Intrinsic vs. Instrumental Value
A comparison of intrinsic value vs. instrumental value brings out the differences and similarities of these ideas. These values have been seen as contrasting ideas since the start of philosophical debates among philosophers.
Intrinsic value refers to a philosophic and ethical property. An intrinsic value is a philosophic and ethical value that is found in an object or for its sake. An object that has an intrinsic value can be considered as an end-in-itself or an end.
On the other hand, an instrumental value is an extrinsic value or a contributory value. It is a value that an object has both abstract object and physical object and it is not an end or end-in-itself but a means that it can use to achieve something else. Instrumental value is studied in value theory.
An intrinsic value is usually contrasted with instrumental value. In this regard, instrumental value is considered as the value that depends on the amount of intrinsic value that it generates. Happiness comprises of an intrinsic value for eudaemonists. On the other hand, a family might not comprise of an intrinsic value but it can be an instrumental value because it brings happiness.
In axiology, intrinsic value is employed in studying value or quality. Ethic good that has instrumental value can be considered as an ethic means without necessarily being the end itself. Thus, the major difference between instrumental value and intrinsic value is that an instrumental value is a means of achieving ethical decision while an intrinsic value is seen as a human nature.
These two makes a philosophic argument on whether a value is a means to an end or an end in itself. However, when put together the ideas fit well.
Theory of an instrumental value originates from the notion of an idea or object leading to another value indirectly or directly. For instance, if a person enjoys reading, the action of reading gives them pleasure. Thus, reading as an action leads to a value which is happiness.
Theory of an intrinsic value however, is based on the idea that certain values or beliefs are just what they are. For instance, happiness is intrinsic because it is a feeling or emotion. It is difficult to control what makes an individual happy but everybody agrees that it is a good emotion or feeling. Thus, an emotional value, happiness is the end. As such, an intrinsic value is a belief that leads a person into making a judgment about a situation.
While an instrumental value is easy to define and easy to identify, an intrinsic value is tricky in most cases. The notion that an intrinsic value is not explainable apart from agreeing that it is a value itself makes it difficult to define and identify.
Contrary to this, an instrumental value is simply an indirect or direct means via which intrinsic value can be observed. This is because an instrumental value is simply a means to the end and the intrinsic value is the end.
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Instrumental variable is used in estimating casual relationships when a treatment is not delivered to all units successfully or a controlled experiment is not feasible in a randomized experiment in statistics, epidemiology, econometrics and other related disciplines.
Philip G. Wright derived the instrumental variable theory for the first time in a book entitled; The Tariff on Animal and Vegetable Oils. Instrumental variables are traditionally defined as variable Z with a correlation with an independent variable X without a correlation with the error term U in an equation.
The equation is as follows:
Y= βX +U
However, this definition has concept ambiguities that include independent variable and error term. This has caused confusion regarding the meaning that this equation has and it has been labeled as “regression” wrongly.
The method of instrumental variable allows for consistent estimation in the experiments with correlated explanatory variables with error terms of regression relationships. This correlation can occur when one of the explanatory variables is caused by a dependent variable, when the explanatory variables are subjected to measurement errors or when relevant covariates or explanatory variables are omitted in the model.
In any of these situations, inconsistent and biased estimates are generally produced by linear regression. Nevertheless, if there is an instrument variable, it is still possible to obtain consistent estimates. An instrument variable refers to a variable that is not part of the explanatory equation. It is correlated to endogenous covariates that are condition to the other explanatory variables.
In a linear model, using instrumental variable has two major requirements. First, the instrument has to be correlated to the endogenous covariates that are conditional to other explanatory variables. Second, the instrument should not be correlated to the error term in covariates equation. This implies that the instrument should not suffer from a similar problem with an original, predicting variable.
The method of instrumental variable has been used in estimating policy variable of the effects of a treatment in an experimental design that is not feasible and it has been successful. Estimating the casual impacts has several difficulties. Even randomized experiments are not perfect in some parts because researchers can seldom, if possible, perform true experiments.
Instrumental variable analysis is one of the most compelling quasi-experimental methods that are used in estimating impacts since the assumptions required to provide justification for the instrumental method are more plausible that the ones required in justifying other experimental methods.
Researchers have proposed the instrumental variable method as one of the potential approaches in solving common problems of the uncontrolled confounding in the comparative studies in medical interventions. Over the years, several reviews have been done on the instrumental variable methods in biomedical and statistical literature at different technical levels and substantive emphases have been made. However, many researchers are still unfamiliar with instrumental variable and its application.
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Instrumental variable method has been used in estimating casual relationships in epidemiology, econometrics and statistics among other disciplines. However, you must conduct an extensive study to write a quality essay about this method. Nevertheless, you can order this essay with veteran writers at Essays Experts.
US Electoral College
The US Electoral College is the highly presumed institution that legitimately elects the president and the vice president of the United States. It is a process that is established in the United States constitution. An Electoral College is made up of 538 electors who take part in the elections. Electors are the chosen and authorized constitutional participants who foresee the success of an election and are chosen by a popular vote on a state-to-state strategy. Hence, U.S president and the vice president are not directly elected by the voters, but Citizens vote for the electors who pick the best candidate.
There is a deep-rooted history on the U.S Electoral College. The year 1787 changed the face and history of America. It was an era when a group of national leaders drafted the U.S constitution whilst another group decided that the average citizen should not elect a president without a system to link the process – the Electoral College. At the time, many politicians believed that the most popular candidate was likely to win the election and this was a uncontrolled strategy that favors certain areas.
The Electoral College process worked effectively until 1800 when there was a tied election outcome between Arron Burr and Thomas Jefferson. But electors from both parties were selected to elect the best candidate. This outcome also resulted to 12th amendment of the Unites States constitution which clarified more on the electoral voting process. Today, each state has to present a number of electors’ equivalent to the number of senators and its representatives.
Despite being the most effective election process in United States, the Electoral College has been faced by a number of critics and proposals. Unfortunately, most of the debaters have been trying to abolish the Electoral College. Those against the U.S Electoral College and preferred a direct popular vote of the president cite issues such as;
- The possibility of having “faithless” electors.
- Risk of electing a minority president who has fewer numbers of votes.
- Failure to of the electors to reflect the national popular voter will and
- Possibility of the Electoral College in disappointing voter turnout.
Supporters of the U.S Electoral College have normally stood to defend it on its logical ground asserting that;
- It brings out the consistency of the nation by ensuring distribution of the popular support to rightfully elected president.
- It also boosts the status of minority interests
- The process also maintains a federal way of government and exceptional representation
- It also contributes to the political stability of the nation by boosting a two-party system.
The U.S Electoral College has played great roles over 50 presidential and vice president elections. It has also been in the forefront to pledging peaceful presidential elections that meet and gratify the needs of the people. The Electoral College has stood as an essential piece of American Federalist democracy for many years and millions Americans treasure it to date. Hence, due to its transparency and consistence in the election process, no one should have any qualms voting for his or her desired candidate.
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Illinois Pension Crisis
Illinois is one of the great states in United States. It is the 5th most densely inhabited state with an extensive and diverse economic base. The dollar gross state product for Illinois by 2010 was estimated to be US$652 billion while the state’s taxpayer burden in 2011 approximately hit US$38,500 mark per taxpayer. On top of this, unemployment rate in the state was estimated at 11.5% as of March 2010 and it has been decreasing with time. Currently, Illinois is going through the worst pension crisis in history. The recent passage of the breakthrough Illinois pension bill implies that the long fight over how to address the massive pension crisis will shift to courts.
There has been a lot of hullabaloo on whether the Illinois pension issue is a crisis that demands nation attention or not. Many leaders within the state have controverted their statements many times on the issue. The pension crises that have been facing Illinois have not only impacted state operations, but also have threatened education, public safety, social services and any other area of the public interest. Like many other states in Unites States, the ratio of workers to pensioners has been declining on daily basis.
With many public servants anticipating for retirement security, there have been differences on whether to abide to the Illinois pension systems. If proper reforms are not decreed, many retirees will lose or have their pensions deducted. These taxpayers will be pushed into huge bailout and the youngsters in such for better jobs might not pension at all. With a bill being tabled by the Illinois senate, it is wise to keep a number of things about the Illinois pension crisis in mind. They include;
- The Illinois pension crisis is a vast burden to the taxpayers as they are on the nail for more than $203 billion in local pension and state deficit. This means that, every household has a deficit of $42,000.
- The structure of the Illinois pension system can be blamed for the catastrophes. Most of the residents unfunded liabilities are due disaster of defined benefit plans.
- More than 63% of current Illinois state pensioners retired before the age of 60 years, a decade before those in the private sector.
- The current pension bill will not save the day and common citizens as it will do more harm than the anticipated benefits. This is because the bill will only reduce Illinois pension deficit to 2011 levels. The bill also lets state workers to retire in their late 50s and enjoy full benefits that come with their retirement package. On top of this, the pension bill also reduces state work contributions, placing larger burden on the taxpayers.
- The average Illinois state retiree contributes only 6% of what they will receive in his or her pension payouts. This means that, many workers contribute less and expect to earn more when their retirement benefits are due.
Illinois is facing the worst pension crisis in United States. Pension reform bills have been passed, but many have been a step backward for the state. For Illinois to overcome this pension crisis, real reforms that will move the state away from defined benefits and in relation to worker-controlled retirements need to be ratified and save the state from indebtedness.
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Example of a Conclusion
It is always advisable that you know how to determine the best example of a conclusion online to refer to when writing academic papers. Besides, you should also know where to get the right example of an academic paper conclusion for successful results. However, there is no reason to worry because you will find herein, the best advice on how to easily get the right example for use in writing a good conclusion for an essay or any other academic paper.
A strong example of a conclusion is the best reference material that you should rely on when writing an academic paper. An example is basically a sample drawn from a typical paper that is written by other students or professionals. A professionally written one can vividly show you how an outstanding conclusion should be crafted.
A good conclusion sample highlights the recommended structure for writing the final section of an academic paper. With the framework, you will always find an easy time writing the conclusion for your paper. Besides, a well written example can also provide you with ideas on how to write conclusions for other papers in future.
In order to get the best results with an example of a conclusion, it is always important that you use a properly written sample. In fact, the quality of the example that you use greatly determines the way your conclusion will be written. Therefore, you have to be very keen on where you obtain the sample from and also the example that you use.
Tips on how to choose a good example of a conclusion
Choosing the best quality example of a conclusion can sometimes seem challenging to most students. However, there are only a few things that you should take note of in order to always make the right choices.
When looking for a conclusion example to use, it is always advisable that you go for one that is written by professionals or experts on that particular subject. That is best sample that can offer you an ideal structure for a good academic paper conclusion. Professionals are people with expertise on the subject or coursework.
It is also advisable that you look for an example that is based on the subject of your paper. Using a sample conclusion for a different subject to write your own can be misleading and even confusing. However, it should be noted that an example is only to guide you in writing. Therefore, you should not copy it word to word or directly as it is.
The aim of an example is to enable you get ideas on how a good conclusion should be written. Lifting statements or content from the sample and copying onto yours is not allowed and may amount to plagiarism. In the event that you use part of the statements in the sample, it should be properly referenced in your conclusion according to the recommended style.
In academic writing, conclusions should be strong and brief. Therefore, it would also be important that you carefully read through a couple of examples in order to gauge them based on these elements. Conclusions that are too long and dotted with vague statements are not usually good to use, so try to avoid them.
Since you will need to refer to examples of conclusions often when writing assignments and term papers, it is also important that you find a source that can offer you the required sample at your own convenience. The internet is the most convenient place where you should obtain sample conclusions.
By choosing to acquire sample conclusions from a reliable source, you will never be caught up in the last minute rush to complete assignments or term papers since you will always get the sample at the right time.
When obtaining sample conclusions online, it should also be noted that the sources have different terms and conditions regarding the use of those samples. Some sources offer conclusion examples at a fee while others free of charge. Therefore, ensure that you carefully know the terms of using the example beforehand.
Where to get the best example of a conclusion online
There are several places where you can find an example of a conclusion over the internet. However, not all can offer you the best quality samples. Besides, other sources are not reliable enough to offer you the required examples at your time of need.
The following as some of the best sources to acquire a sample conclusion from.
Your school’s writing center
Today, almost all academic institutions ranging from high schools to universities have writing centers that are dedicate to helping students in academic writing. The one for your school can be a good place to acquire an example of an essay or research paper conclusion online. In case your school does not have one, you can still find help from writing centers of other institutions that offer similar courses as yours.
The University of Maryland Writing Center is one of the school writing centers that you can visit for examples of academic paper conclusions. Almost all school writing centers can be accessible online, so you can always get the samples at your own convenience.
Academic writing services
There are websites dedicated to offering paper writing help to students and could also be ideal sources for sample conclusions. The benefit of such sites is that they will only offer you sample conclusions but also custom written pieces on request. However, some of the services are offered at a fee, based on your needs.
Academic writing service providers can also offer you professional advice on how to write good conclusions for your papers. CustomWritingService is one of the best service providers that you can contact online for sample essay, research paper and dissertation conclusions. The site also has a blog from where you can easily acquire the examples that you need at any time.
Although many students today avoid visiting the library, it still remains a great place to obtain reference materials for writing academic papers. The library contains a collection of materials that can assist you in writing good conclusions for academic papers.
Considering the development of technology, you can now access a wide range of learning materials from various libraries online from the comfort of your seat. The University of Guelph Library is one of the places that you can check out online for examples of paper conclusions. Besides, the library also offers more insights on how to write conclusions and others parts of an academic paper.
There are websites that offer academic help to students and could also assist you whenever you need a sample conclusion. However, you must be very keen to find one that is ruin by professionals. A good academic blog will not only offer you an example but also more information on how an ideal conclusion should be structured.
Literacy Education Online is one of the blogs from where you can obtain examples of conclusions. The site offers a wide range of sample conclusions and also comprehensive guidelines on how to write unique and outstanding conclusions for essays and other academic papers.
Examples of well written Conclusions
The following samples will help you in determining the best quality example of a conclusion online.
Sample Conclusion for an essay
‘’…As previously stated, what differentiates university-standard writing from other forms are the expectations held by the academics who will assess the writing. These include the expectation that essays will be thoroughly planned, and clearly structured, making the arguments and ideas they provide easy to follow. There is also a very high expectation of the style of writing that will be used; it must meet academic standards…’’ Read the other parts of the sample here.
Sample conclusion that ends with a question
‘’Campaign advertisements should help us in understanding the candidate’s qualifications and positions on the issues. Instead, most tell us what a boob or knave the opposing candidate is, or they present general images of the candidates as a family person or God-fearing American. Do such advertisements contribute to the creation of an informed electorate or a people who choose political leaders the same way they choose soft drinks and soap?’’Read the sample and more insights about conclusions for academic papers on this link,
Sample essay Conclusion
‘’I thought I would spend a few hours at Disneyland, but here I was at 1:00 AM, closing time, leaving the front gates with the now dark towers of the Magic Kingdom behind me. I could see tired children, toddling along and struggling to keep their eyes open as best they could. Others slept in their parent’s arms as we waited for the parking lot tram that would take us to our cars. My forty-year-old feet ached, and I felt a bit sad to think that in a couple of days I would be leaving California, my vacation over, to go back to my desk…’’Find the rest of the sample conclusion here.
In case you may need a professionally crafted example of a conclusion, do not hesitate to talk to us. Alternatively, you can also visit our blog to continue reading more about conclusions for academic papers.
Sample Essay about Yourself
Knowing how to write a sample essay about yourself is a crucial step towards enhancing your oral and written communication skills. An essay about yourself is not quite different from other essays or academic papers and knowing how to write one can be quite beneficial to your endeavors at school and also career. With proper guidance and insights that are offered herein, you will easily find out how to develop a good essay about yourself.
A sample essay about yourself can also be called a personal essay. The aim of writing this kind of essay paper is to explain yourself to the readers by addressing your traits, talents, experiences, skills among other elements that can be used to describe you as fit for a particular position or duty.
You can be asked to write a sample essay about yourself for college admission, job application or even scholarship application. On the other hand, it can also be given as an assignment at school. Therefore, it is very important that you know how to write a good sample essay about yourself in order to be successful.
Guidelines on how to write a sample essay about yourself
Considering that there are several things you may need to discuss about yourself, writing a personal essay can sometimes seem challenging. However, there is no reason to worry, instead, read the following guidelines to easily find out how to craft a strong sample essay about yourself.
Identify the purpose or theme of the essay
Personal essay can be written for different reasons, and it is always advisable that you determine the reason for yours in advance. A personal essay can be aimed at entertaining readers, informing them and supporting or opposing a particular position.
For example, if your essay is for a job or college application, the purpose is to inform. Defining the purpose of the essay will assist you in brainstorming ideas for the essay and also choosing an ideal approach to take in writing.
Think about what to write
A personal essay should clearly describe you to the readers in such a way that one can easily know who you are by reading the paper. Although it may not say much about yourself, it should give comprehensive information that can be used to understanding the kind of a person that you are.
Therefore, it is important that you take some time to think of what to share in the essay. When doing this, always remember the purpose of the essay. There are various ideas that you can explore in writing a personal essay including overcoming obstacles, great successes among others.
Try to think of those experiences, skills and talents that can effectively describe you to the audience. It is advisable that you list as many as you can remember in order to have a variety of options to narrow down to.
Revise your points
Personal essays are often timed and you will also be given specifications on the number of words to cover in the paper. Thus, you have to properly argue out your points and come up with the key ones that can be used in giving a better description of yourself.
Depending on the purpose of the paper, carefully choose your points from the listed experiences, traits and skills. The key points should be supportive of the role that you intend the essay to play. In order to have a better flow of ideas, start by choosing the points for the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion in that order.
Try to think of the essay as a story about yourself when identifying the points to use. Your points should also include additional information or examples that will be mentioned in the paper to make a compelling discussion.
Draft an outline
After you have decided on the particular approach to pursue and main points for the paper, the details should be well listed down in an outline. This is a plan showing the various sections of the essay and points to be addressed in each.
In creating an outline, try to be as clear and brief as possible. It is advisable that you categorize your paper in three sections representing intro, body paragraphs and conclusion. Under each section, you should list down the key points that will be discussed.
After creating the outline, ensure that you carefully go through it in order to ascertain whether the points included therein are as required.
Steps on how to write an essay about yourself
Writing a sample essay about yourself entails creativity, attention to details and proper flow of ideas. Besides, the purpose of your essay must be clearly brought out to distinguish it from other kinds of essays.
Follow the procedures outlined below to easily write a personal essay.
The opening statements of an essay about yourself should tell your audience about the purpose of the essay. Besides, you should also give a brief introduction of yourself which can be done in the form of an anecdote or just a simple statement.
In order to enhance the clarity of your essay, you should also narrow down the introduction to portray a single or specific theme. There is no condition that you have to start describing yourself from the start, the story can begin from anywhere provided that you stick to the purpose of the paper.
In the body of the essay, you should give a detailed explanation of the theme, experience, skills or traits that you wish to share with the audience. In writing, give a unique idea or point in every paragraph. Besides, you should also ensure that every paragraph gives a comprehensive explanation of the point addressed therein. Use at least two examples in every paragraph to add some weight to the story.
A good personal essay paper should vividly discuss what you are bringing to the table or capable of doing in your current state.
When describing yourself, avoid vague statements and very long statements that may make your work to look substandard. You should be creative in telling your story but be careful not to deviate from the facts and important elements of the essay.
The essay can describe both your private and public life, giving information about your education, growth and even career. However, it is advisable that in case there is certain information that you do not wish to share, simply leave it out of the discussion.
The last part of the essay should give your audience the point of the story or tell them why reading the sample was important. Generally, the conclusion should briefly sum up your story and point out to any future expectations or commitments from you.
An essay about yourself should not be very long, lest it becomes boring. Make the story quite short, about just one or two pages. However, there are instances whereby you will be advised on the number of words. If so, always stick to the given word count.
Examples of Personal Essays
The following sample essays can also offer you more insights on how to write a sample essay about yourself. Carefully read them to find out how personal essays should be crafted.
Sample essay to describe myself
‘’My name is John Smith, and I am a senior at Frederick Douglass High School. I am a good student with a 3.4 grad point average. The university that I want to attend is Georgia Tech because I want to become a civil engineer and there are many reasons why I should be enrolled. Firstly, I am a hardworking and dedicated student. Secondly, I am a friendly, sociable person. Finally, I have condemned myself to be a success…’’ To read the rest of this sample, simply click here
Sample personal essay
‘’My name is Cassandra Duncan. I grew up as an only child and only grandchild on both sides. The youngest of all my cousins and the only child in a small neighborhood that consisted of a bunch of adults, I never really learned what it meant to just be a kid. And, I certainly never learned how to relate to other children.
Accustomed to being around primary adults, I was always mature for my age. Even my own friends often annoyed me during my adolescent years…’’ Get the whole sample on this link
Sample personal essay for a job application
‘’Leon Thomas is the Regional Manager for American Family Insurance’s Northwestern Region. He oversees all claims and underwriting leadership for the region and serves as its liaison to the corporate office in Odenville. Originally from Odenville himself, Leon grew up just a few miles from the headquarters of the company. However, his was one of the few families in town that had no family members employed at the company…’’ Read the remaining parts of this sample on this link
In case you may need professional assistance on how to write a sample essay about yourself, simply talk to us. Alternatively, you can also refer to our homepage for more on how to easily get the best essay help.
INTRODUCTION: How to write an argumentative essay in AP English
Did you know that up to a third of AP English Lang Exam would require you to write an argumentative essay? Well, the good news about this task is that it allows you to use all the skills and tricks you have developed by reading other people’s work throughout your life. However, to excel in AP Lang exams, you must do extensive practice and expose yourself to different prompts because writers of these exams never repeat prompts. In other words, you can never be sure of the prompt you will meet when the exam comes. Therefore, you need hints on how to write an argumentative essay in AP English to prepare holistically for this exam.
Notably, these guidelines should help you to unlock your potential in writing an excellent persuasive essay for your AP Lang exams. They are flexible and easy to apply. Do not read hastily; take time to digest every segment. Let us hit the road now…
The fundamentals of how to write an argumentative essay in AP English
If you are yet to sit for AP Lang exams, you will discover that it calls for more skills that usual rhetorical essay writing. Among other challenges, you will have to do the following:
- Support your argument – This forms the basis of your persuasive essay. You must provide credible evidence to support any claim you make. Any essay that does not have solid proof for an argument ceases to be a persuasive essay.
- Understand various prompts – A prompt is what the examiner wants you to do. Three common prompts, which you will encounter while doing this exam are.
- Defending assertions – Here you agree with assertion.
- Qualifying assertions – It is a tricky prompt. It allows you to respect other people’s opinions as you develop your credibility as a writer.
- Refuting/challenging the assertions – You challenge the assertion by disagreeing or giving a counterargument to the claim.
These are action prompts, which determine the path of your persuasive essay. Avoid confusion and be clear in your thoughts so that the examiner knows what you are doing. Let us look at some examples of prompts from past years to help you master how to write an argumentative essay in AP English.
Examples of Argumentative Essay Prompts
2001 prompt: Read the following passage by Susan Sontag. Write an essay in which you support, challenge or qualify her claim the photography has the power to undermine people’s understanding of the world. Employ relevant evidence to develop your argument.
2003 Prompt. Using specific examples, write a thoughtful essay in which you defend, qualify or challenge, the argument that entertainment ruins the society.
These two examples give you a clue of what you should expect as you prepare for AP Lang English Exams. Get more prompts over the years here.
Strategies to help you develop a good argumentative essay in AP English
Most students who score high in persuasive writing when undertaking this exam present at least three pages of an argument. As you work on your essay, avoid the temptation of focusing on how the writer makes his or her argument. Instead, bring out what he or she is arguing about in the text.
It is always good to take a position on an issue in order to develop a strong argument using credible sources. Thus, in cases where the examiner allows you the freedom to choose an action prompt, avoid qualifying claims. Qualifying requires you to agree and disagree, which can be confusing especially for starters. Let us examine simple steps of how to write an argumentative essay in AP English.
Method 1: Prewriting an argumentative essay in AP English
Before you embark on writing your persuasive essay, you must prepare and be ready for the task ahead. Thorough preparation will give you an edge over other candidates as you respond to the prompt task and eventually guarantee you a higher score.
STEP 1: Understand your task. You cannot begin responding to a prompt when you do not know what the examiner is asking. Read the prompt carefully and get the action you are supposed to perform. What is the prompt?
STEP 2: Create columns for defend and refute – note specific examples, which support the assertion. In a different section, also, put down evidence that counters the assertion. You can source this evidence through observation, personal experience, and reading what other authors say on the same issue.
Your essay evidence should be:
- Specific and accurate – The evidence you choose to use must be irrefutably true in all aspects. It should be named and factually correct to make your argument concrete.
- Use credible sources – Avoid informal evidence sources like movies. Such proofs weaken your argument.
- Give mature reaction – Where you are giving a personal response, be thoughtful, reflect well and read widely to have a deeper mastery of issues.
- Be relevant – Use evidence that add value to your claim. Do not waste your time, intellectual energy and space giving facts that have no relationship with the prompt action of the text.
- Avoid obvious evidence – Do not rely on first thoughts. Go for in-depth thoughts on the issue, which are not easy to find. This will make you standout.
STEP 3: Choose a stance. As you think about how to write an argumentative essay in AP English, settle on a column that has strong examples and evidence. Pursuing such a position means, you have enough facts to back your claim from all angles.
Method 2: Developing your Argumentative essay like a genius
Once you have analyzed the prompt, evaluated the evidence available and taken a stance, you are ready to draft your persuasive essay without any hindrance.
STEP 1of 3: Introduction – Your introduction presents a lasting impression. The person marking your essay may tell your ability from your first paragraph. Do not make it boring.
Tricks to help you piece your introduction
- Use attention getter – Give the reader a reason to read on by piquing their interest with a hook. This could be in form of startling statistics, a brief anecdote, or a generalization that directly relates with the prompt. Make it brief and sweet. Avoid long and flowery introductions.
- Restate the assertion – Put the claim in your own words. This is an important step. Do not miss out!
- Acknowledge counterargument – Since you already have evidence for both sides of the issue, identity 1-3 points, which refute your claim. This proves that you understand both sides of the issue.
- Remember your thesis – Put down your final statement of the introduction, capturing your main ideas in entirety. Make your thesis strong and go ahead to support it throughout your essay.
These introduction tips should help you work out how to write an argumentative essay in AP English even as you delve into the body paragraphs of your essay.
STEP 2 of 3: Working on body paragraphs 2nd-4th
The body paragraphs of your argumentative essay play a major role. They bear the flesh of your work and determine your writing prowess.
Develop paragraphs 2 to 3 by digging into the evidence you have to support your position. Go for specific examples and elements that solidify your argument. Here, you will have to use observations, reading and personal experience to argue your ideas.
Think big and critically to convince the reader. Conceive a bigger picture of the issue, including world events that support your topic. Do not do a summary of these events, instead, link them to your argument and synthesize the topic. No argument will exist without evidence.
Remember to respond to so what – Why does the issue matter? Why should the reader care about the issue? If you can craft good body paragraphs, then you are miles ahead in understanding how to write an argumentative essay in AP English.
Step 3 of 3: How to spice a Conclusion for your argumentative essay in AP English
Congratulations! You are at the last step of your essay. Here, signal the mood of closure, by revisiting your essay.
Restate your thesis – Without repeating word for word, revisit your main ideas to remind the reader what you discussed.
In case you have enough time, add statements that challenge the reader, or insights into the world, using your topic.
At this point, you have all the tools and skills on how to write an argumentative essay in AP English. Put these ideas into practice. Fare Thee Well.
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Strand Binding Protein
Single strand binding protein can simply be defined as protein that binds to single-stranded DNA. This Process usually takes place near the replication fork for stabilization of the single strands. The SSB protein fights towards protecting the single stranded DNA from being consumed by the nucleases through the process of digestion. Besides, it also eliminates the secondary structure from the DNA so that other enzymes are able to effectively operate upon it.
Single stranded DNA can always be produced in every aspect of DNA metabolism. Such aspects include replication, repair and recombination. Single strand binding proteins are joined to numerous proteins that are involved in all processes of DNA metabolism. Besides, they are also very active in the modulation of these proteins. It should be noted that single strand binding proteins do not bind quite well to double stranded DNA.
DNA is usually stable when it is within a double helix under physiological conditions. However, this can only remain so if the complementary strands of DNA are in a similar location. After the double helix is separated by the enzyme helicase into single strands of DNA, there are higher chances that they try to re-construct the double helix. However, they need to be prevented from pursuing that course. The work of single strand binding protein is to ensure that these post-replication fork single strands of DNA do not regroup.
Single strand binding proteins are present in humans as well as bacteria and viruses. The only organisms that have not been found to contain the SSB proteins are Thermoproteales. The most ideal characterized single strand binding protein is obtained from bacteria known as E.coli. In this case, the SSB protein occupies a large number of DNA bases with regards to various factors. One of the main factors that play a role in this procedure is salt concentration.
DNA that has been changed from a double stranded form to a single stranded form can be said to have undergone denaturing. The objective of single strand binding protein is to prevent the denatured DNA from renaturing. It positions itself between two DNA strands that are undergoing replication or an individual one that is undergoing a similar process. However, emphasis is mainly placed on the latter.
A single strand binding protein ensures that even if it takes a long duration of time, renaturing of DNA does not take place. With this, there is no chance that replication of DNA shall take place. After this process, the work of the single strand binding protein is done and it is not needed anymore.
When studying single strand binding protein, it is important to also note that it binds to single stranded DNA in two different ways, limited and unlimited. Under limited, the protein clusters are only tied to the formation of dimmers of tetramers due to the interaction of four single strand binding subunits with single strand DNA. Under unlimited, there are chances of formation of long clusters of protein since they interact with one another on either sides of the protein that they are bound to.
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Retinol Binding Protein
Retinol binding protein can be simply defined as a type of protein that has a low molecular weight and transports retinol or Vitamin A from the liver to the peripheral tissues. However, it should be noted that this class of proteins can also conduct other various functions in the body. In conjunction with retinoic acid, retinol plays an important role in modulating the expression of genes as well as in the overall embryonic development. However, the supply of these substances should always be at a given level since any deficit or excess can have dire consequences that may include malformations in development or even mortality of an embryo.
The retinol binding protein helps in regulating the transportation and metabolism of retinol that is required for successful pregnancy. This class of proteins has been identified in various parts of the body including the embryo, uterus and other tissues like the porcine, ovine and bovine. This is a clear indication that retinol binding protein aids in the proper exposure of retinol to the embryo, and its transportation.
Retinol binding protein is mostly found bound to transthyretin. However, there is usually a small percentage that freely passes through the glomerular membranes. This fraction is re-absorbed by the cells of the renal proximal tubules. Under this circumstance, the small percentage of retinol binding proteins is catabolized. Due to the extensive re-absorption that takes places within the tubules, only small traces of the filtered retinol binding protein is passed out in urine. Thus, it can be said that increased excretion of retinol binding protein during the process of urination points out to an injury or impairment in the proximal tubule.
There are three types of retinol binding protein that you need to take note of when discussing this topic. One of them is called Plasma retinol binding protein that is mainly the vessel of transport in the serum. Cellular retinol binding protein is yet another type whose function is to transport retinol and factors of metabolism to retinyl esters so that they can be stored safely for future use. Besides, the factors of metabolism and retinol can also be transported to form part of retinoic acid.
Cellular retinoic acid binding proteins also fall under the three types of retinol binding proteins. Their work is to bind retinol and retinoic acid with high affinity. Besides, some studies have also indicated that this class of retinol binding proteins can also regulate and supply retinoic acid to nuclear receptors.
Retinol binding proteins are instrumental in the growth and differentiation of several body tissues. Among these, embryos are regarded as the most sensitive to changes in the concentration of retinol. The process through which retinol binding protein produces retinol is still not very clear. Retinol binding protein undergoes synthesis in the liver; however, its secretion depends on the concentrations of retinol. Secretion of RBP is usually blocked whenever there is a deficiency in retinol. This results into a rise in the Retinol binding protein levels in the liver and a fall of the same in the plasma.
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Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein refers to proteins that are secreted in vertebrates and have the affinity for binding to IGF-1. These proteins have high affinity for binding IGFs and they modulate the IGFs’ biological actions.
There are six different sub-groups of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins that range from IGFBP-1 to IGFBP-6. Their categorization is based on gene organization, IGFs binding affinity and structural similarity.
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein is simply called IGFBP and it acts as an insulin-like growth factor I carrier protein. About 98 percent of insulin growth factor 1 is bound to one of the six binding proteins. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 is found in the body in high amounts and it accounts for 80 percent of IGF binding.
The molar ratio of IGF-1 to IGFBP-3 is 1:1. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein also binds to the IGF-1 in the liver. This allows the growth hormone to act on the liver so that it can produce IGF-1 continuously. IGFBPs also have inhibitor domain homologues. These are related to the family of MEROPS protease inhibitors, clan IX and equistatin.
The domain architecture of all insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins is the same. These proteins are molecules that are unusually pleiotropic. Just like the other binding proteins, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein can prolong IGFs’ half-life through their high affinity for ligands’ binding. IGFBPs share a 50 percent homology with one another. The order for their binding affinity for IGF-II and IGF-I is the same in terms of magnitude and ligands’ affinity for IGF-IR.
Individual insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins can act in a way that attenuates or enhances their similarities. However, there are cases when they exhibit different characteristics such as chromosomal location, site for RGD recognition, heparin binding domains, phosphorylation differences and glycosylation among others. Interaction of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein with the membranes of cellular basement can be affected by some of these differences.
Apart from functioning as protein carrier, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins in serum form can regulate the actions of paracrine/autocrine and endocrine actions of IGF. They do this by modulating the availability of IGF to bind onto the signaling receptors of IGF-1.
Additionally, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein can act as a growth modulator without depending on IGFs. For instance, IGFBP-5 stimulates bone makers in the osteoblasts that lack functional IGFs. IGFBP binding to putative receptor on a cell membrane can also stimulate pathway signaling that is independent of the IGF receptor. This mediates IGFBPs’ effects on specific types of cells.
IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-1 have characteristics that enable them to stimulate the migration of CHO cell as well as human trophoblast cell via an alpha-5-beta 1 integrin-mediated action. Finally, when IGFBPs are transported into a nucleus through a nuclear localization signal they can exert effects that are independent of IGF via a genes’ transcriptional activation. Several studies have confirmed the ability of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein to influence cell growth both independently and by depending on IGFs.
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Insulin-like Growth factor 2
Insulin-like growth factor 2 is also called IGF2. It is one of the three protein hormones whose structure is similar to that of insulin. Scientists define this hormone as a neutral peptide that is well-characterized and the liver is believed to secrete it and circulate it into the blood. Among the functions of this hormone include mitogenic, insulin-like and growth-regulating activities.
This growth factor hormone depends on somatotropin although not absolutely. Many scientists believe that it is a crucial growth factor for fetus unlike the insulin-like growth factor I which is a crucial growth factor for adults. Insulin-like growth factor 2 plays an important role in influencing cell division in fetus, mammalian growth, differentiation and also metabolic regulation.
There studies that suggest that this protein promotes proliferation and growth of cells in different tissues. Studies have also proven that this protein is highly active among fetus and it facilitates their development but it is less active in adults.
Individuals inherit most genes from parents. One copy of the gene is inherited from the father and the other from the mother. The two copies are turned on or typically activated in the cells. For Insulin-like growth factor 2 gene, the copy that an individual inherits from their mother is not active in most body parts. Scientists see this as a parent-specific variation in the activation of gene and it is caused by genomic imprinting.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 forms part of a genes’ cluster found on the short arm of the chromosome 11. This part is the one that undergoes genomic imprinting. A part of DNA called the imprinting center 1 or H19 controls genomic imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2.
A change in the insulin-like growth factor 2 due to genomic imprinting causes changes in another process known as methylation. This affects the imprinting center 1. In genes where genomic imprinting occurs, a mark or stamp is put on them during the formation of sperm or egg cells. The stamping process is what is known as methylation. It is a chemical reaction during which small molecules known as methyl groups are attached to some DNA segments.
In some individuals, this results in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. This syndrome is caused by the presence of a lot of methyl groups in the DNA segments. An increase in the activities of insulin-like growth factor 2 is also associated with some strains of cancer. This occurs when both maternal and paternal copies of the gene with this protein are active.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 amount increases the rate at which cells produce. Eventually, Insulin-like growth factor 2 stimulates tumor cells’ growth while preventing the destruction of damaged cells. Other diseases that are associated with insulin-like growth factor 2 include Russell-Silver syndrome, polymorphisms and Doege-Potter syndrome.
Apart from causing these diseases, insulin-like growth factor 2 also interacts with Transferrin and IGFBP3.
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Insulin-like growth factor 2 acts as a hormone that promotes growth during gestation. However, it has other roles that you need to study before writing an essay on it. However, you can simply order your essay with us at Essays Experts to save time and resources.
How to Write an Expository Essay for Kids
The skills on how to write an expository essay for kids are critical for enhancing your oral and written communication capabilities. In fact, there is so much that you can achieve with good essay writing skills both in and outside school. In the following section, we will offer you well-illustrated and clear guidelines, along with professionally crafted sample essays to enlighten you on how to write an expository essay for kids.
The aim of an expository essay is to explain or discuss a topic in a logical and straightforward manner that readers can understand. In this case, you should note that the readers or audience are kids. Therefore, the essay must be written in a simple manner that can be easily read and understood by minors.
A good expository essay should always present a balanced analysis of the particular subject under discussion, based on facts, without reference to your opinions as the writer. Considering that essays are written in almost the same formats, knowledge on how to write an expository essay for kids can as well be used in crafting other academic papers or assignments.
Guidelines on how to write an expository essay for kids
Writing an expository essay is a test of your analytical and writing skills. Besides, writing one for kids even requires you to filter your statements further since they are some things or phrases that may offend them.
The following tips will assist you in knowing how to write an expository essay for kids
Read and understand the question of the paper
Do not rush into outlining or even writing an essay paper without first understanding what is required of you. Take time to carefully read and digest the question in order to know the direction to pursue in crafting the essay.
While reading, do take notes or highlight the key phrases depicting the requirements for the paper. Most expository essay paper will use such words like, explain, describe among others.
By understanding the question, you will be able to clearly define the purpose of the expository essay.
Consider your audience
Knowing your specific readers can be helpful in choosing the best words, tone and even mood in order to make the essay appealing to them.
In the case of an expository essay for children, you should always remember to make your points simpler and detailed enough that they can digest the message.
Writing for kids requires you to first keenly select an interesting topic that can be important to them. This means that you should also take note of some of the things that scare kids, so they can be avoided in the essay.
There are several topic ideas for kids’ expository essays, however, you should always choose something that is not complicated or may require a lot of research. You can pick a general topic that is related to children or go for a specific angle.
When collecting ideas for the paper, it is also important to note that an expository essay can play various roles including, informing an audience, enhancing a story, persuasion, showing significance among others.
Try out activities like listing, clustering, free writing and questioning to generate points for the paper. Listing is whereby you simply list all the ideas that you can think of about the essay then come back later to analyze them and choose the best points.
Clustering is whereby you write a short description of your essay at the center of a paper. After that, you can start writing any corresponding ideas to it until you have enough points to use in writing the expository essay.
Questioning entails the five Ws and H; Who? What? When? Where? Why? And How? Answering these questions with regards to your topic can be a great way of obtaining ideas.
Develop a thesis
A thesis is the key argument or claim that you discussion will be proving in the paper. It shows the focus of the essay and should be something that is arguable.
A good thesis should be specific and provide enough detail so your readers can know exactly what to expect in the paper. Avoid just stating that something is bad or good but go ahead to tell why it is so or what makes it to be the way it is.
Refine your ideas
With reference to the thesis, keenly analyze your points in order to choose the most appropriate ones to use in this particular essay. Identify the strongest points that will be used as topic sentences to support the thesis.
The topic sentences should match the number of paragraphs that you intend to have in the paper.
It is also important that you identify examples or evidences that will be mentioned in the essay to make the argument more compelling and logical. For every topic sentence, try to identify about two examples to use.
Create an outline
Using the ideas that you have identified for the essay, you should develop an outline showing how they will be presented.
The outline should clearly indicate your topic, thesis, ideas for the introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion as they will be discussed in the paper. An outline should only be a guide and source of reference when writing, so avoid too much explanations therein. Instead, simply state your key points.
Procedures on how to write an expository essay for kids
Follow the steps outlined below to easily master the art of how to write an expository essay for kids.
Open the essay with an engaging sentence that drives straight into the subject. Keep in mind the essay is for children so you may need to start with something interesting to kids while also revealing the main idea of the essay.
Give a brief background information to put the topic into context and guide your readers on what they should know about the paper.
Towards the end of the introduction paragraph, you should write a strong thesis that vividly expresses your key argument.
Although you can always choose the number of paragraphs to include in a paper, most expository essays are written in five paragraphs. The length may vary based on the topic of your paper. In case you are directed to stick a particular length, go with that.
A five paragraph essay should have three body paragraphs, implying three topic sentences. In every paragraph, clearly give the topic sentence or main argument to back up the thesis. This should be further discussed using examples and evidence listed in the outline.
Every topic should present a new idea that is related to and supportive of the thesis statement. Try to always write short paragraphs with well-defined information that children can easily get. Elaborate your evidence or examples comprehensively to give a clearer message.
At the end of every paragraph, make an analysis of the ideas expressed therein. Try to show the connections between your thesis and the pieces of evidence given. Besides, you should also remember to make proper transitions between the paragraphs for smooth flow.
In the final part of the essay, you should re-state the thesis statement and also tell readers about the importance of the ideas discussed therein. Summarize and review the main points without introducing new information. Finally, you should give a final thought on the topic and call to action.
Remember kids are not always good at reading and easily lose concentration, so try to make your essay short and clear to the point. Besides, also take time to read through the essay and make the necessary corrections.
Sample Expository Essays for kids
For more insights and motivation on how to write an expository essay for kids, read the following sample papers.
Expository Essay; ‘’Why Children Should Be Encouraged to Play Outside’’
‘’About twenty years ago, when the Internet was not easily accessible, and daily life was not spammed with all kinds of gadgets and electronic toys, children used to spend much more time outdoors. Today, however, children prefer to spend free time at home, as this way they can watch more TV, play xBox or Playstation, play games on their parent’s tablets, and so on…’’Read the rest of this sample essay here.
Sample Expository Essay; ‘’No Escape for Malnourished Children’’
‘’Hunger and malnutrition are tremendous problems in our world today. According to the magazine, Population Reports, about 18 million people, mostly children, die each year from starvation, malnutrition, and related causes. The magazine also states that almost 200 million children under five years- 40 percent of all children this age, lack sufficient nutrition for full development…’’Simply click here to read the whole sample.
Expository Essay; ‘’The Great Paw Paw’’
‘’Memory. The dictionary defines it as the mental ability to recall past experiences. We think of it as a picture we saw, the words we said. Who in your life is so vivid in your memory that you could describe him or her without a second thought? For me, it’s my grandpa…’’Read the whole sample here.
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Rett syndrome [RTT] or cerebroatropic hyperammonemia is a rare disorder that affects the way the human brain develops and functions. It is an infrequent condition that affects about one in 10,000 to 15,000 girls, but it is sometimes found in male patients. Although Rett syndrome is an uncommon genetic disorder, less than one percent of recorded cases are passed from generation to another. Most of the cases are natural, meaning that mutation is the core cause of the condition.
Rett syndrome is described by scientists in four stages. Stage one or the early onset begins between 6 and 18 months of age. This stage is commonly unnoticed as the symptoms are rather elusive. Doctors and parents fail to notice them. Infants may show less eye contact or lack of interest in toys or experience delays in motor skills like crawling or sitting. Stage two or the rapid destructive phase commences between age of 1 and 4 years and may last for months. At this stage a child may experience loss in determined spoken language or hand skills and breathing abnormalities.
Stage three or the pseudo-stationary phase of Rett syndrome begins at the age of 2 to 10 years and can last for years. Motor issues, apraxia and seizures are quite common during this stage. A girl at this stage may experience interest in the environs, improved communication skills, alertness and less autistic traits. Stage four or the late motor decline phase entails noticeable features such as reduced mobility, scoliosis, muscle weakness, and abnormal posturing of arms. Cognition and communication do not decrease at this stage.
Rett syndrome is genetically caused by mutation in the Methyl CpG Binding Protein 2 [MCEP2] gene located on the X chromosome. RTT can also arise intermittently and a typical form of the disorder characterized by infantile spasms or early epilepsy can be caused by mutation of the gene encoding Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-Like 5 [CDKL5]. The MECP2 gene is essential for development of brain and also acts as a biochemical switch that increase gene expression leading to unique protein production.
Most of the Rett syndrome symptoms are elusive and they vary with age. At each stage, the patient exhibits different symptoms. Here are a number of signs and symptoms of RTT and they are;
- Loss of speech and motor control
- Hand skills replaced by compulsive hand movements
- Desolate crying
- Avoidance of eye contact
- Difficulties in breathing
- Bruxism[ grinding of teeth]
- Severe digestive problems
- Microcephaly [abnormal growth of head]
- Fragile bones and scoliosis
- Extreme anxiety
- Hypotonia and
Currently, there is no cure for Rett syndrome. However, studies on the disorder have shown that restoring MECP2 gene function can present a great cure. Doctors can easily diagnose RTT by observing signs and symptoms at every stage of growth and development. A focus on the management of the symptoms and relying on a multidisciplinary plan can aid reduce the RTT defects. Parental counselling, modifying social medications, sleep aids, management of gastrointestinal and nutritional difficulties, increase patient communication skills, surveillance of scoliosis, anti-psychotics and physical therapy are exclusive ways that can aid control the effects of Rett syndrome.
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Fragile X Syndrome
Genetic syndrome disorders are quite sporadic and the Fragile X syndrome [FXS] is one of the disorders affecting 1 in 4000 males and 1 in 4000 females. FXS also referred to as Martin-Bell syndrome or Escalante’s syndrome is a common single-gene cause of autism, an inherited cause of Intellectual disability and behavioral or learning challenges. It normally affects more males than females. There are numerous causes of FXS and a number of characteristics to look at and find the best diagnosis or treatment of fragile X syndrome.
Fragile X syndrome [FXS] is associated with the growth of the CGG trinucleotide repeat that affects the fragile X mental retardation 1 [FMR1] on the X chromosome and results in a failure to easily express the fragile retardation X mental retardation protein [FMRP] essential for normal neural development. Mutations in the FMR1 cause fragile X syndrome. The FMR1gene is responsible for instructions for making protein FMRP which help in regulating the production of other proteins and in the development of synapses, specialized links between nerve cells.
Approximately all cases of fragile X syndrome are caused by mutation whereby a DNA segment CGG triplet is repeated 5 to 40 times and expanding inside the FMR1. In cases where an individual has been diagnosed with FXS, the CGG segment is repeated more than 200 times. Whenever the FMRP protein is lost, the nervous system is disturbed and fails to function normally leading to a number of FXS symptoms. In case of men or female with 55 to 200 repeats of the CGG segment FMR1 gene permutation is likely to occur. Such individuals are typically intellectually normal. Individuals with a permutation that is lower than normal amounts of the FMRP protein have mild versions of physical traits common in FXS and may experience anxiety and depression among other problems.
Intellectual disability is the most conspicuous trait of FXS. Nevertheless, there are a number of symptoms associated with fragile x syndrome. These features occur in both genders but they vary in one way or another, but they are more severe in males. The core features of fragile X syndrome in men include;
- Intellectual disability
- Large ears and long face
- Large testicles [Macroorchidism] in post-pubertal men
- Ear infections
- High arched palate
- Double jointed fingers
- Hyper-flexible joints
- Autism and autistic behaviors
- Social anxiety
- Poor eye contact and Sensory disorders
Normally, no one individual will have all the symptoms of fragile X syndrome. Some of the features only occur in puberty. When it comes to women, here are a few features of FXS to contemplate although they may have similar traits as those seen in men and they include;
- Milder intellectual disabilities
- General anxiety
- Emotional issues
- Hyper-extensible finger joints and thumps
- Large and protruding ears
- Soft skin
- Vertical maxillary excess [long face]
- Hyptonia among others.
Individuals diagnosed with fragile X syndrome may face different challenges in their lives. But they can be quite productive and attractive if presented with the best support and interventions. There are no current treatments of FXS defects, but patients can always seek medications for symptoms based treatments. This helps reduce the secondary features of FXS. Genetic counselling to determine full mutation or permutation is essential. Stimulants that target attentional problems or hyperactivity can aid. Antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and behavioral therapy or educational plans can aid help treat physical abnormalities.
It is commonly the presence of abnormal and uncoordinated muscle movement. It is a neurological sign that infers dysfunction of the parts of the nervous system that aid in coordinating movement. It is a condition that affects the movement of the eye, speech, writing and swallowing and many other activities that depend on motor control.It is a term used broadly to indicate lack of coordination in the core physiological process. There are several types of ataxias that expound more on the disorder and they are;
This is type of ataxia caused by dysfunction of the cerebellum, a region in the brain which aids in the assimilation of sensory coordination, motor control and perception. Cerebellum is responsible for the integrating a substantial amount of neural information that is helpful in coordinating smooth movements and motor control planning. Cerebellar ataxias causes basic neurological problems such as hypotonia, lack of coordination between limbs, joints, organs and muscles, dysdiadochokinesia, dysmetria and dyschronometria.
This is a type of ataxia that is as a result of loss of proprioception, the sense of relative position of nearby parts of the body. It is a kind of sense that points out whether the body is moving as required and where the body parts are located in relation to each other. Dysfunction of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord cause sensory ataxia as they carry proprioceptive messages up to the brain. Sensory ataxia is characterized by postural instability, unsteady stomping gait accompanied by heavy heel strikes.
It occurs due to the dysfunction of the vestibular system. it is a condition associated with nausea, vomiting and vertigo. Patients are known to experience unsteadiness and giddiness.
Its Symptoms and signs vary depending on the severity and the type of ataxia one may be suffering from and they are many. For instance, if ataxia is caused by an injury or health complications symptoms may occur at any age, improve and eventual disappear undyingly. The initial symptoms of ataxia include;
- Poor limb and joint coordination
- Slurred and slow speech accompanied by difficulty in controlling volume, pitch and rhythm
- Swallowing problems
- Less apparent facial expressions
- Cold feet
- Walking complications
- Hearing problem and
Deficiency of Vitamin B12 and neurological abnormalities can cause sensory ataxia and overlapping cerebellar. Genetic flaws easily inherited from mother or father or both can cause inherited ataxia. This gene can be passed from one generation to the next. Procedures such as brain surgery, alcohol abuse, head injury, drug abuse, brain tumor, chicken pox and multiple sclerosis can all cause different types of ataxia.
A neurologist can easily diagnose and offer the best treatment and prevent measures. While diagnosing ataxia, the specialist will check patient’s medical history and either conduct tests such as Magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computerized tomography [CT] scan. Blood, urine and genetic tests are essential in determining whether the patient as any signs of ataxia.
Is not treatable, but a great deal can be undertaken to ease the its symptoms and improve life of the patient. There are several adaptive devices that patients can use and treat coordination and balance difficulties. This includes use of wheelchair, walking sticks and crutches. Other symptoms can be treated through physical therapy, speech and occupational therapy, orthopedic care and extensive counselling. Medications such as gamma-globulin injection can aid patients with ataxia telangiectasia.