A right is an ethical, social, or legal principle of entitlement or freedom; implying that it is a fundamental normative rule to which people are owed according to a given social convention, legal system, or ethical theory. On the other hand, a legal right is that bestowed on an individual by a particular legal system, or it is that based on statutes, laws, and actions formulated by legislatures. One fact about a legal right is that it can be repealed, restrained, and modified by human laws (Velasquez & Velazquez, 2002). A moral right is restricted to copyrighted and patented works, and as such, it is a right of a creator of copyrighted works that is recognized in civil law jurisdictions, and in some cases, in common law jurisdictions. A moral right can also be defined as a right that is based on human consciousness, and that is backed by a moral force of human mind (Velasquez & Velazquez, 2002). A human right is the most fundamental of all the mentioned types of rights to which every individual is inherently entitled because he or she is a human being. A human right is a norm or moral principle that describes particular standards of human behavior, and it is protected by international law. A right, a legal right, a moral right, and a human right are all related in that they say what a group of people or a person ought to expect as their due given that it under the control of human institutions or people.
A moral right is different from other types of rights in terms of the features that define it. Some of the features of a moral right are that it must be equal or the same for all, it must protect the personal and reputational and not monetary value of work, and it must be practicable (Velasquez & Velazquez, 2002).
It is easy to know that people have rights, and this is dependent on the type of right in focus. For instance, it is easy to know that a person has legal rights if he or she lives within a legal system that guarantees the legal rights. On the other hand, it is easier to know that a person has moral rights because of the provisions of ethical theories developed by John Stuart Mill and Immanuel Kant in their utilitarian and Kantian views respectively. According to a utilitarian view, a person has a moral right to act in a certain way or do something if his actions will result or produce happiness. In other words, a person has a moral right to act in a certain way only if his actions will result in good consequences. From a Kantian perspective, a person has a moral right to act in a certain way only if his or her actions respect the goals of human beings rather than using the actions of selfish purposes (Shaw & Barry, 2015).
John Locke (1632-1704) believed firmly that human beings have a “natural right” to liberty and a “natural right” to private property. The basis of his belief or argument was that human beings are rationally obliged to pursue what they believe is good for them and avoid what they believe is bad. Locke believed that these obligations are under natural law and not positive law, and thus, he came up with the natural rights to liberty and private property. For the natural right to private property, Locke’s argument was that by nature, human beings are obviously in need of natural resources to survive. As such, as provided by natural law, human beings must be allowed ownership, access, and use of private property (Shaw & Barry, 2015). Moreover, Locke believed that law of nature dictated that nobody ought to harm another person’s liberty, and this led to the inception of the natural right to liberty.
Shaw, W. H., & Barry, V. (2015). Moral issues in business. Cengage Learning.
Velasquez, M. G., & Velazquez, M. (2002). Business ethics: Concepts and cases (Vol. 111). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Drought in California
The state of California is experiencing one of the worst droughts in recorded history as record low precipitation, high temperatures and low moisture impact negatively on the water security of the state (Griffin and Anchukaitis, 9018). The drought, which began in 2012 when the state experienced relatively high dry conditions, peaked in 2014 when there was extreme aridity. By September 2014, there was a state of exceptional drought across most of California with most of the state experiencing record lows of precipitation levels (Griffin and Anchukaitis, 9019). Droughts in California are not a new phenomenon, and the history of the state is littered with periods of drought over the past centuries. However, the frequency of drought years over the past two decades has been much higher than the observed frequency in the preceding century (Diffenbaugh, Swain, and Touma, 3931). The increase in the frequency of drought years suggests that there are unique circumstances in the recent past, which may have contributed to the rising probability of drought years in the state.
Recent research suggests that anthropogenic warming may be contributing to the rising frequency in drought years in the state (Diffenbaugh, Swain, and Touma, 3932). Records in California show that there has been no substantial change in the occurrence of years of low or moderately low rainfall despite the current increase drought risk. Although the precipitation levels have remained relatively stable over the years, there has been an increase in drought frequency over the same period, implying that precipitation levels cannot predict the probability of drought in isolation. What changed dramatically in the past two decades is the average temperatures recorded across the state. The average temperatures have been increasing steadily, and some of the warmest years in the state have been recorded in the past two decades. Increase in average temperatures has a significant impact on the rate of water loss from the ground through evaporation and transpiration in plants. Therefore, even though the precipitation levels are kept constant, increased temperatures lead to faster water loss, causing the ground to be parched faster than when the temperatures are lower.
Anthropogenic warming is having a detrimental effect on the extent of the Sierra snowpack, with a recent measurement 1st April 2015 showing that the snowpack was at five percent of the average April first level (The California drought, n.p.).The level of the snowpack at 1st April is crucial to the water safety of California because at this time, the pack is at its peak, and the subsequent melting of the snow and runoff into rivers provides approximately one-third of the water used by Californians. The record low levels of the snowpack imply that there will be a limited amount of snow melting and running off into rivers hence the river levels are likely to be lower than normal. This means that the amount of water available for Californians is likely to be limited in the near future. The scarcity of water has made the Californian government to institute conservation measures in a bid to reduce the water consumption of residents. Some of the measures that the state has implemented include the rationing of water to residents, requiring neighborhoods to cut their water usage by set percentages (Nagourney and Healy, n.p.). Neighborhoods with the highest usage are required to cut their usage by the largest levels while those that are using lower volumes need to cut their usage levels by lower percentages.
The introduction of a tiered pricing system is seen as one of the ways to discourage wastage and encourage heavy users of water to substantially cut back on their usage (Nagourney and Healy, n.p.). Heavy users are charged more for water compared to lighter users, with the hope that the punitive charges for excessive consumption will persuade the heavy users to cut back on their consumption and hence reduce the strain on the water supply system. The water security for California remains precarious in the short to medium-term and there is an urgent need to intensify the conservation efforts because if the usage is not capped, the environmental effect of water usage is likely to be devastating. Demand for water has long been outstripping supply in California, and this is likely to get worse as the water sources dry up and produce lesser volumes of water. However, it is important to note that although households are significant consumes of water in California, farmers are by far the biggest consumers of water, consuming over two thirds of the water in California.
Farming in California is largely irrigation dependant, implying that farmers require vast amounts of water to grow their crops and remain in business. With the reduction in the levels of available surface water, farmers have resorted to using other means to obtain the water that is crucial to their business. There has been an increase in the extraction of underground water through boreholes, with farmers drilling wells at an unprecedented rate (Martin, n.p.). The extraction o ground water is at a rate that is higher than it can be naturally replenished, and boreholes are becoming deeper and deeper to reach the water table. The increased extraction of water from the underground has led to the sinking of California’s central valley, a phenomenon, which is now being observed on the ground. The rapid removal of water from the ground causes the ground to shift downwards to fill the space created by evacuation of water. Consequently, non-elastic ground infrastructure like roads, canals and pipelines, among others is at risk to land subsidence. The sinking land is causing loads to crack and pipelines to burst, placing an economic burden on the state, which has to repair the damaged infrastructure.
though extraction of underground water can help in ameliorating the water
shortage in the short-term, unsustainable extraction of ground water is likely
to cause further environmental damage. In addition, there is danger that some
of the underground water reservoirs are likely to be invaded by saline water because
the rapid removal of the underground water does not allow for natural
replenishment. The chances of the Californian water cycle reaching equilibrium
in the short term are at best faint considering the confluence of factors that
are exacerbating the situation. Anthropological warming is likely to be a
continuing concern as the global fight against anthropological warming is severely
hampered by entrenched interests, which are resisting the implementation of
mitigation measures that could ameliorate the effect of anthropological
warming. The water demand of California is projected to keep rising in the long
term as population increase places more pressure on the supply system.
Diffenbaugh, Noah, Daniel L. Swain, and Danielle Touma. “Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California.” PNAS, 112.13, 3931-3936. (2015). Print.
Griffin, Daniel, and Kevin J. Anchukaitis. “How unusual is the 2012–2014 California drought?” Geophysical Research Letters, 41,9017–9023. (2014). Print.
Martin, Allen. “California’s Central Valley Sinking Faster than Ever Before as Farmers Drill for Water During Drought” CBS. 26 April 2015. [Online]. Accessed 27 April 2015 < http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2015/04/26/californias-central-valley-sinking-faster-than-ever-before-as-farmers-drill-for-water-during-drought/>
Nagourney, Adam and Healy Jack. “Drought Frames Economic Divide of Californians.” The New York Times. 26 April 2015. [Online]. Accessed 27 April 2015 <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/27/us/drought-widens-economic-divide-for-californians.html?_r=0>
The California Drought. U.S. Geological Survey.1 April 2015. [Online]. Accessed 27 April 2015 < http://ca.water.usgs.gov/data/drought/>
Leaning in a Systems Context
While comparing Systems thinking and learning organizations, there are some common vital characteristics that emerge. These characteristics include knowledge, thinking, and action (Lunenburg, 2011). Systems thinking allow organizations to evade possible problems that may occur in the future. Additionally, systems thinking implementation presents the organizations with the capacity to identify how the interior system works and hence averting unplanned incidents (Lunenburg, 2011). Successful leaders employ system thinking by discovering ways that will enable them to change their behavior. Systems thinking enable individuals to view an organization as an enclosed object and hence it is a strong asset to any organization. Also, learning organizations apply a well structured system of thinking generally to evaluate operation processes (Lunenburg, 2011). Systems thinking execute a precise role for learning organizations in a manner that it shifts its intellect towards acquiring processes of change rather than still situations. However, learning organizations enhances the knowledge of its members by presenting them with a chance to work as a group and constantly displaying a firm dedication to achieve the set goals.
Personal mastery and team learning are very important elements that any organization should have in position if it aims at being an efficient learning organization. Personal mastery calls for dedication from all members of an organization in order to become permanent learners and can be regarded as the “spiritual cornerstone” of every learning institution. It involves the determination to develop into a more pragmatic, dedicated and the best person possible. Also people with a high degree of personal mastery are likely to have more inventiveness, more self-reliant, and productive, thus making the organization to be more robust (Lunenburg, 2011). When members of a team posses these traits, their level of teamwork, participation, and their dedication to the organization rises and hence representing the strongest resource for team learning in an international background.
Lunenburg, F. (2011). Systems Thinking and the Learning Organization: The Path to School Improvement. Schooling, 2(1), 1-6.
Term paper Assignment on The Challenges of Identifying, Assessing and Developing Talent in Public Sector.
Management of crises is a major challenge that faces the management of any organization. A crisis is an event that poses a danger that can be detrimental to the organization, the general public, or the stakeholders. Crisis management is well thought-out as the most essential process in public relations (Galloway, Christopher, & Kwamena, 2005). There are three fundamentals that are universal to a crisis. They include short time to make decisions, a threat, and an element of surprise to the institution or organization. In the event of a crisis, a change is essential in order to bring about stability. The presence for the need of a change derives a distinction between a crisis and failure or incident as the latter does not demand for a change. Management of risk entails the assessment of potential threats and coming up with the best solutions of avoiding the threats assessed. It is a process that entails dealing threats before their occurrence, during their occurrence and after they have occurred. The discipline of crisis management requires techniques and skills that are important in identifying, assessing, understanding, and coping with a severe situation from the time of occurrence to the time when procedures of recovery begin.
Types of crises
There are different types of crisis, and these crises need different approaches in order to combat them efficiently. Some of these types of crises include natural disasters, workplace violence, rumors, malevolence, technological crises, and terrorist attacks. Natural crises occur naturally as natural disasters e.g. floods, earthquakes, landslides, storms, volcanic eruptions and droughts. These natural crises are life threatening and they are also a threat to the environment and property. Technological crises refer to those disasters that are caused by the actions of man as a result of his application of science and technology. Complex technology may cause inevitable technological accidents. This may be as a result of breakdowns in technologies. Sometimes human being may cause technological breakdowns as a result of their disruptions. Technological crises arise when blames are assigned on certain individuals in case a technological disaster occurs. A technological crisis develops because human beings can manipulate technology. Examples of technological crises may include industrial accidents, software failures etc (Bernstein & Bruce, 2011).
Malevolence crises occur when opponents and competitors use extreme tactics or criminal means to express anger or hostility in an attempt to gain from an organization, a country, or a firm with an objective of destroying or destabilizing it. Examples of this type of crises include kidnapping, terrorist attacks, malicious rumors, espionage, and product tampering (Bernstein & Bruce, 2011). Workplace crises or violence is another type of crisis that occurs when a former or a current employee commits a violent behavior against fellow employees on the grounds of the organization. As opposed to violence, rumors involve the spread of false information about a firm or an organization, its employees or its products. The spread of such information creates crises that hurt the reputation of an organization. Examples of such rumors include spreading information that a firm’s products are unsafe or even contaminated. Rumors may also involve the linking of a firm or an organization to a radical group.
Problems encountered by managers when solving crises
Managers are faced with many problems in their life and work, just like everyone experiences some problems and difficulties in the course of their lives. Time is of the essence when solving crises. Time is always limited and managers have to work within the limited time at their disposal to ensure that they have solved any crises being faced by the organization. Problems on the other hand keep on mounting rapidly forcing managers to take short cuts. Short cuts only help to alleviate tension for a short period of time in order to move to the next problem, but in the process, the cores of the problems are not solved. This creates a never-ending cycle of problems, which makes it hard to find real resolutions. Time is, therefore limited, and may lead to short time decisions or even wrong decisions in an attempt to bring to an end a certain crisis that an organization may be facing (Galloway, Christopher, & Kwamena, 2005).
There are different types of people in the work place of any organization. Some people complicate matters with their corporate envy, power plays, and self-promotion. This creates difficulties to the managers when dealing with these different types of people. For instance, there will be delayed decisions as a result of conflicting interests. Keeping in mind, that time is limited, delayed decisions and actions may make the crises that the organizations could be facing go out of hand. Should this happen it becomes difficult to solve the crisis and it may end up generating devastating results.
Communication problems are another major problem that is encountered when solving crises affecting an organization. These problems may be perceived in different ways. At times people or workers may disagree with the manager’s message and hence disregard it. In this case, these people may not actively demonstrate that they disagree with the message. As a result, the message is not accompanied by actions. This may lead to the failure of achieving a set objective. The manager may also use a poor communication strategy in an attempt to communicate important information to the people. The message may fail to reach a majority of the people. This would automatically symbolize failure. Communication is vital for the achievement of various goals and objectives (Galloway, Christopher, & Kwamena, 2005). Lack of a proper communication strategy brings about failure in organizations and it may bring about crises or difficulties in solving crises.
Analyzing crises management
In the occurrence of a crisis, there is emerges a need for immediate communication. A crisis may affect the operations of an organization or a business entity. For instance, the occurrence of a natural crisis e.g. a landslide may result to destruction of the entire business as a result of the demolishment of the structures. In the event of such a crisis, many individuals and groups of people would be affected. Customers would require knowing the impact that they would experience. There would be a need to notify the regulators as well as the officials of the local government. A great impact would also be felt on the employees and their entire families, and they would be concerned and require information. The neighboring communities would wish to know more concerning the crisis, especially if the incident threatens their lives or properties. Either an organization should be well prepared to respond on time, confidently and accurately as the public can impact the image of the organization positively or negatively according to the way the organization handles the incident. It is also important for the business or organization to be familiar with the potential audiences, as they will all require knowing how the crisis would affect them (Hill & Laurence, 2009).
Organizational crises may occur at any time and at any place, and may result in loss of property and fatalities that may differ in magnitude. A day can hardly pass without the occurrence of an organizational crisis. Lack of preparation on the side of the organization may result to a payment of exorbitant prices for the aftermath in the event of unexpected crisis. A study revealed that about 90% of chief executive officers believe that business or organizational crises are almost inevitable. The occurrence of crises has different effects on culture. For instance, crises shrink the resources available to the households or the general society (Hill & Laurence, 2009). The reduction in the resources available to the people will have a negative effect on consumption. This therefore symbolizes that crises will lead to reduced consumption and hence a negative effect on the way of the people.
Organizational crises will have a negative impact on cultural tourism. A natural crisis e.g. terrorism will instill fear on tourists, hence minimizing the number of tourists who could be touring a given region or country in a given period of time. Natural crises have more devastating effects compared to all other types of crises. In a case where natural crises affects key organizations in a country production would decline and signs of recessions would occur. The GDP would diminish and signs of economic deterioration would be visible in many components of social system, as well as the culture subsystem. Organization managers should also strive to ensure that the culture of the organization is observed and maintained. This would imply ensuring that workers behave in accordance to the stipulated conduct and the spelt out ethics. The business should also work towards the success of the community at large, e.g. by supporting community projects. Most important, organization managers and businesses should ensure that they observe the culture of the community where they businesses are based, other than eroding the culture of the native people.
Managers require different skills in order to solve different crises that the organization may face. For a manager to be professional, he must possess appropriate qualities and characteristics so as to function appropriately. These qualities and characteristics help to build the required skills and knowledge, and the application of these combinations develops competence within the manager. The requirement and balance of these skills and knowledge varies from individual to individual and they transform with experience, maturity, training, and level of education. In order to be a competitive and an effective manager, there is a need to portray positive behavior, skills, and knowledge (Hill & Laurence, 2009).
Strategies to address management of crises
The first step in managing a crisis is to respond by communicating the crisis to as many people as possible. This will entail understanding the audiences that the organization or the business intends to reach. There are many audiences that will need the information during and after the occurrence of a crisis, and these audiences will have different needs for the information (Bernstein & Bruce, 2011). The duty here will be recognizing the potential audiences, establishing their requirement for the information and finally figuring out the best person within the organization to communicate with the identified audiences. Some of the potential audiences to an organization include customers, employees and the families of the employees, survivors of the crisis and their families, the community, the media, the management of the company, investors, directors, suppliers, regulators, and government officials.
The contact information for all each audience should be compiled and information should be immediately transformed to those audiences. The information transformed to the contacts should include as much information as possible. Customers should be considered as a top priority when contacting the audiences because the life of any business is always in the hands of the customers. The management is another body that should be prioritized at the top in when contacting the audiences (Bernstein & Bruce, 2011). There should be immediate notification to the management in the event of a crisis, no matter the time of the day. This should also be the case with the stakeholders, the investors, and the directors. The management plus all these individuals should not learn from the media about the occurrence of a crisis but should instead be informed as early as possible.
Communication with the regulators and the government officials depend with the seriousness and the nature of the incident. If the incident is severe, then there is a need for immediate notification to the regulatory authority and the government officials. The human resource has the obligation to communicate the incident to the employees and their families. He has the duty to coordinate communications with the management, the employees, through the supervisors, and the families of the employees. He should also communicate with the department involved with the care and provision of benefits to employees. In cases of a serious incident e.g. death, there is a need for coordination between the human resource, the spokesman of the company, the management and the public agencies. Should the community be exposed to hazards, then it becomes a vital audience. If the incident is very serious then the media should be on the scene to obtain details. This strategy of distributing information to the audiences emphasizes a structural dimension as it describes how the organization would structure itself to ensure that information reaches all the relevant audiences.
A crisis damages the reputation of an organization. There is hence a need to repair the damaged reputation. In an attempt to repair the reputation, the organization should be more focused on accommodating the victims of the crisis than addressing the concerns of the organization. The crisis manager should confront any individual or group who may claim that something is not correct within the organization (Galloway, Christopher, & Kwamena, 2005). He should then assert that there is no crisis and blame some other persons or groups for the occurrence of the crisis. The manager should also assert that the organization meant to do well despite the crisis. He should continually remind the directors, and the stakeholders of the past success of the organization, and praise the stakeholders for their actions. Lastly, the manager should compensate the victims of the crisis with money and gifts, and offer an apology. The apology should indicate the organization’s intentions to take full responsibility for the incident and beg for forgiveness from the affected individuals and groups. This strategy emphasizes a cultural dimension as it aims at restoring peace and harmony within the organization and the community at large. Compensation to the employees and their families will create harmony and togetherness and hence strengthen the cultural ties between the organization and the community.
The business or organizations should strive to return to its usual business. Although the crisis still needs some attention, the business should not focus so much on it. The management should provide some follow-up information to the stakeholders concerning the crisis. This information helps the organization to prevent losing of trust among the members of public who may need the information. The management also needs to provide information about the process of recovery, corrective actions, and crisis’ investigations (Galloway, Christopher, & Kwamena, 2005). Occurrence of crises should be learning experiences to the managers. Therefore, after the crisis, the manager’s efforts require an assessment so as to evaluate what works and what need to be improved. The organization, through the management should seek for ways and methods to improve on prevention, preparation, and response in case of future crises. This strategy emphasizes both structural and craft dimensions. The manager requires knowledge and skills to determine what needs to be improved, hence a craft dimension. On the other hand, the whole of this process emphasizes a structural dimension as it aims at restoring the organization to the initial state that it was before the occurrence of the crisis.
Ways in which Bolman and Deal book applies to management of crisis
The book provides four frame models that provide four perspectives of understanding organizations. These four approaches include structural, political, human resource, and symbolic frames (Bolman, 2013). According to the structural frame leaders who intend on making change, using this approach lay focus on the structural elements within the firm or organization. They also lay focus on strategies, their implementation, and their adaptation. Changing the structures of institutions is effective when there are clear goals i.e. when the relationships between cause and effect are well understood. The framework is also effective when there is little conflict, ambiguity or uncertainty. This framework can be effective in solving crises in organizations. There is a need for development, implementation, and adaptation of a strategy in an attempt to solve crises in organizations. This therefore makes the structural framework essential in solving crises. The framework also works well when the goal is clear. When solving crises, the goal of the management is clear, as the management focuses on solving the crisis. Therefore, the management can use structural framework so as to achieve success. The presence of a crisis generates conflicts or uncertainty. Based on the fact that structural framework works best in the presence of uncertainty, conflict, or ambiguity then the management can effectively use this framework to solve crises that may be facing the organization.
resource is another framework that the book discusses. This framework postulates
that leaders’ focal point is the people when focusing on change based on this
frame. The approach stresses support, staff development, empowerment, and
responding to the needs of the employees. This framework can be applied
effectively in solving crises in organizations for various reasons. In the
event of a crisis employees may suffer e.g. from injuries. It is the duty of
the human resource to look into the wellbeing of the employees. In this case,
the human resource has a responsibility to look into the needs of the employees
by compensating them (Bolman, 2013). A crisis may also result to psychological
suffering of the employees. This would call for support, both from the
management and other professionals. The human resource has a duty to ensure
that the employee gets that support. For these reasons, therefore, the
management in case of a crisis can apply human resource framework.
Bernstein, Jonathan, and Bruce Bonafede. 2011. Manager’s guide to crisis management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bolman, Lee G. 2013. Reframing Organizations Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Galloway, Christopher, and Kwamena Kwanash-Aidoo. 2005. Public relations issues and crisis management. Southbank, Vic: Thompson / Scoial Science Press.
Hill, Carolyn J., and Laurence E. Lynn. 2009. Public management: a three-dimensional approach. Washington D.C., Congressional Quarterly Press.
Specific Events in the Korean War
The Korean War could be regarded as a test of powers between the U.S and Russia. The two countries were the super powers at the time. Accordingly, the issue of disarming the areas that each country controlled at the end of the Second World War could be said to have triggered the Korean War. On one hand, the Soviet Union was mandated with disarming the northern part of Korea while USA was mandated with disarming the southern part. Since 1910, Japan had been in Korea after defeating Chinese and Russian militaries at different times. However, by the end of the Second World War, things changed when Russia declared war against Japan (Stueck, 2010). By so doing, Russia occupied the northern part of Korea. Japan surrendered, and by so doing, the U.S was quick to accept Japanese surrender.
The U.S general Hodge who was appointed to oversee the transition process responded by trying to restore the Japanese colonial administrators. Nonetheless, he was forced to change this decision because of the protest from the Korean nationals. This led to a joint administration of Korea by the U.S and Soviet Union with the hope of establishing a government after five years. This decision was unpopular to the Korean people. Accordingly, two opposing sides broke in Korea. One force was in south while the other force was in north. The U.S government responded to this issue by banning strikes (Malkasian, 2009). However, this decision did not resolve the matter because strikes continued.
As this was taking place, there were protests against the joint administration. Consequently, the U.S government decided to call for national elections claiming that the joint administration between USA and Soviet Union was ineffective in executing its mandates. The Soviet Union together with Korean communist groups opposed this move claiming that it was to be unfair. The elections were held, but the Soviet Union opposed them and because of this, the North Korea held its parliamentary elections later on. This led to the formation of two governments that claimed to be legitimate governments. The two governments repeatedly fought over boundaries, thereby there were frequent uprisings in Korea. The uprisings claimed the lives of many people. As a result, it was decided that USA and Soviet Union were to leave Korea because it was an independent state. Soviet Union did this in 1948 while USA did it in 1949 (Stueck, 2010). Although this took place as agreed, the southern-based government was oppressive to communist groups. In fact, it had jailed majority of the communist people and their sympathizers.
In 1950, the northern based government with the help of China and Russia invaded the southern based government. By this time, the United Nations had been formed; thus, called for a ceasefire. The UN members unanimously agreed to supply military forces to South Korea. USA agreed to supply majority of the military personnel. During the first two months of the war, South Korea was at the point of surrendering to the North Korea. The UN launched a counter-offensive attack on North Korean military force (Malkasian, 2009). This attack pushed the North Korean military force all the way to Yalu River. The Chinese forces joined the war, and forced the UN led military to retreat. The Chinese government did this because North Korea had supported Chinese military during the Chinese war. The Soviet Union, on the other hand, supported North Korea because it saw it as an opportunity to showcase its supremacy in battles.
Malkasian, C. (2009). The Korean War. New York: Rosen Pub.
Stueck, W. (2010). The Korean War in World History. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky.
Age 60 Rule
The Age 60 Rule is an airline policy that prohibits airline pilots who have reached 60 years of age to continue flying commercial flights. Opponents of the Age 60 law have tried to influence the Congress to change the law to 65 years for years to no avail. Opponents argue that the law is discriminatory because it lacks sufficient evidence to prove that that older pilots are at risk of crashing aeroplanes because of health issues compared to younger pilots of good health. However, the law was changed when Congress passed a bill to increase the age limit of pilots to 65. The decision to sign the bill into law was appropriate because the previous law discriminated over the older pilots. In a court case between the FAA and the PPF, the courts ruled in favour of the FAA because they argue that the FAA is allowed by the law to set the maximum retirement age limit for pilots.
The FAA was arbitrary in increasing the age limit for pilots to 65 because of safety concerns. The FAA believes that they will be blamed if there is an accident involving an older pilot. Furthermore, courts have decided to uphold the decision of the FAA to keep the age limit to 60 because Congress has given the FAA apparent authority to make final decisions about the issue of pilots. Therefore, the courts cannot change the law because the FAA has clear authority from the Congress. The arguments that pilot Federation associations can use to amend the bill include proving that older pilots are of good health and are capable of flying commercial pilots without any risk.
Healthcare: Cultural Competence
quality and patient-centered care determines how healthcare is delivered and
received by patients. The two aspects also directly influence how healthcare
professionals, systems, and disparities comply and increase disparities to
improve care quality and patient satisfaction. Cultural competency, therefore, improves
qualities of healthcare services. Consequently, patient satisfaction is
enhanced as healthcare providers deliver culturally competent care. Moreover,
job satisfaction among healthcare professionals increases. Ultimately,
healthcare facilities attain high staff retention rates. Cultural competent
models of health care, therefore, should be identified to deliver quality,
patient-centered, safe, timely, and equitable care effectively and efficiently.
The research, therefore, will discuss how cultural diversity and competence
influence delivery of healthcare.
Healthcare: Cultural Competence
Culture refers learned patterns of behavior. It can also refer to a range of beliefs and behavior that people or communities pass down to successive generations. Thus, culture encompasses the values, rules, norms, and beliefs institutions share to construct effective and efficient physical worlds. Conversely, competence refers to behaviors reflecting appropriate application of attitude, skills, knowledge, and experience. Healthcare providers ought to be learned, skilled, and experienced to deliver quality and safe care. As a result, they should also learn to attain cultural competence by engaging in assistive, facilitative, and supportive cultural beliefs, responsibilities, norms, and values ensuring patients receive safe and quality care (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Thus, healthcare providers should demonstrate the right skills, attitude, and behavior enabling them to work, associate, and help people from diverse backgrounds. For example, care providers should integrate cultural competence and skills required in the delivery of quality care. For instance, they should have a better understanding of their patients, take into account any cultural differences and preferences, and apply the necessary skills to deliver safe and efficient healthcare services.
According to Lehman, Fenza and Hollinger-Smith (2012), there are five constructs of cultural competence. The first construct refers to cultural awareness or self-reflections, which enables an individual to identify and understand personal biases. The second construct is known as cultural knowledge. It refers to the process of obtaining information in reference to diverse cultures before an individual can identify the culture they understand and can relate to without conflicts or stereotypes. The third construct refers to cultural skills, which is the process of assessing cultural data of people from different backgrounds. For example, nurses should assess patients’ cultural data to identify measures that they should either embrace or avoid as they help an individual recover and attain quality health.
Cultural encounters refer to personal experiences with people from diverse backgrounds. Thus, healthcare providers should rely on cultural encounters to avoid cultural conflicts as they strive to deliver safe, timely, and quality care to patients from diverse backgrounds. The final construct refers to cultural desire. The process encourages people to attain the will and desire to be culturally competent (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Cultural competence in reference to healthcare, therefore, involves processes providers especially doctors and nurses ought to strive to work within cultural contexts of each patient continuously and consistently.
The Importance of Culturally Competent Healthcare Providers
The United States government has been seeking to develop a culturally competent community of healthcare providers to reduce health disparities. The expanding and growing elderly population across the United States are identified as people representing a cultural entity with diverse ethnic, religious, socioeconomic, racial values and norms. The government has also noted that the population will increase by 2050 with the largest growth rate being observed among American Indians, African Americans, and Asian Pacific Islanders. The United States Census Bureau conducted a research in 2006 revealing that the nation’s population mainly comprises of people aged above sixty-five years. Thus, the aged are likely to represent at least 39% of the nation’s population by 2050 having grown from 19%. Healthcare settings require sensitivity, competent behaviors, and awareness as concepts of health, ailments, pain, suffering, and delivery of care bear varying meanings to people from diverse backgrounds (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Healthcare providers, therefore, should gain knowledge on cultural customs. Consequently, they can provide better care. Moreover, staffs, residents, and families can help the patients to recover while avoiding cultural misunderstandings.
Culturally competent healthcare providers can enhance health outcomes and the wellbeing of patients. For example, they can improve and increase healthcare-seeking behaviors by successfully educating patients to embrace appropriate testing and screening. Also, cultural competence can ensure that healthcare providers record fewer diagnostic errors (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). For example, the providers can identify measures to implement ensuring patients do not experience drug complications. The providers can also rely on cultural competence to offer patients great and expanded choices seeking to identify and access high quality clinicians. Thus, cultural competency influences healthcare outcomes directly.
As a result, healthcare providers should demonstrate that they have a great understanding on how cultural competency impacts accessibility and delivery of quality, safe, timely, and equitable healthcare services. Cultural competency can also assist staff, residents, and patients to recognize common barriers to cultural understanding (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Consequently, they can identify characteristics enhancing healthcare settings while interpreting and responding to diverse and effective measures of delivering quality care. Lastly, cultural competence can demonstrate commitment to appropriate services requiring healthcare staff to apply effective cultural and linguistic skills in leading and mentoring other providers and professionals.
The National Center for Cultural Competence defines values facilitating delivery of quality healthcare. Thus, NCCC states that healthcare providers including nurses ought to define a set of values and principles demonstrating positive and acceptable attitudes in delivery of safe and quality care. Healthcare providers should also demonstrate that their behaviors, structures, and policies enable them to work effectively across diverse cultures. It also states that healthcare providers ought to have the capacity to value and appreciate diversity. Besides, they should conduct self-assessments and reflections while managing the dynamics of cultural diversity to acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Consequently, they can embrace diverse cultural contexts among the communities they serve and strive to deliver quality care safely and timely. Lastly, healthcare facilities should formulate policies systematically improving administration practices and service delivery to fulfill needs among the patients, stakeholders, and communities.
In 2010, the State of Queensland published five cross-cultural capabilities clinical staff ought to attain namely, self-reflection, cultural understanding, context, communication, and collaboration. Based on the five capabilities, healthcare providers ought to rely on the following regulations to deliver quality care. Foremost, the providers should consider their individual cultures and understand how they feel when associating with people from diverse cultural backgrounds (QH, 2010). For example, they should gain a better understanding of existing cultural differences by considering social factors affecting patients’ behaviors. Consequently, they can sensitively respond to the patients’ needs while applying varying cultural norms to gain trust, build relationships, communicate effectively, and deliver quality care.
Cultural self-assessments should also be undertaken to identify personal position on cultural beliefs against that of healthcare system. The self-assessments can assist staffs and patients to recognize power relations produced in the healthcare system. The power differentials on cultural diversity can also be applied to consider interplay of factors such as age, gender, religion, and socioeconomics on how they affect delivery of quality care (QH, 2010). Thus, the self-reflections can ensure healthcare providers are sensitive to cross-cultural values and able to involve cultural and linguistic diversities in delivering quality care.
Personal and organizational biases should also be identified to determine and accommodate staffs and patients diverse needs (QH, 2010). For example, a nurse ought to understand that a patient can fail to identify with his or her own culture. The nurse, however, should appreciate that the patient may have more than one identity. Consequently, he/she can avoid cultural determinism and identify with the patients’ needs. The process, however, requires the nurse understanding different consumer behaviors influenced by cultural norms to deliver culturally appropriate and quality care. Subsequently, providers can avoid making assumptions and judgments about healthcare staff, residents, and patients as they work across disciplines required in delivery of quality care. For example, nurses ought to have the skills to facilitate development of referral pathways. In addition, they should be skilled at establishing collaborative networks to facilitate exchange of information across healthcare disciplinary boundaries. Consequently, patients’ needs can be addressed effectively and efficiently.
According to Lehman, Fenza, and Hollinger-Smith (2012), cultural awareness decreases ethnocentrism. People aware of diverse cultural values, biases, myths, and stereotypes relate well with their counterparts from different social, cultural, economic, and religious backgrounds. For example, nurses should acknowledge that ageism affects patients and the society. As a result, they should understand the need to have a positive attitude, apply the appropriate behavior, and have the belief that aged patients and their families also desire receiving quality, timely, and safe care. Subsequently, they can learn how to communicate with aged patients without being rude, prejudiced, or discriminative.
Cultural competency encourages healthcare providers to identify help-seeking behavioral patterns. Health education and communication, therefore, relies on cultural competence for staffs and patients to work together in addressing an ailment by applying acceptable attitudes, behaviors, and practices in delivery of care. Thus, healthcare providers should ensure residents and patients understand their views towards medical treatment practices. They should also encourage other providers or professionals and family members to participate in delivery of quality care through collaborative efforts (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). For example, nurses should allow family members and patients’ social networks to assist in ensuring an individual attain health. Community-based key informants with knowledge on cultural diversity and competency are also ideal in delivery of quality long-term care. They are often familiar with operating and regulatory environments defining long-term care. Thus, they should be allowed to design and facilitate culturally appropriate programs, practices, and services guarantying that patients will receive quality and safe care effectively and efficiently.
Cultural competence also ensures healthcare organizations employ bilingual staffs. Staffs using culturally-specific phrases and patterns of expression to gain resident compliance are often aware of cultural variants (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). For example, they can express psychological distress without insulting the patient. Thus, cultural competence can ensure healthcare staffs, board members, and volunteers to assess a patient and deliver quality care while applying clear communication skills and appropriate cultural perceptions.
Healthcare workplaces rely on practices showing compassion. Patients and their families often face difficulties associated with ailments. As a result, cultural competence in the workplace can ensure staffs and patients social and religious beliefs are respected accordingly. Besides, healthcare facilities should attain cultural competency to avoid installing symbols and adornments that can be culturally offensive. Hospitals often admit patients from a cultural background prohibiting them from eating certain meal choices (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Attaining cultural competency, therefore, can ensure such healthcare facilities cater for the patients’ needs appropriately to avoid offending their cultural customs. As a result, healthcare organizations should offer cultural sensitivity training to staffs and residents. The training programs ought to address cultural issues associated with family support. For example, the programs should address issues relating to language and literacy of cultural issues. Consequently, healthcare staffs can understand how to respect patients’ cultural traditions, values, and principles. The training can also encourage healthcare providers to be open-minded and exhibit cultural competence by learning phrases or languages from diverse ethnic communities.
The most effective resources and people supporting community outreach programs promoting healthcare are often culturally competent. The groups are mainly government, church, and neighborhood-based striving to enhance accessibility and delivery of quality care. They also anticipate partnerships from national and international programs striving to attain a similar goal. In addition, they rely on support from community members to provide relevant healthcare services to the people in need (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). As a result, they ought to engage cultural trainers and spiritual leaders with a cultural background of the communities they visit. This demonstrates respect and desire to deliver quality care to people in need without causing culture-based conflicts. For example, a community outreach program should seek information from cultural associations in a particular community to serve diverse ethnic groups with various healthcare needs. Consequently, they can encourage the members of the community to visit healthcare facilities to seek for medical assistance, as they will demonstrate that healthcare providers are friendly and approachable people with skills to deliver safe, timely, and equitable care.
Principles of cultural competency integrate appropriate linguistic services. They should be applied to improve delivery of safe and quality care provided to the public. Providing healthcare accreditation and related services involves supportive performance (Lehman, Fenza, & Hollinger-Smith, 2012). Healthcare organizations, therefore, should review policies, principles, and practices applied in delivery of care. For example, policies should be reviewed to ensure healthcare services are delivered appropriately culturally and linguistically. Consequently, standards, practices, and principles that are competent can be used to make culturally acceptable healthcare services accessible.
Delivery of quality, safe, timely, and equitable healthcare
services involves working with people from diverse cultures. Thus, cultural
capability is vital. It should be practiced across diverse social, religious,
and economic backgrounds. As a result, healthcare providers should embrace
self-awareness to identify their strengths and weaknesses. For example, they
should gain insight into diverse cultural backgrounds to understand their
ethnic and spiritual heritages. Consequently, they can determine the
appropriate attitude as they impacts patients’ health conditions. Also, the
providers can avoid making culture-based assumptions about a patient by
acknowledging that their personal cultural beliefs, norms, and principles
should allow them to make necessary adjustments to deliver quality care. Cultural
competency, therefore, encourages healthcare providers to work competently and
sensitively with staffs, residents, and patients from diverse backgrounds. They
are able to understand their reactions and expectations, judge the extent
personal biases can influence relationships with colleagues and patients, and identify
appropriate, simple, and competent ways of delivering quality care.
Lehman, D., Fenza, P., & Hollinger-Smith, L. (2012). Diversity and Cultural Competency in Health Care Settings. Mather LifeWays Orange Paper on Aging.
Queensland Health (QH). (2010). Five Cross Cultural Capabilities for Clinical Staff. Division of the Chief Health Officer, Queensland Health.
The investment casting process is a sophisticated process of producing metal castings that dates back to 4000 B.C. Investment casting is one of the oldest metal casting techniques and also one of the most advanced. The method was used around the world in Africa, Egypt, China and in Mexico 4000 B.C. when it was used by artisans and sculptors to create statues, jewelry and idols (Krar & Bill, 2003). The modern industry ignored investment casting until it was back by dental professionals to create teeth crowns. The term investment casting comes from the use of slurry or investment to form an extremely smooth surface with a tolerance for high dimension. During WWII, the technology was brought to the forefront when quickly producing precision parts became necessary. The process provided a shortcut for manufacturers for producing complex parts that were challenging to create using alternative methods.
Today, investment casting is used to produce automotive, aircraft, power and hand tool components, and other recreational products including the head of a golf club (Garg, 2005). Civilian and military jets rely on investment casting for the manufacture of engines and other parts. For automotives, investment casting is used to produce gears, splines, valve and fitting, and levers.
Proper handling of pattern wax during the pre-pattern production can eliminate a number of wax pattern defects. All materials used in the production of a casting are part of a system and thus must work together to ensure production of quality casting. The final casting is as good as the wax pattern produced (Beeley et al., 2008). Pattern wax is composed of products such as organic fillers, synthetic and natural resins, natural waxes and petroleum waxes. Microcystalline and paraffin waxes are produced from the distillation of crude oil. Paraffin is the commonly used petroleum wax because it is cheaper than other raw materials. Additionally, paraffin wax controls and enhances the rheological properties. In turn, the enhanced rheological properties affect the injection temperature. The fluidity of the pattern wax mix is also affected by the enhanced rheological properties.
Resins are extracted from natural sources such as crude oil, coal tar and pine trees. Resins can also be produced synthetically. They are used to add body during the formulation and as a result they affect tackiness, hardness, rigidity and shrinkage of the wax blend (Beeley, et al., 2008). On the other hand, candelilla and carnauba waxes are the natural waxes used. They are derived from shrubs and leaves in Mexico and Brazil. Natural waxes affect the set up properties, surface finish and hardness of the pattern wax blend. Sometimes, synthetic additives are used in the natural wax formulation. Synthetic products are more stable and reliable compared to natural raw materials. Fillers are also important to the development of the pattern wax. The fillers are selected according to these criteria: low ash content, organic, fine particle distribution and relative high melting point. Hydro-fill, Bisphenol A, Polystyrene and Isopthalic are the commonly used organic fillers (Beeley et al., 2008).
Soluble waxes are comprised of three main raw materials which include: Effervescing carbonate, filler and binder. The binder also known as PEG is available in various molecular weights and is used in different combinations to achieve the preferred melt point, hardness and viscosity characteristics. PEG consists of a fine powder substance that is commonly used to improve shrinking characteristics. The filler also helps improve the structural strength of the wax blend. To improve the elastic properties and strength of the wax, fibrous materials are used. The sodium bicarbonate is used as an effervescing agent to help break down the soluble wax during the discharge process. Sodium bicarbonate also adds to the bulk of the wax. Both the sodium bicarbonate and the fillers are inorganic materials thus foundries must adhere to recommended handling practices of proper heating.
Material suitable for investment casting
Both non-ferrous and ferrous materials can be investment cast. Metals considered for investment casting can be melted in a vacuum furnace or a regular furnace. Materials that are difficult to produce using a machine are also recommended for investment casting. Castability rating, shrinkage, fluidity and resistance to hot tearing are the main properties considered before selecting a metal for investment casting. In regard to ferrous metals, ductile iron and steel alloys are the most commonly poured. On the other hand, non-ferrous metals include copper based metals, magnesium and iron with aluminum being the most popular non-ferrous metal.
Aluminum alloys are expected to have a density of 2.7g/cm3 with the exception of A07130, A07120 which have a density of 2.8g/cm3. A05350 is also an exception with a density of 2.6g/cm3. All alloys of aluminum are hardenable with the exception of A05140 and A05350. A02010 has copper as the main alloying element. Therefore, it is a strong alloy with a relative weldability and excellent machinability. A33550 is a premium quality aluminum with cooper and silicon as it’s alloying elements. The alloy offers good castability, machinability and weldability. On the other hand, A 356 has poor brazability and good weld-ability. Its main alloying elements are silicon, magnesium and/or cooper.
Carbon steel alloys have poor resistance to corrosion and fairly good machinability. All alloys of carbon steel have a density of 7.8 g/cm3 and are therefore hardenable. Although 1010 and 1020 are hardenable, they have a density of 7.9 g/cm3. 1040 offers a poor resistance to corrosion, good weldability and medium strength. On the other hand, 1050 offers good machinability and medium strength. Both 1040 and 1050 have fairly good fluidity, resistance to hot tearing and shrinkage. As pertains castability, both 1040 and 1050 rate as good.
Up to 8700c, Cobalt 6 is oxidation resistant with a good castability that is coupled with resistance to corrosion. On the other hand, Cobalt 12 has a high resistance to corrosion and boast excellent wear properties. Both Cobalt 21 and Cobalt 31 have excellent shrinkage and fluidity, good resistance to hot corrosion and very good castability rating. The alloy of Monel provides good resistance to corrosion at both high and low temperatures. Monel 4020 has excellent fluidity. Good resistance to tearing and shrinkage with very good castability. Iconel 600 is resistant to corrosion but in the presence of Sulphur. Iconel also offers good machinability.
Copper-based alloys have a density of 8.3g/cm3 thus are not hardenable. The exception to the density rule is Navy G and Phosphor Bronze with a density of 8.8g/cm3 and 8.7g/cm3 respectively. Ductile irons have good machinability and poor resistance to corrosion. Tool steel alloys have a density of 7.8g/cm3 and are all hardenable. Among the tool steel alloys, A-2 has a good resistance to wear, resistance to corrosion under high temperature, good machinability, weldability and castability. On the other hand, H-13 has good resistance to corrosion, fair resistance to tear and poor toughness. H-13 is machine-able, cast-able and weld-able.
Only two forms of investment casting are commonly known and they are ceramic shell and solid mold. The two types of investment casting differ based on the way the mold is formed. For the solid mold process, the mold pattern is placed in a container and the mold material poured around the pattern. During the ceramic shell mold, the shell is dipped into mobile slurry. Eventually the pattern is taken out of the slurry and span around to ensure uniform coating. The coating is then allowed to dry and the dipping process is repeated to achieve the desires thickness. The mold is then exposed to heat to drain the pattern wax leaving a hollow cavity.
Investment casting begins with preparation of wax patterns for the casting. One or more patterns can be attached to the sprue depending on the complexity and size of the cast. The ceramic pour cup is attached at the end of the sprue bar (Krar & Bill, 2003). This arrangement of wax patterns is known as a tree because the casting patterns on the sprue are similar to the branches of a tree. The wax pattern is then dipped into slurry comprising of binders, silica and water until then desired thickness is achieved. Once the required hardness has been acquired, the refractory coat is left in dry in air so as to harden.
The next step is key to investment casting. After hardening of the ceramic mold, it is turned upside down with the funnel side facing down. The hardened mold is then heated to a temperature of 900C to 1750C (National Conference, 2003). This causes the wax that is inside to melt leaving a cavity for the investment casting. The ceramic mold unlike the wax dose not melt under severe heat. The mold is then heated further with the temperatures raised to between 5500C-1100C. Further heating of the mold makes it stronger while removing leftover wax. Metal casting is poured while the mold is hot. This allows the molten metal to flow without difficulty within the mold cavity. Pouring the molten metal into a hot mold gives better dimensional precision since both the mold and the cast will shrink at the same time. Finally, the ceramic mold is broken after the molten metal solidifies inside the ceramic mold. The end product of the investment casting process is the cast.
Investment casting is one of the oldest and most sophisticated metal casting processes. The process is suitable for mass production and for the production of complex metallic parts that would be impossible to manufacture using normal processes. Investment casting was initially used by ancient artisans and sculptors. It was later rediscovered by dentist professions. Today, the process is used to produce components for air crafts, hand and power tools, automotive and recreational products. A good cast depends on the quality of the casting process right from the formulation of the pattern wax to the casting itself. All processes during casting are part of a system thus they must work together to ensure that a quality cast is produced. On the other hand, not all metals can be cast and those that can be cast have specific properties that make them suitable. These properties include: fluidity, castability, shrinkage and resistance to casting.
Beeley, P. R., Smart, R. F., & Institute of Materials (Great Britain). (2008). Investment casting. Leeds, UK: Maney Publishing.
Garg, S. K. (2005). Comprehensive workshop technology: Manufacturing processes.
Krar, S. F., & Gill, A. R. (2003). Exploring advanced manufacturing technologies. New York, NY: Industrial Press.
Top of Form
National Conference on Investment Casting, Mondal, B., & Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute. (2004). Proceedings of the National Conference on Investment Casting: NCIC 2003. New Delhi: Allied Publishers.
Bottom of Form
Astronomers focus on distant and small objects using telescopes. Telescopes are machines that collect light that helps to focus on an image. A small astronomical telescope is made up of the objective lens, the eyepiece, and the focal point. The objective lens refracts or bends parallel light rays causing them to converge at a particular point to focus on a specified object. The central point is the meet point whereby the rays are refracted. The eyepiece is the part that positions the image in a way that is easy for the viewer to have a good field of view. It allows the eye to view the image comfortably for an extended period.
The distance between stars is measured by a filar micrometer. The micrometer has two fine parallel wires that are movable by the observer. While measuring the distance between the stars, the observer places one wire over one star of interest and moves the other wire to the second star. The distance between the two wires is the angular distance between the two stars. A HR diagram is used by astronomers to classify stars. The diagram classifies the stars according to their color, temperature, luminosity, and evolutionary stage. The figure below illustrates the classification of stars by the HR diagram.
Figure 1. HR Diagram
Figure 1. HR Diagram
Light curves are used to determine the type of binary star system that is observed. The brightness of the curve that describes an eclipsing binary orbit is measured from 0.0 to 1.0. The stars appear based on the amount of brightness that is available. Therefore, at some point of a light curve, two stars in close orbit around each other. The difference in the intensity of the light curve determines the binary starts that are caused by one star passing in front of the other.
Marketing report: GoPro
Table of Contents
- Introduction: Marketing Report for HREO4 3
- Company Background 3
- Product Background 3
- Market Issues 4
- Buyer Behaviour Analysis 5
2.1 Target Market 5
2.2 Target market Profile 6
2.2.1 Demographics 6
2.2.2 Psychographic 7
2.2.3 Behavioural 7
2.2.4 Degree of Problem Solving 7
2.2.5 Need/Problem Recognition 8
2.2.6 Information Search 9 2.2.7 Evaluation of Alternatives 9
2.2.8 Purchase Decision 9
2.2.9 Post Purchase Evaluation 10
2.3 Internal 10
2.3.1 Personality 10
2.3.2 External Influence 10
2.3.3 Reference Group 11
2.4 Family 11
2.5 Key Issue to Information Processing 12
3. IMC Strategy 12
3.1 External Context 12
4 Social Factors 12
4.1 Business Context 12
4.2 Customer Context 13
Marketing Report: GoPro
- Introduction: Marketing Report for HERO4
1.1 Company background
GoPro is a tech firm that deals with a wide array of electronics that includes a camera, mobile apps, and video editing software (Gopro, 2017). Woodman established it 2004 with the aimof fulfilling the desire of producing affordable cameras with the capability to over exemplary service. As of 2016, the industry engaged at least 1483 employees with an asset base of over $1.10 billion.
1.2 Product Background
The brand associated with the company is the hero cameras that were first introduced in 2004, before the modification of the line of the products to HERO4 in 2014 (Hagebeuker& Marketing, 2007). The device can edit video in a record 10 seconds,and their production is responsible for the growth of the revenue of GoPro for the past few years.
Figure 1: Hero4
The product has a unique, stylish outlook that captures the attention of the consumers (Halper, Helbing, & Strothotte, 2001). It is small, which makes it portable, and exudes exemplary camera capabilities that include adjusting videos in 10 second. The resolution capability of the device is up to 4K at 30fps. The product has higher rating for performance, and consumers laud the pricing at averagely $500.The product is categorized as a camcorder that fits under the classification of video camera (Thoeni, Giacomini, Murtagh, & Kniest, 2014, Lessard & Kessler, 2010). The players in the industry producing similar devices include ION and sonny.
1.3 Market Issues
The challenges in marketing the brand are that few people acknowledge its unique features (Ruotsalainen, Bancroft, Lachapelle, G., Kuusniemi, & Chen, 2012). The mode of pricing the commodity as a cheaper product makes it hard to entice a vast majority of travellers, who solicit for high-end devices for photography activities.
Figure 2: HERO4 market shares
In a bid to overcome the difficulties, to facilitate effective penetration of the market, the manufacturers ought to communicate to potential consumers about the benefits of embracing HERO4 for video editing. The manufacturers also ought to segment the market, besides investing in high-end gadgets to fulfil the needs of all market niches. According to Lee, Kim, Lee, Kim, Kim, and Yi (2017), the firm faces stiff competition from ION and Sonny. The sales for 2015 indicate a revenue rise of 72%. The trend is an affirmation that flagship brand as hero4 is propelling the company to success.
2. Buyer Behaviour Analysis
2.1 Target Market
The target market for HERO4 is consumers aged 24-39 that comprise mostly of females earning more than 3k a month. The groups of females constitute about 209,600 of shoppers seeking to use the device for image documentation purposes (Woodman, 2012). A typical task includes capture of memorable scenery during travel. The younger generation comprises a significant section of the clientele.
|Age Group: 24-39 (female) Total number of women aged 24-39 : 451,000 209,600 of them earn S$3000 per/month more.||$560 X 209,600= $ 117,376,000|
Figure 3 Sample of the approach to segmenting and expectation in sales
- Target market profile
The exploitation of demographics in profiling the groups is critical in improving the position of the brand in the market. HERO4 manufactures can segment the group using age, with preferences of women between the ages of 24 to 29, accounting for 451,000 of the shoppers varying from the consideration of those earning above 3k of the same group. The consideration of the relationship status of the females should also feature since the 140,000 singles and 69,600 married couples can exploit the device differently. An exemption for the married can feature for those with kids who account for 55,000 potential shoppers.
The same should apply to the location of female shoppers with the preferences of those in downtown varying from the desires of the in the CBD. The education levels have with minimal consideration of the preferences of other groups. However, the consideration of the shopping places of the female clients and their personalities has to influence the segmenting process. The group demand details capability such as the improvement in video editing features that augment the outlook of shootings by the gender. The colours of the devices and the aesthetic appeal in offer presents the group the opportunity to enjoy the camera.
The company has to consider the earning in pricing, while altering the features of the devices based on behaviours. People engaged in travel and outdoor activities can constitute a different segment from those working in occupations that involve minimal travel (Graves, et al., 2015). The attitude of the shoppers regarding brand loyalty is also a consideration in market segmentation. The campaigns can consider user status and the benefits sought from HERO4 devices.
The company has to consider the desires of those intending to use the camera for leisure-cum-work purposes. A significant section may demand to capture memorable events regardless of the setting (Prideaux & Coghlan, 2010). Some may intend to use the devices while on travels as in the case of media personalities. Women would especially be interested in buying this camera because of their attraction to the detail in the design. Additionally, they would be interested because of its small size, which makes it extremely portable
Luring more consumers to purchase the products requires capturing the needs of different markets, and such demands segmentation based on behaviour. The firm can choose to categorize shoppers as stylish or lovers of technological inventions (Nair, et al., 2015). The company can position HERO4 as a sophisticated device for the high-end markets, then use low price strategy in enticing the consumers. The consideration of female shoppers as critical section of the market is a critical elements as the group bases decision on perception. The younger females prefer trendy devices.
- Degree of problem solving
The market has so various action cameras that prompt consumers to seek information objectively before making a decision. The approach is referred to as as extended problem solving since the purchase behaviour is pegged on the knowledge of innovations. It involves a higher risk in the evaluation process, unlike the case of the limited problem-solving approach whereby a consumer purchases a known commodity such as a T-shirt or a book. In making the decision about which camera to use, the average consumer will consider and evaluate the GoPro and other action cameras’ online and offline reviews as well as the recommendations before making a decision.
As noted, the extended problem-solving device or commodity describes the one that fulfils an additional demand of the consumers. In the case of the camera, it serves the basic function in addition to exuding video editing capabilities. The compatibilities with other technologies also give it an edge in providing extensional services. For that reason, the action camera carves a niche for itself as the ultimate innovation that facilitates capture of exciting images. It has lenses that ensure detailed capture of images and such augur well with the needs of female shoppers. The portability of the device and the different features courtesy of innovativeness such as the slot for fixing a carrying strap makes the device an extended problem-solving gadget. However, the marketers should capitalize on the ability through the provision of information about the camera to consumers through the relevant sources to facilitate objective decision-making.
The key influence in the decision to purchase the commodity is the improvement of experiences from the utilization of HERO4 camera. Their outlook of the devices is an affirmation that it serves in photography and video editing activities. The manufacturers aim at making the cameras affordable to the reach of many. Through commercialization activities, the company that produces HERO4 can lure consumers to develop the urge to experiment with the brand (Simonson &Nowlis, 2000).
The experiences attained after the decision are the solutions to the use of the device. The expectation is that many will capture satisfactory images with the camera. The fact that the cameras reduce problems associated with photography will influence the subsequent actions such as loyalty and decision to refer others to embrace the same brand. The attitude of the person in classifying the outlook of the device features as the internal factor in influencing the decision.
2.2.5 Need/problem recognition
The identification of the need to use a camera in the documentation of images is the problem identified in the production of the device. In line with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the concern relates to the quest for a device with performance that exceeds the capability of existing camcorders. The ascertainment of the goal requires the collection of information about the device. The consumers purchasing the device on numerous occasions have fulfilled their physiological needs and are only seeking to satisfy concerns, which are getting the best out of photography.
2.2.6. Information search
The consumers can learn about the camera through media campaigns and referrals from persons with experience of using the device. The marketers can link with shoppers through social media platforms and direct communication channels such as display stores. During the process, the consumers compare the capability of the device in relation to existing technologies. Information obtained from peers and referrals can influence the decision.
2.2.7. Evaluation of alternatives
The step that follows is the examination of the ideal option from the alternatives. The consumers compare based on knowledge shared and preference of specific features of the devices. The categorization of the device in term of performance and pricing influences most of the decision in the stage (Shearer, Gilbert, & Hero, 2013). The consumers can approach the decision objectively by analysing the expectation and financial resources available for the purchase. The reputation of the brand and the expected satisfaction from the purchase influences its selection.
2.2.8. Purchase decision
The purchase of HERO4 follows an intuitive consultation in which the consumer weighs the benefits of the action. HERO4 has features that make it exemplary in capturing digitals images. Its compatibility with other technologies and pricing makes it the preferable choice (Senecal & Nantel, 2004). The management can use loyalty cards or membership programs in creating a sense of belonging that entices shoppers to solicit more information about the brand when making purchases. The management can decide to run raffles for shoppers for the possibility of attaining additional products for use with the device such as camera bags.
2.2.9. Post purchase evaluation
The satisfaction of the consumer will emanate from the experiences when they utilize the components of the device (Woodman, 2011). The response from peers and simplicity of the features such as ease of operating them dictate satisfaction levels. The quality of pictures captured by the camera and video editing capabilities will inference satisfaction (Lin, 2016). Consumers will also consider sound capabilities of the recordings made by HERO4.
The divestment as the last stage is critical in decision-making on the mode of promoting future innovation (Woodman, 2011). The users of HERO4 can opt to issue the device as a gift to loved ones, thus precipitating shared experience with potential shoppers.
2.5 Three Key Influences
The critical issue for consideration before the decision to purchase is the impression created in the minds of the consumers after comparing their expectation with the others in the society. Through social comparison, the shoppers can opt for HERO4 on presumption that they will attain similar benefits as those utilizing the same device. The desire of the shopper to blend with the rest of the consumer plays an integral role. They seek information with the desire to attain the best in the market. The sense of acceptance as a user able to choose the best device fulfils the need.
2.3.2. External Influence
2.3.3 Reference Group
The process of deciding on which device to use in capturing images depends on the exposure that one gains through interactions with the group. Before the decision, the female shopper can inquire from the members about the ideal device for use. The association of the brand with activities such as travel can also make the person solicit information from related sites depicting cameras for use by travellers. In a situation whereby the marketer uses celebrities associated with travel activities, the manufacturer can influence the demand for the device among those willing to travel.
The quest for acceptance and benefits attained from the device are some of the factors that might equally influence women desiring the gadget. The appeal that HERO4 promoters create is integral in encouraging referrals among the group. For example, when targeting female shoppers who love travelling the camera manufacturer has to explore the motivation behind travel and the need of camera. As noted, many desire a device that guarantees satisfaction in capture of detailed images.
The nature of one’s family such as living with the husband also affects the decision. A person in a household comprised of children might require devices that enable capture of images in groups such as taking a shot with the child using cameras with automated capabilities. A person’s income also influences the choice of the camera. Couples may require devices fulfilling specific needs of the group, unlike married persons. For that reason, marketer must acknowledge the preferences of those single willing to use the Gpro made devices based on satisfaction attained from the use of the cameras (Yim, 2010).
- Key issue to information processing
The manufacturers can exploit the ability to invent new devices that augment satisfaction levels of consumers as a means of promoting sales. It is important creating the perception that the devices target all types of shoppers. Doing so can enable the manufacture to target user lacking interest in sporting activities. The strategy for reaching customer ought to capitalize on perception and exposure created through commercials that create acceptance outside the context of sporting.
3. IMC strategy
The company can exploit marketing mix tools and communication strategies in reaching potential consumers.
3.1 External Context
The dynamics in the external environment in many ways has the potency of influencing the demand of the product in the market. It is on this basis that HERO4 must exploit PESTEL in planning. The elements for inclusion are the political decisions such as policy of the government towards the activities of manufacturing firms (Woodman, 2011). The decision to implement policies that encourage merchandising of the device will always influence sales. The economic environment also plays a role. In times of inflation or recession, the advertisers must acknowledge the possibility of change in the sale of HERO4 (Schultz, 2004).
4. Social Factors
The nature of interactions in the social setting is another issue for consideration in the promotion of the brand. When people appear receptive, HERO4 marketers ought to capitalize on the opportunity, because cultural perception affects the actions of consumers. Competition from reputable brands will dictate the performance of HERO4 devices in the market.
4.1 Business Context
HERO4 can leverage on the affordability of the product and the capability to function effectively with other technologies. When marketing, the management can use the existing networks to reach consumers in various parts of the market (Bohn &Teizer, 2009). The exploitation of the professionals representing the company is a plus for HERO4.
4.2 Customer Context
The objective in considering the context entails formulating ways for reaching the group effectively. In the case of HERO4, the company can exploit the dynamics to its advantage by relying on the IMC model. One such strategy entails experimenting with a flexible model in marketing, which considers pricing and behavioural issues such as travelling as a marketing segmentation component. This is critical in endearing the device to women (Schwarz, 2004). The company can customize the sporting devices to attract women, for instance through producing gadgets that are bright colored, small enough to fit in a hand bag, mirrors, and filters.
The subsequent approach for grasping the attention of female shoppers entails using platforms recognizable by the group in the communication of information to reach the audience. An example is a social media page. During the process, the approach to communication must also create emphasis about the product being feminine since the action is responsible for the perception that influences the demand for the merchandise (Ramsey, Bet al., 2002).
|Consumer decision-making||Key learning||IMC implications|
|Problem identification||Referrals Motivations|
|Information collection||Sales persons||Advertising Direct communication Media|
|Evaluation of options||Unique features of the device||Price Values attained Perception of outlook|
|Purchase||Places||Raffle city Vivo city Down town/orchard CBD|
|After purchase evaluation||Emotions||After sales services Advise to consumers|
lesson from the model is that consumers’ preferences vary; thus the need for
caution in the segmentation of the market. However, before steering campaign
activities, the emphasis on perception ought to prevail (Cazenave,
Kecy, Risi&Haddock, 2014). In the
case of female clientele, the HERO4 manufacturer must
consider the lifestyle preferences of the group such as traveling thereby
formulating devices that meet the specific needs. The platform for
communication is also integral since reaching the group can prove daunting if the
media exploited is inappropriate. During distribution, the emphasis on
existence of different capabilities is also necessary. The goal is to ensure
that the communication appeal and the device appear as attractive and capable
of fulfilling needs of consumers for success in the markets.
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Identity Theft and Rational Choice Theory
Identity theft is a crime that has existed from the time identity was created, but in the modern society, the prevalence of the crime has gone up. Some scholars have called identity theft the “crime of the new millennium”. However, in academics identity theft is a new form of crime that is still under study. Surveys done in the U.S has shown that identity theft is one of the white-collar crimes whose prevalence rates are on the increase (Fell 1). For example, studies done in the U.S between 2004 and 2005 indicated that approximately 7 percent of the U.S population above the age of 16 years has been subjected to some form of identity theft. The most common type of identity theft reported was the stealing of account information such as credit card data. The report also indicated that identity theft leads to losses amounting to 25 billion dollars annually, but most victims incurred personal losses that were less than $100 (Vieraitis and Shuraydi 6). This paper examines identity theft from a sociological perspective based on the rational choice theory.
Identity Theft from the Rational Choice Theory Perspective
Rational choice theory state that people make decisions after performing a cost-benefit analysis. Cesar Beccaria, one of the pioneering criminologist developed the theory towards the end of 17th the century. However, the theory did not gain any significance until 1960s when Games Wilson and Gary Becker revisited it. Rational choice theory was adopted in sociology when James Coleman used it towards the end of the 1980s (Haycraft 13-15). Rational choice theory can be used to study offenders who are likely to commit certain crimes, or crimes that are likely to be committed by certain individuals. This means that offenders that commit certain crimes often consider whether they possess the required skillset. In offense specific crimes, the offender is more likely to assess the nature of the crime before making their decision to commit crime (Haycraft 13-15).
Based on the rational choice theory, people commit crime after evaluating the nature of the crime, and the benefit they are likely to achieve. Hence, crimes may be committed if the benefit is worth the risk, or when the offender has a personal grudge he/she needs to resolve (Haycraft 13-15). Proponents of rational choice theory have not managed to unravel the exact process that takes place in a criminal’s mind, but the theory can prove that in some cases, criminality is an issue of personal decision and self-efficacy. Proponents of rational choice theory have argued that people are involved in crime as either perpetrators or conspirators. Perpetrators are people committing the crime, while conspirators are those that facilitate the crime without actually taking part in it (Haycraft 13-15).
Punishing both perpetrators and conspirators in criminal activities might help prevent identity theft by reducing the opportunities the criminals have at their disposal. On the same note, organizations and corporations that have poor data protection measures should be charged with criminal negligence. Under the current identity theft laws, businesses are less likely to be charged for the aforementioned crime (Haycraft 13-15). Nevertheless, rational choice theory has been criticized for failing considers factors that are unique to the individual that motivate him/her to engage in certain crimes. However, rational choice theory is effective in analyzing identity theft because people who take part in the crime compare their chances of being caught and the consequences, with the benefits they are likely to get if they get away with the crime (Haycraft 13-15).
The negative feelings or guilt that identity thieves experience is often downplayed by the rationalization that covers self-guilt. Some variation of the rational choice theory argues that people are constantly seeking ways to lower pain and maximize pleasure. Some of the pleasures people seek to maximize on include monetary gain or the pleasure associated with the crime (Haycraft 13-15). People who commit identity theft do so in order to accumulate wealth in the shortest amount of time possible. After the crime, the individual will have to rationalize their actions to reduce guilt and negative feelings while maximizing on the pleasure (Haycraft 13-15).
The rational choice theory also contains the idea of bounded rationality, which refers to the tendency of people to make decisions based on limited information, impaired cognitive capacities to process the information, and less time to make a choice. When people engage in criminal acts, there are many factors that they are unware of, but they accept certain factors associated with the risk of the crime such as the preventative measures put in place to deter theft. This means that every time an offender makes a criminal decision no matter how sound they think it is, they will still be limited by the bounded rationality because they cannot tell all the possible factors that affect their decision (Haycraft 13-15).
People who commit identity theft are just like other criminals, including street criminals, and one thing they have in common is that they do not fully understand the situation they are facing. For instance, offenders who commit crimes while on drugs are more likely to have made an irrational choice (Monhan 156). However, from their perspective, they made rational choices. Identity theft has remained an attractive crime despite of the tools that have been developed to deal with it. Some experts have argued that identity theft has remained highly prevalent because of poor control over personal data. Data obtained from the Fair Credit Reporting in the U.S, indicate that fraudsters provide falsified information to creditors, who accept the information as valid (Monhan 156).
Hence, some experts have concluded that the high prevalence of identity theft is not caused by the ease of accessing personal information, but by the tendency of credit givers to take risks. Nonetheless, understanding the reason and the process offenders use to commit crimes has a significant influence on policy and theory. In addition, most studies done in the field of criminal decision-making are informed by the rational choice theory (Wright para. 1). People have a tendency of pursuing goals that reflect their personal interest, and will make a conscience decision to engage in crime if the rewards exceeds the benefit that can be obtained while engaging in a legal activity. On the contrary, the decision of an individual to refrain from criminal acts can also be informed by the fact that the act has less benefit compared to the risk of being caught and subsequently prosecuted (Wright para. 1).
Some of the discipline that borrows heavily from the rational choice theory to explain criminal behavior include cognitive psychology, economics and criminology. Early proponents of the rational choice theory borrowed concepts from the theory of expected utility, which is an economic theory (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243). This theory enabled the formulation of criminal decision-making models that could be conveyed mathematically. The concept of expected utility is based on the idea that offenders are rational calculators that is, they make decisions that generates the great rewards from limited efforts. However, the tendency to depict criminals as raw economic calculators has been challenged by various arguments. One of the criticisms is that most crime is characterized by reckless behavior and opportunism that contradicts calculated decision-making in rational choice theory (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243).
Consequently, researchers started to focus their inquiries on the manner offenders considered their options within a certain sociocultural concept before making their decisions. This improved the understanding of the processes offenders use to make decisions. This development in research changed the understanding of offender behavior from the earlier understanding based on quantitative methods (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243). The new understanding was based on the offender’s perspective. The new studies looked at the various components of the decision to engage in crime that included the choice to offend, the target, and the perception of the rewards and costs associated with the crime. This understanding is in line with the concept of bounded rationality within the rational choice theory (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243).
The principle of bounded rationality considers the context of the situation, physical and social context within which criminal decisions take place, and the manner the perpetrators perceive their environment. This means that the rewards and costs criminal assess before taking part in crime are subjective and dynamic (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243). For instance, when circumstances change, the risks that prevented people from committing certain crimes may become manageable, and the rewards that were initially considered small may act as a powerful attraction. On the contrary, the rewards associated with certain crimes may lose their value, leading to an increasing in risks, and this may make people to refrain from committing such crimes (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243).
Therefore, understanding the manner in which the minds of people who steal identity works requires research to place the process criminals use to make decisions within the context of their lifestyle. Researchers who have interviewed frequent street offenders have shown that most of them give priority to having a good time and not anything else (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243). Street criminals embrace fast living and partying, a behavior that makes them to indulge in expensive behavior frequently. The low value rewards associated with street crimes deters people belonging to the middle class from engaging in such crimes. However, in the presence of additional values such status and independence, some members of the middle class can engage in low street crimes (Copes and Vieraitis 242-243).
Moreover, over indulgence in the middleclass lifestyle and counterproductive behavior such as gambling can put members of the middleclass in debt and push them towards street crime. Regardless of class, lifestyle interferes with the subjective assessment people have on the rewards and risk associated with a crime. The dynamic nature of the process criminals use to assess risks and rewards play an important role in deciding whether a criminal will proceed to commit a crime or refrain from the act (Copes and Vieraitis 243-244). From this perspective, the bounded model of rational choice theory has results that are significantly different from models that explain behavior on pure rationality. For example, based on the concept of bounded theory of rationality, increasing the severity of punishment does necessarily deter people from committing a crime because factors such as drug use, desperation, and criminal company counteract these measures (Copes and Vieraitis 243-244).
However, the above argument does not mean that anti-identity theft policies based on deterrence will be ineffective. What the argument suggests is that policymakers should consider the experiences and the lifestyles of people who commit most of the identity thefts. The availability of criminal opportunities also influences the likelihood of an individual committing a crime, even after assessing the risks and rewards associated with a crime (Dion, Weisstub and Richet 110). An individual may desist from committing a crime until he/she perceives the present opportunity. Some rational choice theorists have argued that people commit crimes when they are motivated; have suitable targets; and the absence of guardians to deter them. For example, a criminal interested in committing burglary will also look for a target that is not guarded in addition to assessing the risks and rewards associated with the crime (Matsueda and Kreager 26-28).
The crime of identity theft affects at least two victims, which are the person whose identity is stolen and the financial institution that is defrauded. This has made experts to focus on the ways to lower the harm the victim suffers. Few studies and parliamentary inquiries that have interviewed victims of identity theft have found that they suffer both financial and psychological losses. This has made policy on fighting identity theft to shift from solely focusing on financial institution as the victims to concentrating on the individual (Matsueda and Kreager 26-28). The fate of victims of identity theft in the criminal justice system is still unknown. However, in some jurisdictions like the U.S, the criminal justice system has set up minimum requirements for an identity case theft to proceed. Some of the factors the courts consider include the amount of financial loss suffered, the time that has elapsed since the discovery and whether there are organized criminals involved (Matsueda and Kreager 26-28).
Experts have also investigated the reciprocal nature of identity theft. Financial institutions and card companies bare most of the financial damage associated with identity theft. This means that some victims of identity theft may not see themselves as victims, and may be reluctant to take measures to prevent similar incidents in the future (Kim, Clarke and Samuels para. 1). The costs businesses incur because of identity theft is still unknown. Most credit companies do publish information on the cost they have incurred because of identity theft. However, most of the companies fail to report other costs they incur because of identity theft, for example, the amount spent on investigations, and the amount they are likely to incur in improving their security measures (Newman and McNally 60).
Apart from the rewards criminals are likely to gain from identity theft, other factors play a role in motivating individuals to engage in identity theft include drug abuse, lifestyle, addictive behavior, and the ease of committing the crime. Reducing the prevalence of identity theft requires increasing the penalty for the crime and closing the loopholes offenders exploit. Moreover, more studies should be conducted to enable a better understanding of the minds of people who commit identity theft (Newman and McNally 60).
Conclusions and Recommendations for Future Research
Identity theft is a
highly prevalent crime that affect a significant proportion of the population,
and it is costly in terms of both time and money, and most criminal justice
system faces a challenge in detecting and prosecuting the crime. The best
perspective that explains why people engage in identity theft is rational
choice theory. According to this theory, people make a decision to take part in
a crime after assessing the risks and rewards associated with the crime. If the
reward outweigh the risks, then an individual is more likely to commit the
crime, and vise verse. Apart from rewards and risks, criminals also assess the
available opportunity. For example, a burglar is likely to break into a house
that is unguarded because it present an easy opportunity. However, criminals
are not completely rational because their rationality is bounded; meaning that they
can never perceive all the factors associated with the crime. More research
needs to be done in order to understand identity theft and implement measures
to reduce it. The initial step is improving data collection. Currently,
authority collect and store information on identity thefts in different
databases, and this hinders the collection and sharing of data by different
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Fell, Brian Dean. “Identity Theft and Routine Activities: A Test of Vicctimization Using College Students.” Thesis . 2006. Print.
Haycraft, Samuel. “Choosing Identity Theft: Impusivity of Rational Choice Theory.” Thesis. 2013. Print.
Kim, Jeong Hyun, Ronald V. Clarke and Norman Samuels. Information theft within different organizational types. 2015. https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/47683/. 23 July 2017.
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Monhan, Torin. “Identity Theft Vulnerability .” Theoretical Criminology (2009): 155-176. Print.
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Wright, John Paul. “Rational Choice Theories.” Oxford Biographies (2009). http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396607/obo-9780195396607-0007.xml.
Sylvia Plath’s Poem; Daddy
The poem involves a speaker who has a monolog concerning her father who had died when she was ten years old, but he is still in her mind. In this poem, she explains that she was done with thinking about him. The poem demonstrates a love and hate relationship with both the father and the husband. The word Daddy is ironic in this poem since he is noted to be a bad person who is likened to a Vampire, Devil, and a Nazi. The poem has shown hatred that has developed among the feminists concerning the males.
The tone of the poem is brutal, rough, abusive, and childish. At the end of the poem, she calls her father a bastard, and she is done with him. The rude tone shows that she has done away with him and seems to enjoy that the father had died both physically and even in her heart. The speaker is also brutal in the tone in that she is very angry and cannot even communicate due to the bitterness she has in her heart (Roberts, 2014). She repeats the word ‘ich’ severally, which means ‘I.’ The word is repeated severally for more than four times, and it has the intonation of the gunfire that could have related the Nazi with war. The childish tone is demonstrated in her use of the word ‘Daddy’ very many times. The word is related to how innocent children call their fathers. However, in this poem, the child seems to be very angry concerning the father and having a negative attitude towards him. The speaker shows no respect and formality concerning the father.
The speaker in the poem wants the reader to have a feeling of oppression in the family relationships. She demonstrates the harsh and disturbing issues that she was going through in their family. She had been going through a lot of pressure caused by her father. In the poem, she relates herself to a foot that has lived in a shoe for a very long time; that is more than thirty years. The demonstration shows that she never had freedom to do whatever she wished. She has been working so hard to ensure that she is liberating herself from the oppression.
The speaker in the poem demonstrates a negative attitude towards men. The men in the poem are the father of the speaker and the husband. As a daughter, she has to feel a victim concerning the death of the father. She believed that the father was a God and thus, she seems that something wrong was happening between her and the father. She describes the father in an abusive way (Holbrook, 2014). For example, the use of dark imagery of the Nazi and the demonstration of his character using vampirism. She also calls the father a devil and she gets rid of her physical appearance. Additionally, she has also tried to make his escape from her emotions.
In conclusion, it is clear that most of the females can have hatred towards men who are close to them. The hatred can be caused by the childhood experience with men. For example, the speaker was very constricted by the father before he died and she had been longing for his death. Additionally, feminism has also been transferred to the husband of the speaker. She hated the father, and she wishes to forget him. However, it is not wise to hate a particular group of people just because of a single experience.
Holbrook, D. (2014). Sylvia Plath: poetry and existence. A&C Black.
Roberts, N. (2014). Narrative and Voice in Postwar Poetry. Routledge.
The Institution of Family
of family is a basic unit of every society. Different institutions of families
collectively form a community. The family institution is responsible for
bringing new members through reproduction. It is also the role of the family to
socialize the new members. Through the institution of the family, members can
learn how to solve disputes and provide care. Furthermore, the family plays a
significant role in facilitating interconnections between family members
through affection, pooling of monetary resources, the division of
responsibilities, and decision-making. In the current world, the family
institution is changing because of the changing needs of the new generation.
Women have joined the job bracket to bring monetary resources to their homes.
Previously, the role of women in family institutions was to nurture and cook
for the household. However, roles have changed because women now also want to
benefit from employment opportunities. Furthermore, the rising cases of divorce
and cohabitation among the young generation make it clear that the institution
of marriage is changing.
Interpersonal communication is essential in all family institutions because it is through communication that families can make important decisions and resolve disputes. Without proper communication, especially between parents, children may not develop communication skills that they need to use in their daily lives. Furthermore, the children will not learn other valuable life skills such as dispute resolution because poor communication affects socialization.
Other orientation is an art of communication that involves interpersonal effectiveness. Through the other-orientation communication strategy, I will be able to form meaningful relationships with other people through communication. For example, I will show consideration as a show of respect and acknowledge the feelings of other people. Also, I will use open-ended questions to engage others individual in meaningful conversations
Wal-mart is facing significant threat to maximize sales and profits because of the stiff competition from similar stores, such as Dollar General and Amazon (Mark 1). Because of stiff competition from other stores, Wal-mart has experienced nine consecutive declining sales in all fiscal quarters. The competitors have copied Wal-mart’s distribution channel strategy to increase regional presence and sales. Some of the distribution channel strategies that competitors have copied include using cross-docking systems to reduce storage duration, the positioning of distribution stores near distribution centers and the adoption of an electronic system of communication with suppliers to manage ordering and shipping services of goods.
Sustainability of distribution strategy
Wal-mart’s current distribution strategy is sustainable because of the high reduction of operational cost. The current distribution policy implemented by Wal-mart is to deal directly with a manufacturer, controlling distributing systems and monitoring sales of products. The current strategy has enabled the company to maintain a sustained cost reduction in transportation, improve routing tools and improvising visibility (Mark 6).
Effect of EDLP
Wal-mart implemented an EDLP policy between 1970 and 1980 to ensure that products were undiscounted on a regular basis. The EDLP (every day low price) enabled Wal-mart to refrain from advertising products through different media platforms (Mark 6). The company used the saved money to reduce costs. () agrees that an “every day low price” strategy allows a company to cut advertising costs because it is improbable to advertize each sale product. The relationship between the business and its suppliers strengthened because of the increased volume of goods that Wal-mart requested from the suppliers. Also, the price roll back campaigns helped improve the relationship between buyers and suppliers, further enhancing the connection between the company and its suppliers.
Wal-mart monitors demand by conducting analytical work used to forecast demand. Also, the company works with suppliers to control demand for products. The company’s store level operations are efficient because the distribution centers have real time information regarding the level of stock in the stores. Therefore, in the case of a shortage of a particular product in the warehouse, wal-mart can automatically contact suppliers. Furthermore, the company can manually input orders or override impending deliveries (Mark 7). The system applies both for distribution of products from suppliers to the distribution centers to the distribution of the same products to local stores.
Advantage of RFID
The company adopted the RFID (radio frequency identification) policy in 2003 to facilitate tracking and assortment of inbound products (Mark 8). With the RFID system, the company ensures that products move swiftly through all distribution centers. Compared to other competitors, the RFID system enabled the company to increase stock visibility. Furthermore, the RFID system enabled the company to track the promotion of goods. According to Ray (394), an RFID system enables a company to keep track of inventories in warehouses. Also, the RFID is advantageous because it can help a company keep track of vehicles. In the case of Wal-mart, the use of the RFID tags enables the company to differentiate products in the sales floor and storeroom.
In consideration of the data provided in the case, it is possible for other companies to implement a similar strategy. Competitors managed to gain a competitive advantage over Wal-mart by copying its distribution system to distribute goods to a large area while reducing the costs of operations. Similarly, by understanding Wal-mart’s new distribution strategy, it is likely that they can copy the new system. However, it will take time for the companies to implement a similar system because they might incur additional costs to change the distribution strategy. Also, the competitors are using Wal-mart’s prior distribution strategy, which has enabled them to expand and open new stores across the country.
Mark, Ken. Half A Century Of Supply Chain Management At Wal-Mart. Richard Ivey School Of Business Foundation, 2013.
Ray, Rajesh. Supply Chain Management for Retailing. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010. Print.
Stiving, Mark. Impact Pricing: Your Blueprint for Driving Profits. Irvine, Calif.: Entrepreneur Press, 2011. Print