and ran for 4 years and during this time, US$ 13 billion were issued by the US in technical and economic help to aid European countries recover. The countries that benefited from the plan had become of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation. By the end of the plan, the economy of all member states had grown past the pre-war levels.
Some historians argue the purpose of the plan was to strengthen the US and ensure Western Europe countries became dependent on the US. These historians also say the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration assisted refugees amounting to the millions from the period 1944 through to 1947 thus boosting post war recovery in Europe.
Why the Marshall Plan was important
World War 2 which had gone on for years had serious devastating effects on Europe. Residential and industrial centers in places such as Belgium, England, Italy, France, Poland and Germany etc were left in complete ruins. In essence, most regions in Europe were on the verge of famine since agricultural activities were halted by war. Transportation was in shambles and the only super power that wasn’t damaged significantly by the war was the US.
The plan for reconstruction was developed during a meeting of European states and was drafted on 5th June 1947. Similar aid was offered to the Soviet Union as well as its allies however, they turned down the offer because they believed to accept it meant allowing the United States control over communist economies. Secretary Marshall was convinced Stalin did not have any interest in assisting with restoration of economic stability in Western Europe. On 3rd April 1948 President Harry Truman signed the plan granting sixteen European countries aid.
As the aid came to an end in 1952, the economy of all participating states had already surpassed the levels of pre-war. For two decades afterwards, the level of prosperity and growth in Western Europe was unprecedented. The Plan was the very first element of integration in Europe due to the fact that it got rid of trade barriers and led to the setting up of institutions that coordinated the economy on continental level. This means Western Europe was completely stimulated for political reconstruction.
While the Marshall Plan was a major success and has been described as the most selfless act, this isn’t absolutely true. This is because the US benefited greatly since by giving aid to these countries, they had no option but to open their economies to the United States.
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Emissions trading which is also known as cap and trade is an approach that is market based used for purposes of controlling pollution through provision of economic incentives for reduction in emission of pollutants. A central power (often government body) is mandated with the task of setting the limit or cap on the pollutant amount that should be emitted.
This limit is sold or in some cases allocated to firms usually in form of emission permits that represent the appropriate discharge or emit. Firms are supposed to have a couple of permits that are equivalent to the level of emissions they make. The permits number should be more than the set limit or cap that limits average emissions to the stated level. Firms interested in increasing their emissions volume must be willing to buy the permits from those in need of few permits.
Permit transfer is known as trade and in effect, buyers pay a polluting charge while sellers are rewarded for their reduced emission. Consequently, those in a position to reduce emissions do so cheaply and they are able to achieve reduction of pollution at the lowest possible cost to the society.
Emissions’ trading is preferable because:
- It is an economically efficient strategy for attaining the desired emission target or reduction cap
- It is designed specifically to deliver an environmental objective.
- It delivers a price signal that is clear and against which abatement investments are measured.
There are various air pollutant programs that are active. For instance in the case of greenhouse gases, the European Union Emission Trading Scheme is the largest and its purpose is that of avoiding climate change that is dangerous. In the US, a national market is available for the purpose of reducing acid rain and numerous regional nitrogen oxides markets. Other pollutant markets however are often small and far localized.
The major goal of any emissions trading is minimization of costs associated with meeting set emissions cap or target. Usually, the cap is a limit that is enforceable and it is lowered over certain duration with the aim of reaching reduction target at a national level. In some of the systems, the proportion of traded permits should be periodically retired leading to net emissions reduction over time.
In most of the emissions trading systems, organizations that don’t pollute and with no obligations can also take part in trading. Therefore, environmental groups have the right to buy and retire emission permits driving the price of those permits remaining high in accordance to demand law. Corporations might retire allowances prematurely as well by donating such to non-profit entities and hence be eligible for tax reductions.
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Commercial revolution refers to the era of European colonialism, mercantilism and economic expansion. This period lasted from the thirteenth century till the start of the eighteenth century and was succeeded by industrial revolution in the middle eighteenth century. Europeans made the rediscovery of silks, spices as well as other commodities which were rare in Europe. Because of this development, the longing for trade was created and in during the second middle Ages half, trade expanded.
Through discovery voyages, European states were searching for new trading routes during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries allowing European powers the opportunity to build new and vast networks for international trade. Additionally, nations also sought after wealth sources. New economic practices and theories were also created for the purpose of dealing with the new found wealth.
As a result of the contending national interest, Europeans were driven by the desire to increase the power they had over the world through colonial empires. In essence, commercial revolution was marked by increases in general commerce as well as the expansion of financial services like insurance, investing as well as banking.
There are two circumstances that led to commercial revolution. Overseas trade preceded commercial revolution and it had many consequences which included Britain’s fleet expansion. This was an English phenomenon however the Scotts became highly engaged later on. Trade went through 3 long growth periods. In 1475-1550, existing English broadcloths markets and that of other woollens expanded rapidly due to the fact that import regions had become prosperous and they even enjoyed great purchasing power. Secondly, there was rise of new trades due to cheaper English sugar re-exports, calicoes and tobacco which created new markets.
The term commercial revolution was coined during the mid twentieth century by Roberto Sabatino Lopez, an economic historian for the purpose of shifting attention from English Industrial Revolution. In one of his best books “The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages” (1971 available in various reprints) the author argues the key contributor to medieval period was creation of commercial economy by the Europeans which was centered on Italo-Byzantine eastern Mediterranean. Eventually though, this extended to Italian city states as well as other areas of Europe.
The revolution lasted from the thirteenth century through to the eighteenth century. Historians such as Robert S. Lopez, Irving W. Raymond and Peter Spufford indicate the revolution begun in the 13th century and not later. There were several factors that contributed to this period and they include technological, monetary as well as geopolitical factors. During this period the center of European economy shifted from one that was Islamic Mediterranean to Western Europe. This change was a result of successful Africa circumnavigation which opened sea trading with the east.
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Best Essay Format
It is always very important that you know how to choose the best essay format that can facilitate you in writing an outstanding essay paper. By using a properly written essay format, you are able to easily craft a good paper that will attract better results on submission. Read on for insights on how to make an informed choice for essay format.
Knowing how to choose the best essay format will enable you to get proper guidance on how to craft an essay paper. A format refers to a plan or ‘blueprint’ showing how your essay paper will look. Basically, it is an outline of the ideas or points that you intend to discuss in the essay, according to the right order.
Benefits of knowing how to choose the best essay format
Essays are common assignments at school and knowing how to choose the right format will help you in writing top notch essay papers for the entire period of your studies.
Choosing the best essay format is the easiest way to organize your thoughts and information related to the subject of the paper. A good format will significantly help in the clarification of points for a unique essay.
Writing an essay paper always begins with an outline. Besides, the way your outline or format is written dictates how the final essay will look. Therefore, it is always recommended that you know how to choose the best essay format in order to create a unique paper.
In fact, the best essay format will make your work even much easier and fast when it comes to writing the paper. The best essay format will set the pace and tone of the paper so that you have a defined starting point when writing.
Tips on how to choose the best essay format
Students often take different approaches when outlining essay papers. Besides, there are also various essay writing styles to choose from including APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. However, not all can successfully work for you since each has guidelines that must be followed to the latter.
There are certain factors that you should consider in order to choose the right essay format for your paper.
Carefully read the following guidelines to find out how to choose the best essay format.
Consider the type of essay
Whenever you are given an essay assignment to write, it is important that you first determine the type in order to establish the appropriate approach or format to take. In many cases, specifications are given on whether the essay is argumentative, descriptive, comparison or cause and effect essay. If you are not given specifications on the format for the essay, it is advisable that you first get clarification to avoid mistakes.
Understanding the type of essay that you are asked to write will enable you to easily determine what to go for since you will have better knowledge of the requirements.
For instance, a critical analysis essay paper requires you to begin by identifying the purpose of the author, which has to be clearly outlined in the format.
Get to know the topic of the paper
In order for you to make the right choice on an ideal essay format, it is advisable that you also get to know what the paper is about. Understanding the topic will make it less hectic to formulate the right format for a compelling discussion.
In case you do not have proper knowledge of the topic, there is no doubt that even writing the essay will be challenging. Try to do some research on the subject in order to make the right choice for a good essay format.
Understand the purpose of the paper and target audience
Every essay is always written for a particular reason, which must be clearly shown in the text. In order to effectively deliver this, you have to know how to choose the best essay format for the specific paper that you want to write.
For instance, if your paper is a comparison essay, you will need to identify and use a format that can enable you to effectively and fairly present differences and similarities between two subjects to be discussed in the paper.
Based on your audience or readers, there is always a unique approach in writing that appeals to a particular group of people. Therefore, it is also critical that you know your intended readers in advance, so as to choose the best essay format.
Consider the standard essay format
Although there are various formats, it is always advisable that you go for one you are comfortable working with. The standard essay format is straightforward and requires that your format is segmented into three parts; introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion.
The standard format will help you to enhance smooth flow of ideas in the paper. However, it should only be a structure highlighting the key aspects of the paper precisely. Details and explanations should be reserved for the essay. However, the format must give a clear representation of the actual essay.
Look into the length of the discussion
When choosing an essay format, you should also consider the points that will be covered in the paper. Some essays are quite short while others can also be written in several pages. Knowing the number of words for the essay and its length can assist you in picking an ideal format to effectively address all the intended ideas.
By knowing the length of your discussion, you will be able to choose a format that can offer proper guidance on how to comprehensively handle every section of the paper. Remember the length of the essay will also determine how the structure should be drafted and its contents.
Qualities of the best essay format
When choosing the right format for an essay, it should be noted that the format is only a guide or plan. In some instances, there are formats with detailed instructions such that you only need to fill in the blanks with the points for the paper.
The following are some of the qualities of a good essay format that you should also look out for when making choices.
- Clearly show the main sections of the essay i.e. introduction, body and conclusion.
- Highlight the thesis statement
- Indicate the topic sentences for the essay
- Have provisions for examples or evidences that will be used in supporting the argument.
- The format should also clearly show the title of the paper
The best format for an essay paper should also be precise and without too much vague words that could end up confusing the writer. In fact, always ensure that you choose a format which you can easily use in writing the paper without any problem.
An ideal essay format should be one that can enable you to deliver a logical and proper argument when writing the paper. In case you are planning to use formats written by others, it is advisable that you choose those that have been crafted by professionals for the best results.
Examples of the best essay formats
Reading professionally written sample essay formats can also help you in knowing how to choose the best essay format for your paper. The following are some that should carefully read in order to always make the right choices on appropriate essay formats.
Sample format for an essay paper
- Main Points
- Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to the thesis
- Intro and explanation of point
- How pointe relates to the thesis
- Intro and explanation of point
- How point relates to the thesis
- Restate subject
- Summarize Main Points
- Restate Thesis
Simply follow this link to find the sample essay format; mcdaniel.edu.
Sample Argumentative essay format
- 1-2 paragraphs tops
- Optional elements
- Required elements
- Optional 1-2 sentences tops
- Purpose; Lays foundation for proving the paper
- Summary or works to be discussed
- Definition of key terms
- Explanation of key theories
- Supporting Evidence Paragraph #1
- Topic sentence
- Explain topic sentence
- Introduce evidence
- State evidence
- Explain evidence
- Concluding sentence
Supporting Evidence Paragraph #2, 3…
Read the whole sample argumentative essay format on this link.
Model essay structure
- Arouse readers interest
- Set the scene
- Explain how you interpret the question set
- Define or explain key terms
- Identify issues that will be explored
- Give a brief outline of how the issues will be handled, in order.
- Argument/ Main Body
- Paragraph One…
Find the whole sample essay format at; web.anglia.ac.uk.
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How to Write a Reflection Paper on a Movie
A reflection paper is less formal as compared to the traditional academic paper. When your tutor asks you to do a reflection paper on a movie, you have to delve into personal observations. Here, you do not build an argument using supporting evidence and credible sources. Instead, you bring out your feelings and thoughts about the movie under analysis. Your greatest task is structuring the paper from personal experience and reasoning, especially after watching the film. This is no easy task. Deep knowledge on how to write a reflection paper on a movie will help you overcome most of these challenges.
See what this handout contains:
- Reflection paper writing tips
- Movie reflection papers
- Examples of movie reflection papers
While this guide contains well-researched strategies from authentic sources, it is a tool to make your writing assignment simpler and not stringent rules to follow. Be flexible and make adjustments any time to meet your homework needs. Are you ready? Let us goo…
Getting Started: How to write a reflection paper on a movie
Always remember that a reflection paper is about you. It gives you a chance to express your thoughts over a book, movie, speech or a debate you attended. In this section, you will find everything you need to know to overcome the challenges of writing a flawless movie reflection paper.
Unless you get instructions from your tutor, always write your reflection paper in the first person. Besides, include concrete examples and cite experts where possible to support your opinion.
To write a good reflection paper on a movie, you need to understand the film. This allows you to give a balanced and informed opinion. As such, take your time to watch the movie several times until you master the theme of the producer.
The following guidelines should help you master how to write a reflection paper on a movie.
Hints to remember when writing a reflection paper on a movie
Do not repeat the story. A response paper is far away from narrating the story to your audience. Do not try this. In fact, do not even bother writing a synopsis of the movie because you do not need it. Your focus should be on the major themes in the film.
Retelling a movie to your audience makes it hard for them to understand what the film is all about even though they may get a clue of what transpired. The secret of a good movie is never in the action but in the message.
In the first paragraph of your reflection paper, introduce the reader to your topic. Say what you are discussing as revealed in the movie.
Provide proper bibliographical information – As you figure out how to write a reflection paper on a movie, be sure to acknowledge every source you use to develop your reflection paper. Format your bibliography using standard styles like APA, MLA, and Chicago and ASA format. For reviews, do not include full copies instead capture the bibliographical reference. For web reviews, make sure you provide correct URLs. Also, adhere to standard referencing rules as you do in text citation of your paper.
Organize your paper in paragraphs. A good reflection paper should have paragraphs, without which your ideas will be disorganized. It would be meaningless to have a perfect storyline yet your ideas are jumbled up. You can also use headlines to demarcate different sections of your paper.
Bring out the movie’s central theme: – Though you have the freedom to talk about a range of issues as you articulate your opinion on the movie, do not forget the main theme of the film.
Present a flawless paper – Endeavour to write a perfect paper without common grammar and punctuation errors. Achieve this by proofreading your assignment. You can also give your final friend to a friend to read it and help you make final touches.
Do not do film critic. Remember that a reflection paper of a film is not a critique of the work. Forget about editing, lighting and other filmmaking processes. The issues, which the producer is passing across, are what matter. If you follow these tips on how to write a reflection paper on a movie, you score high in your coming assignments.
For better understanding of the tips above, let us examine the following example.
Example #1: Reflection Paper on a Movie ‘The Crash’
This movie helped me understand the issues of racial tension and animosity in our society today…It also allowed me to stop for a moment and reflect on my thinking and perception towards people of other races and how I would treat them in case we met…
Among the characters who caught my attention as I watched, the movie was Officer Ryan (Matt Dillon). He portrays a practical example of the effects of our actions to other people’s lives…
The locksmith guy also amazes me in the movie. It is interesting to imagine how he tolerated the crap from the Persian guy and Sandra Bullock…
Adapted from: web.pdx.edu
This is a good example of a reflection paper on a movie. The writer sticks to his opinions and thoughts about the film, as it captures issues of racial discrimination and animosity. To develop his reflection, the writer analyzes different characters in relation to racial segregation. He focuses on those who perpetrate the vice and those you overcome the arising challenges. Note that the writer sticks to the first person pronoun as we earlier discussed.
Hoping that this example has helped you gain more insights on how to write a reflection paper on a movie, let us look at a stepwise approach of handling this kind of assignment.
4 steps of writing a reflection paper on a movie
Movie reflection assignments should be the simplest and enjoyable. Imagine working on a paper that requires you to sit, watch movies and give your views. That sounds interesting.
Movies are a good teaching aid as they offer a different perspective on different issues in life. A reaction paper helps you understand specific materials and appreciate its relationship within your course. Here are some of the steps to help you achieve your objective:
Step 1: Treat the movie as a literature piece. As you watch the movie and piece together your reflection paper, see the film as other works of literature you have studied. Bring out the themes and motifs in the movie. Focus on the characters and state how they affected your perception. In addition, bring out the role of these characters in developing the theme.
Step 2: Select a good focus for your paper. If you are in a history class, your reflection paper may seek to establish the accuracy of the events plus where the movie takes artistic license. For example, explain your connection with the characters in the movie and if this would change if it were a book. Talk about the effectiveness of different characters. For example, who is the most sympathetic person in the movie? Capture scenes or events in the movie, which put you off as you watched.
Step 3: Select the elements to include. As you work out on how to write a reflection paper on a movie, always have in mind the production elements, which stand out in the film. How are the events of the story harmonizing to bring out the main theme?
Step 4: Review your paper. Always take time to go through your completed paper to confirm if you have captured everything according to the tutor’s instructions. Also, check grammar, punctuation, consistency, spelling and language clarity.
Examine the following examples as you reflect on this section:
Example # 2: Reflection papers on a movie
How I Met Your Mother Series is another example of a reflection paper. The writer discusses the movie from a personal point of view, giving opinions and thoughts. An excerpt from the series reads:
After watching how I met your mother, I got a deeper understanding of issues of relationships in our society. I was thrilled by how relationships affect everyone in life regardless of their age or gender. I also find the movie captivating and informing in addressing some of the causes of divorce and separation in the American society today.
You can read the whole essay here and get more wisdom on how to write a reflection paper on a movie.
With this handout, you have all it takes to perfect your reflection writing skills. Read and reread these tops and apply. You’ll do great!
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Also referred to as the Scopes Monkey trial or the Scopes Evolution trial, Scopes Trial is a trial that started on July 10th, 1925. In the trail, John Thomas Scopes who was a high school coach and substitute teacher was charged with having violated the Butler Act by giving lessons on the theory of evolution to his students. According to the act, it was regarded as offensive to teach about any theory that was against the biblical theory of creation. Thus, Thomas Scopes was charged with going against the law by teaching his students that man had descended from apes.
The trial of Thomas Scopes occurred in Dayton, Tennessee. However, it is indicated that the trial was a move that had earlier on been planned together with other events in order to raise public attention. Those who orchestrated the events were local businessmen whose main intentions were that from the publicity stunt, they would be able to get more money trickling into the town. One thing about the entire trial is that the defendant was not even sure of whether he had at one point in time, taught his pupils about the evolution theory.
Just as expected by the businessmen who orchestrated the Scopes Trial, the events attracted many reports from the region. In fact, the trial became the first one to be broadcast on radio. Thomas James accepted to incriminate himself and undergo trial in the hope that the Butler Act would be challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union. Many students were encouraged to testify against Scopes during the trial. At the conclusion of the trial, Scopes was found guilty and fined $100. However, the verdict was later on thrown out after an appeal. The impact was that for the next five years, all textbooks in Tennessee were not to bear any mention of the phrase, evolution.
The ruling of Scopes case was a victorious signal for anti-evolutionists. As a result of the ruling, the law would remain in place for the next 42 years. However, it was repealed in 1967. The ruling came as a scare to many teachers such that teaching evolution in class was forgotten. It was only after the act was repealed that evolution began appearing in textbooks and being mentioned in classrooms.
As expected by the orchestrators, the Scopes trial drew a lot of publicity that eventually was good for business in town. The streets that led to the local courthouse were filled with hawkers, vendors and people doing various kinds of businesses. In fact, even booksellers made a killing from the trial since many people were flocking the courts to get a piece of the story. Evangelists too were not left out, most created open-air tabernacles where they encouraged the faithful to read their bibles.
The Scopes trial brought into the light, a trial as well as a theological contest on whether it is right to teach modern science with regards to the creation theory in schools.
Franchising Pros and Cons
To many entrepreneurs who have been successful in building business empires, franchising is an option that may be running through their minds. Franchising is one of the ways of expanding a business and you too may be moved to try it out. However, it is very important to note that just like any other models of business, franchising also has its benefits and demerits. Getting to know them will help you as an entrepreneur to make an informed choice on whether to franchise or not.
One of the pros of franchising is that it can be helpful in obtaining new talent for good business. Many people who are highly qualified and hard workers often tend to invest in running businesses instead of being employed by others in exchange for salaries. Thus, there is a higher chance that by franchising, you are able to get the best talent that can work towards building the business compared to hiring someone to work for you.
Franchising is also a way of obtaining expansion capital for the business without a lot of stress. Since franchisees pay to acquire outlets within the chain, you are able to significantly increase the number of locations without necessarily having to tap a great chunk of your own capital or even moving up and down in search of loans from banks.
When making comparison between starting your own business and franchising, you will realize that franchising is less risky and even costly. Since franchising involves the use of a brand that is already established in the market, there are several costs that are already avoided. Besides, it should also be noted that even though franchisors do not provide financing, many have better working relationships with lenders that can help with issues about financing.
Franchising limits creativity and flexibility on the part of the entrepreneur who is franchising. The reason for this is because the contracts always come with rules that set very explicit standards. In most occasions, the investor who has franchised is not allowed to make any change to the brand but stick to what its owner stipulates. Even if you have a new idea, the franchisor has to agree to it before it is rolled out. This can curtail the efforts of the franchisee to develop the business in the way that he or she likes.
Another con of franchising is that the success of the franchisee is based on the franchisor. The reputation that the franchisee will have in the market shall be a representation of the franchisor’s. This means that any problem that is encountered by the franchisor in the course of doing business will directly impact the franchisee. In fact, investors who fail to do their research well before franchising always find themselves stuck for years after signing the contract.
Just like any other ventures that people may think of investing in, there is no guarantee that franchising is risk-free and more profitable. Choosing to franchise or not is a decision that requires proper research and consultations.
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Pros and Cons of Peer to Peer File Sharing
There many pros and cons of peer to peer file sharing. Peer to peer file sharing refers to sharing of files in a network of connected personal computers. The connected computers share resources in a network that does not involve a separate computer acting as a server.
Peer to peer file sharing is a strategy that is gaining popularity among software corporations. Although this strategy has proved to be beneficial to companies, it has some faults or disadvantages as well. Among the pros of peer to peer file sharing include its easy installation.
Installing peer to peer file sharing network is easy. Computers that are involved in this network are also easy to configure. Thus, it is suitable for companies that do not have a lot of time to spend in installing a file sharing network. If a company does not have an in-house IT department it can also use this network.
In this network, all contents and resources are shared by all peers. This is not the case with server-client network where the server shares the content and resources. This implies that as long as a computer is in the network it can access all files, contents or resources of the architecture.
Peer to peer file sharing network eliminates central dependency. This makes it more reliable because if one peer fails the entire system is not affected. Other peers continue functioning properly when one peer fails. This is not the case with a client-server architecture where the entire system goes down when the server fails.
In addition, peer to peer network does not require a system administrator all the time. The system makes every peer an administrator of their computer. Users are able to control their resources or the shared files. Establishing and maintaining a peer to peer file sharing network is also relatively cheaper.
Among the cons of peer to peer file sharing network include the decentralization of the entire system. This makes administering the system difficult because a single administrator cannot determine the entire accessibility of the settings of the whole network.
The entire network is also not secure. This is because peers can transmit spywares, viruses, malwares and Trojans. These threats can spread from one peer to the other very easily since in most cases nobody monitors the system.
Backup or data recovery is also difficult in a peer to peer file sharing network. Each computer in the network should have a backup system of its own. Peer to peer file sharing network is also not necessarily legal. For this reason, copyrighted files such as music and movies are easily transferred via this network. A good example of this is torrents that use peer to peer file sharing technology.
Generally, peer to peer file sharing network is good when used in connecting a small number of computers and where high security level is not necessary. However, in business networks where there is availability of sensitive data, peer to peer file sharing network is not suitable.
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